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HARVARD  UNIVERSITY 


LIBRARY 


OF  THE 


Museum  of  Comparative  Zoology 


Till-: 


ESSEX    NATURALIST : 


HEING     THE 


^loiivnal  of  the  (Iziuicx  J;ielt)  (lllub. 


EniTEP     I!V 

W  I  L  L  I  A  M     C  O  L  E, 

Honorary  Secretary. 

VOLUME     V. 

y  A  h'UA  R  Y— DECEMBER,    r  8  9  r. 


"  Men    that   undertake   only   one   district    are    much    more    likely  to    advance 

natural  knowledge   than    t/iose    that   grasp    at   more   than    they    can  possibly    lie 

acquainted  with.       Every   kingdom,    every    province,   should  kjve   its  own    Mono- 
grapher. —Gn.BKKT  WHITE  of   Selborne. 


[  The    authors    alone  are  responsible  for  the  statements  and  opinions  contained    in    the! 

respective  papers. \ 


PUBLISHED    BY   THE   CLUB,    BUCKHURST    HH.L,   ESSEX. 
E.  DuRKANT  &  Co.,  90,  High  Street,  CnELMsroRn. 


1S91. 


"  //  is  to  the  development  of  Provincial  Museums  that  ive  must 
look  in  the  future  for  the  extension  of  intellectual  pursuits  throughout 
the  la?td." 

Prof.  Edward  Forbes. 


"  The  value  of  a  Museum  does  7iot  consist  so  much  in  the  number  as 
in  the  order  and  arrangement  of  the  specimens  contained  in  itT 

Agassiz. 


"  /  zvould  urge  all  persons  belonging  to  Field  Clubs,  not  selfishly 
to  retain  the  speci7nens  they  gather,  but  to  deposit  them  where  they  may 
be  of  use  to  their  fellow-explorers.  .  .  I  earnestly  advocate  and  petition 
for  the  formation  of  an  entirely  Local  Museum." 

Prof.  Phillips. 


"  I  believe  that  the  most  useful  museum  .  .  .  is  that  which  is  devoted 
to  the  natural  objects  of  its  locality.  It  gives  a  stimulus  to  observe  and 
collect ;  it  adds  an  interest  to  every  object  contributed,  in  the  relation 
tvhich  each  specimen  bears  to  its  collector,  and  the  circumstances  attend- 
ing its  recognition.  Well  carried  out,  such  a  museum  is  helpful  to 
science  in  fixing  a  date  to  the  fauna  and  flora  of  the  district,  and  in 
giving  the  material  means  of  contrasting  it  with  the  conditions  of  both 
at  a  later  period!'' 

Sir  Richard  Owen. 


'•''All  schools  and  tnuseums,  whatsoever,  can  only  be,  what  they 
claim  to  be,  and  ought  to  be,  places  of  noble  instruction,  tvhen  the  persons 
who  have  a  ?>iifid  to  use  them  can  obtain  so  much  relief  from  the  work, 
or  exert  so  much  abstinence  from  the  dissipations  of  the  outside  world  as 
fnay  enable  them  to  devote  a  certain  portion  of  secluded,  laborious,  and 
reveretit  life  to  the  attainment  of  the  Divine  Wisdom,  which  the  Greeks 
supposed  to  be  the  gift  of  Apollo,  or  of  the  sun,  and  which  the  Christian 
knows  to  be  the  gift  of  Christ." 

RUSKIN. 


INDEX  TO  VOLUME  V. 


Aceras  anthropophora  at  Terling,  68. 
Algae,  Marine,  observed  between  Hur- 

wich  and  Dovercourt,  263. 
Amalgamation  of  Chelmsford  Museum 

with  E.F.C.,  scheme  for,  32,  69. 
Annelids,  British,  with  especial  reference 

to  the  Earthworms  of  Essex,  193,  237, 
Annual  General  Meeting,  31. 
Annual  Report  of  Council,  35. 
Apamea  ophiogramma  at  Woodford,  260, 
Aquatic  Plants  of  the  Thames  Marshes, 

some  notes  on,  261. 
Arkwright,  Col.   A.    C,   Poisonous 

Laburnum  Seeds,  204. 

Asheldham,  Badger  at,  134. 
"Assembling  "  of  Geometer  Moths,  171. 

Badger  at  Asheldham,  134. 
Barking  Side,  visit  to,  183. 
Basham,  J.,  A  voracious  eel,  135. 
Beadle,  W.  J.,  M.P.,  takes  chair  at 

Public  Meeting  for  Museum,  etc.,  69. 
Benham,  C.  E.,  conducts  al  meeting  at 

St.  Osyth,  254. 
"  Bibliography  of  Essex,"  30,  263. 
Bird,  G.  W.,  Coleophora  vihicigerella,  in 

Essex,  135. 

Bolide  of  November  20th,  1887,  44. 
Botany  of  Chelmer  river,  250-252, 
Boulder-clay  in  Essex  (correspondtnce)^ 

109,  133- 
Boulger,  Prof.  G.  S.,  Essex  Worthies 

II.,  E.  G.  Varenne,  of  Kelvedon,  42. 

Brightlingsea,  Oyster    Fisheries,  257  ; 
visit  to,  259-260. 


Buckhurst  Hill,  Teslaalla  scutulum  al, 

130. 
Bures,  Puffin  at,  4O. 
Burnham,  Notes  on  Common  Rorqual 

lately  stranded  near,  35,  124. 
Bustards,  immigration  of,  during  past 

winter.  III. 
Butterflies  of  Essex,  74. 
Buxton,  E.  N.,  "  Homing  "  instinct  in 

Hyla  arbor ea^  1 34. 

Cabinets  of  Natural  History  Specimens 
for  circulation  among  the  Village 
Schools  of  Essex,  186. 

Chalk,  Undulations  of,  in  Essex,  113. 

Chancellor,  P.,  on  small  rainfall  of 
last  eight  months,  112. 

ChaRLESWORTH,  Ed.,  on  Formation  of 
Flints,  182. 

Chelmer  river,  history  of  the  naviga- 
tion, 248  ;  Meeting  on,  247-248  ; 
Otters  and  Kingfishers  in,  73 ; 
scenery  and  geology  of,  197. 

Chelmsford,  Geological  ramble  around, 
209 ;  notes  on  Glacial  formations 
near,  191  ;  to  Maldon,  ramble,  205. 

Chelmsford  Museum,  Meeting  in,  31  ; 
and  Essex  Field  Club,  32. 

Christy,  Miller,  Remarks  on  distri- 
bution of  Bardfield  Oxlip  in  Essex, 
123. 

Clarke,  Joseph, quotes  "Poor  Robin's 
Perambulation  from  Saffron  Walden 
to  London,"  182. 

Clay  Hall,  visit  to,  185. 

Cole,  H.  A.,  original  drawings  of 
Higham  Park,  130,  138,  143. 


IV 


INDEX    TO    VOLUME    V. 


Cole,  W.,  "  Assembling  "  of  Geometer 
Moths,  171  ;  notes  on  Enclosure  of 
Sale  Wood,  129  ;  Meteorite  of  Nov- 
ember 20th,  1887,  44  ;  More  Epping 
Forest,  137  ;  Spotted  Eagles  in  Essex, 
219. 

Coleophora  vibicigerelLi  in  Essex,  1 35. 

Colne,  Oyster  Fishery,  notes  on,  257  ; 
Sea  Lamphrey  in,  134. 

Constable  John,  and  Valley  of  the 
Stour,  172. 

Cooki's  "  Illustrations  of  British 
Fungi,"  136. 

Council,  Annual  Report  of,  35  ;  new- 
members  of,  31. 

County  Council,  Deputation  to,  34  ; 
and  Essex  Field  Club,  173. 

Cranmer-Byng,  Col.  A.  M.,  receives 
the  Club  at  Quendon  Hall,  180. 

Crouch  River,  A  Day  on  the,  35,  145  ; 
Luminous  appearance  of,  205  ; 
03'sters  and  Mussels  in,  in  1891, 
203  ;   Rorquals  in,  35,  124,  134. 

Crouch,  Walter,  conducts  at  visit  to 
Hainault  Forest,  Barking  Side,  etc., 
183  ;  exhibits  cfistorted  form  of 
Limnea  palustns,  18 1  ;  exhibits  and 
describes  forms  of  invertebrate  life, 
131  ;  MolluscaatSt.  Osyth  Point  and 
at  E.  Mersea  (note),  259  ;  Notes  on 
a  female  specimen  of  Common  Ror- 
qual lately  stranded  near  Burnham, 
etc.,  35,  124. 

Cryptogamic  Flora  of  Kelvedon,  i. 

Cryptogamic  Meeting,  Postponement 
of  1 2th,  260. 

Dalton,  W.  H..  Boulder-clay  in  Essex, 
109.  133;  Remarks  on  Mr  French's 
paper  on  Westieton  Beds  in  N.W. 
Essex,  217  ;  on  Fault  at  Wickham 
Bishop,  204  ;  on  Undulations  of 
Chalk  in  Essex,  113. 

Danbury,  visit  to,  206. 

Day,  A,  on  the  Crouch  River,  145. 

Deputation  to  County  Council,  re 
Technical  Instruction,  34. 


Diplctaxis  tennifolia  at  St.  Osyth  Priory, 

257- 
Dipsacus  sylvcstris  and  D.  pilosus,  Notes 

on  their  natural  relationship,  235. 
Dredging,   in    Crouch   River,  145  ;  in 

the  Orwell  and  Stour,  242. 
Dunmovv,  Little,  Well  at,  216. 

Eagles,  Spotted,  at  Elmsteadand  Leigh, 
218. 

Earthworms  of  Essex,  193,  237  ;  an 
Appeal,  135. 

Educational  Value  of  Museums,  71. 

Eel,  voracious,  135. 

Elmstead,  Spotted  Eagle  at,  218. 

Enock,  F.,  Lecture  on  Hessian  Fly,  263. 

Epping  Forest,  More,  137  ;  Rubi  of, 
additions  and  corrections,  189. 

Essex,  Bibliography  of,  30,  263. 

Essex,  Bouldcr-clay  in,  109,  133  ; 
Range  of  Primrose  and  Bardfield 
Oxlip  in  N.W.,  120,  132  ;  Vital 
statistics  for,  47,  132  ;  Water  Supply, 
137  ;  W^estleton  Beds  in  parts  of 
N.W.,  210  ;  Wild  Swans  in,  no. 

Essex  Field  Club,  Eleventh  Annual 
General  Meeting,  31  ;  Amalgamation 
with  Chelmsford  Museum,  32,  69  ; 
Ramble  from  Chelmsford  to  Maldon, 
205  ;  and  County  Council  of  Essex, 
173  ;  Postponement  of  Twelfth 
Annual  Cryptogamic  Meeting,  260  ; 
Deputation  to  County  Council,  34  ; 
Geological  Ramble  around  Chelms- 
ford, 209  ;  Meeting  in  Hainault 
Forest  District  and  Barking  Side, 
183  ;  Meeting  at  Higham  Park,  129  ; 
Joint  Meeting  with  Ipswich  Scientific 
Societ}'  at  Ipswich  and  on  Orwell 
and  Stour  Rivers,  241  ;  Local  (Essex) 
Museum,  etc.,  32,  69  ;  Excursion 
from  Maldon  to  Chelmsford  along 
river,  247  ;  Meeting  at  Newport, 
Quendon,  etc.,  178  ;  Ordinary  Meet- 
ings, 31,  34,  129,  181,  185,  253,  256, 
260,  and  262  ;  Report  of  Council  for 
1890,  31  ;  Meeting  at  St.  Osyth  and 
Brightlingsea,    254 ;    Special    Meet- 


INDEX    TO    VOLUME    V. 


ings,  32  anJ  130;  Technical  Instruc- 
tion   Scheme,    33,    34  ;    Treasurer's 
Statement,  40. 
Essex  Worthies  11.,  E.  G.  Varenne,  42  ; 
III.,  Dr.  William  Gilbert,  50. 

"Fairlop  Oak,"  183. 

"  Fault,"  the  Wickham  Bishop,  204. 

February,  a  dry,  49. 

Felstead,  Ancient  Pottery  at,  205  ; 
Lake  Remains  at  (paper  read) ^2^2  \ 
Uncommon  Plants  at,  136  ;  new 
Well  at,  204. 

FiTCH,  E.  A  ,  A  Day  on  the  Crouch 
River,  35,  145  ;  conducts  Meeting 
on  Chelmer  River,  247  ;  Notes  on 
History  of  Blackwater  and  Chelmer 
Navigation,  248  ;  Lepidoptera  of 
Esse.x,  Part  i.,  Butterflies,  74 ;  on 
Primula  elatior  in  Essex,  132. 

Flints,  formation  of  {address),  182. 

Flower,  Prof.  W.  H.,  on  Educational 
\'alue  of  Museums,  71. 

Flowering  Plants,  near  Harwich,  264  ; 
of  Chelmer  River,  250,  252. 

Flycatcher,  Pied,  near  Harwich,  68. 

French,  J.,  Ancient  (?  British)  Pottery 
at  Felstead,  205  ;  Boulder-clay  in 
Essex,  133  ;  Lake  remains  at  Fel- 
stead (paper  read),  262  ;  exhibits 
distorted  form  of  Limnea  paluslris, 
181  ;  Otters  and  Kingfishers  in 
Chelmer,  73  ;  Range  of  Primrose  and 
Bardfield  Oxlip  in  N.W.  Essex,  120, 
132  ;  Notes  on  late  Prolonged  Frost, 
35,  66  ;  late  nesting  of  Rooks  at 
Felstead,  202  ;  Notes  on  Teasels 
( Dipsacus  sylvestris  and  D.  pilosus) 
and  their  natural  relationship,  233  ; 
new  Well  at  Felstead,  204  ;  on 
occurrence  of  Westleton  BeJs  in 
parts  of  N.W.  Essex,  210,  217. 

Friend,  Rev.  Hilderic,  Essex  Earth- 
worms, an  appeal,  135  ;  British 
Annelids,  with  especial  reference  to 
the  Earthworms  of  Essex,  193,  237. 

Frost,  Great,  of  1890-91,  117  ;  Notes  on 
Recent  Prolonged,  35,  64,  66. 

Fungi,  Cooke's  "  Illustrations  ''  of,  136. 


Gearies,    Great,   visited,    184 ;    Little, 

received   at,   by  Mrs.  Edenborough, 

184. 
Geology  and  Scenery  of  Club's  Voyage 

from  Maldon  to  Chelmsford,  197. 
Geological  Ramble  around  Chelmsford, 

209. 
Geometer  Moths,  "Assembling "of,  171. 
Gilbert,  D ;.  William,  Founder   of  the 

Science  of  Electricity,  50. 
Glacial    Formations   near    Chelmsford, 

Notes  on,  191. 
Gravels,  Hill,  North  of  Thames,  204. 
"  Great  Graces,"  visit  to,  206. 
Gulls,  Sea,  in  London,  73. 

Hainault  Forest,  visit  to  district,  183. 

Harwich,  Marine  Alga;  and  Flowering 
Plants  at,  263  ;  Pied  Flycatcher  near, 
68  ;  visit  to,  246. 

Helices  noticed  near  Newport,  180. 

Hessian  Fly  (lecture  upon),  263. 

Higham  Park,  acquisition  of,  137  ; 
visit  to,  129. 

Highest  land  in  Essex,  172.    ■ 

Hill  Gravels,  north  of  Thames,  204. 

Hippuris  vulgaris,  172. 

Holmes,  E.  M.,  Notes  on  Marine  Algae 
and  Flowering  1  lants  observed  be- 
tween Harwich  and  Dovercourt,  263. 

Holmes,  T.  V.,  Geological  Scenery  of 
the  Club's  Voyage  from  Maldon  to 
Chelmsford,  197. 

"  Homing  "  instincts  of  Hyla  arborea, 
134- 

Honorary  Member,  election  of,  130. 

Houblon,  J.  Archer,  death  of,  260. 

Hydrohia  ventrosa  at  St.  Osyth  Point, 
259  ;  //.  jenkinsi,  260. 

I.ngleby,  Mrs.,  receives  Club  at 
"Valentines,"  185. 

Ingold,  Edwin  G.,  Molluscaof  nei<,rh- 
bourhood  of  Bishop's  Stortford,  addi- 
tions and  corrections,  202. 

Insects  noted  during  meeting  on 
Chelmer,  253. 


INDEX    TO    VOLUME    V 


Invertebrate  life,  forms  of,  exhibited 
and  described,  131. 

Ipswich,  meeting  at,  241  ;  visit  to 
Museum,  242  ;  Red  Crag  collections 
in  Museum,  242. 

Ipswich  Scientific  Society,  joint  meet- 
ing with,  241. 

Jenkins,    A.    J.,    Notes    on   Aquatic 

Plants    of    Thames    marshes,    261  ; 

Notes     on      Mollusca     of     Thames 

estuary,  with  list  of  species,  220,  260  ; 

presents  specimens  to  Club,  261. 
Johnston,     Andrew,    conducts    at 

Meeting  at  Higham  Park,  129. 
"  Journal    of     Proceedings    of     Essex 

Field    Club,"  publication  of    pt.   2, 

vol.  iv.,  of,  263. 

Kelvedon,  The  Cryptogamic  Flora  of, 

I  ;  {paper  read'),  35. 
King,  Rev.  R.  Stuart,  on  Spotted 

Eagle  at  Leigh,  218. 

Laburnum  seeds  poisonous,  204. 

Lach-Szvrma,  Rev.  W.  S.,  conducts 
at  visit  to  Hainault  Forest  district 
and  Barking  Side,  &c  ,  183. 

Lamprey,  Sea,  in  Colne,  134. 

Land,  Highest,  in  Es:ex,  172. 

Laver,  Dr.  H.,  on  Local  Museum,  72  ; 
Puffin  at  Bures,  46  ;  Sea  Lamprey  in 
Colne,  134  ;  Spotted  Eagle  at 
Elmstead,  218  ;  Wildfowl  in  Essex, 
68. 

Laver,  Dr.,  and  J.  C.  Shenstone, 

Notes  on  Colne  Oyster  Fishery,  257. 
Leigh,  Spotted  Eagle  at,  218. 
Lepidoptera,    captures    of,    in    Essex, 

171  ;  of  Essex,  Pt.  i..  Butterflies,  74; 

of  Leyton  and  neighbourhood,  153. 
Limnea  palusiris,  distorted  form  of,  181. 
Lizard,  Sand,  supposed  occurrence  of 

(rt  correciion),  iii. 
Local    (Essex)    Museum,    32  ;    Public 

Meeting  in  support  of,  6g. 

Luminous  appearance  of  Crouch  River, 

205. 


-Maldon  to  Chelm.'iford,  excursion  from, 
along  Chelmer,  247  ;  Geology  and 
Scenery  of  Club'.s  Voyage  from,  197  ; 
Ramble  from  Chelmsford  to,  205. 

Marine  Algae  on  Essex  coast,  24  ; 
Zoology  of  Meeting  on  Orwell  and 
Stour  Rivers,  242-245. 

Marquand,  E.  D.,  The  Cryptogamic 
Flora  of  Kelvedon,  i,  35. 

Melampyrum  arvense  in  Essex,  203. 

Meldola,  Prof.  R.,  the  Lepidoptera 
of  Leyton  and  neighbourhood,  133. 

Meteorite  of  Nov.  20th,  1887,  44. 

Meteorology  of  Essex,  1890,  49. 

Mollusca,  of  neighbourhood  of  Bishop's 
Stortford,  additions  and  corrections, 
202  ;  of  Chelmer,  252-253  ;  from 
Epping  ((?x/5z^/WJ,  131  ;  observed  in 
Orwell  and  Stour  Estuaries,  244  ; 
of  Roding  Valle}',  112  ;  at  St. 
Osyth  Point  and  Mersea  (j'ote), 
259  ;  of  Thames  Estuary,  220,  260. 

MON'CKTON,  H.  W.,  Boulder-clay  in 
Essex,  109  ;  conducts  Geological 
Ramble  around  Chelmsford,  209  ; 
Notes  on  Glacial  Formations  near 
Chelmsford,  191  ;  Land  and  Fresh- 
water Shells  of  Roding  Valley,  112  ; 
Remarks  on  Mr.  French's  paper  on 
Westleton  Beds  in  N.W.  Essex,  217. 

Monk  Wood,  in  Loughton,  174. 

More  Epping  Forest,  137. 

Museum  Scheme,  32  ;  Public  Meeting 
in  favour  of,  69. 

Natural  History  Specimens  for  circula- 
tion among  the  Village  Schools  of 
Essex,  168. 

Newport,  visit  to,  178  ;  Church,  179. 

Officers  for  1891,  32. 

Oldham,  C,  Apamea  ophiogravima  at 
Woodford,  260. 

"  Old  RifTham's,"  visit  to,  206. 

Origin  of  our  Native  Plants,  207. 

Orwell  and  Stour  Rivers,  dredging  in, 
241. 


INDl'.X     lO    VOLUME    V. 


VI 1 


Olters  and  Kiiigt'islieis  in  the  Cliclniei, 

7  •>• 
Uwls,   Slioil-eaied,  in    Kssex   in   May, 

170. 
Oyster  Fishery,  Colne,  notes  on,  257. 
Oysters  and   Mussels   in  the  Crouch, 

1891,  203.  j 

Penrose,  W.  H.,  A  Dry  February,  49. 

Phalarope,  Grey,  at  Bradwell,  203  ;  at 
Stratford,  iii.  I 

Photography  and  Meteorological  Phe- 
nomena, British  Association  Com- 
mittee on,  35. 

Plants,  List  of.  on  banks  of  Chelmer, 
251  ;  Uncommon  at  Felstead,  136. 

'•  Poor  Robin's  Perambulation  from 
Saffron  Walden  to  London,"  quoted, 
182. 

Powell,  J.  T.,  Epping  Forest  Rubi, 
Pt.  ii.,  additions  and  corrections,  189. 

Pottery,  Ancient  (?  British)  at  Felstead, 
205. 

Primrose  and  Bardfield  Oxlip,  range  of, 
in  N.W.  Essex,  120,  132. 

Primula  elatior  in  Essex,  112,  132. 

Public    Meeting  for   Establishment  of 

Local  Museum,  69. 
Puflin  at  Bures,  46. 

Quendon  Hall,  visit  to,  180  ;  Church, 
181. 

Rainfall,   exceptionally    small    during 

last  eight  months,  112. 
Red    Crag,    collection    of    fossils,    in 

Ipswich  Museum,  242. 

Roding  Valley,  Land  and  Fresh-water 
Shells  of,  112. 

Rooks,  late  nesting  of,  at  Felstead,  202. 

Rorqual,  Common,  in  Crouch  River, 

35,  124  ;  another  in  Crouch,  134. 

ROSCOE,  Sir  Henry,  elected  Honorary 
Member,  130. 

Rt'DLER,  F.  W.,  Cabinets  of  Xatural 
History    Specimens    for    circulation 


among  the  \'illage  Schools  of  Essex, 
186  ;  on  Local  (Essex)  .Museum,  72. 

St.   Osyth,  visit  to,  254 ;    legends    of, 

255  ;  Priory  and  Church,  visits  to, 

255-256. 
Sand    Lizard,  supposed    occurrence  at 

Woodford,  a  correction,  iir. 
Sepiola  atlantka  at  Leigh,  260. 
Shells,     Land    and     Fresh-water,     of 

Roding  Valley,  112. 
ShenSTONE,    J.   C.,    Aceras    anthropo- 

phora,    68  ;     Hippuris     vulgaris     in 

Essex,  172  ;  Melampyrum  arvense  in 

Essex,  203. 
Shenstone,  J.  C,   and   Dk.  Laver, 

Notes  on  the  Colne  Oyster  Fishery, 

257. 
Skua,  Common,  at  Bradwell,  203. 
Smoothy,  Charles,  receives  Club  at 

"  Old  Riffham's,"  206. 
Snell,    H.     C,     exhibits      Teslacella 

scutulum,  130. 
Special  Meetings,  32,  130. 

Stour  River,  241,  246  ;  Hippuris  vul- 
garis in,  172  ;  Valley,  and  Constable, 
172. 

Stratford,  Grey  Phalarope  at,  1 1  r. 

Swallow's  nest,  pendant,  134, 

'•  Swallow-tails,"  a  hunt  for,  203. 

Swans,  Wild,  in  Essex,  no. 

Sworder,  C.  B.,  exhibits  Mollusca 
from  Epping,  131. 

Taylor,  Dr.  J.  E  ,  Botanical  Demon- 
stration on  Chelmer  River,  250 ; 
Address  on  Crag  Collection  in 
Ipswich  Museum,  242  ;  Address 
on  Marine  Zoology  of  the  Estuaries 
of  Orwell  and  Stour,  245  ;  Origin  of 
our  native  plants,  207. 

Teasels,  notes  on  the,  and  their 
natural  relationship,  233. 

Technical  Instruction  Scheme,  33,  173  ; 
Deputation  to  County  Council,  34. 

Terling,  Aceras  anthropophora  at,  68. 


INDEX    TO    VOLUME    V. 


TeslaceVa  scn/u.'iiin  at    Buckhurst   Hill, 

130. 
Thames,  Bottle-nosed  Whales  in,  170  ; 

Estuarine      Mollusca,      220,      260  ; 

Marshes,    some    notes    of     Aquatic 

Plants  of,  261. 
Thompson,  Prof.  Svlvanus,  William 

Gilbert,  the  founder  of  the  Science  of 

Electricity,  50. 
Thorington,  visit  to,  254. 
Thresh,  Dr.  J.  C,  Notes  on  recent 

Prolonged    Frost,    64,     132  ;      Vital 

Statistics  for  Essex,  47,  132  ;  Essex 

Water  Supply,  137. 
Treasurer's  Statement  for  1891,  40. 
Trimcatella  truncaiu/a  at  Brightlingsea, 

260. 

"  \'alentines,"  llford,  visit  to,  185. 
Varenne,  E.  G.  {the  late),  the  Cryp- 

togamic  Flora  of  Kelvedon,   i,   35  ; 

Memoir  of,  42. 
\'ice-Presidents  for  1891,  35. 
Vital  Statistics  for  Essex,  132,  47. 
Vorticellcr,  Parasitic,  136. 


Waller,  W.  C,  Monk  Wood  in 
Loughton  ;  a  Fragment  of  Forest 
Ilistor}',  174. 

Water  Supply,  Essex,  137. 

Well,  new,  at  Felstead,  204  ;  at  Little 
Dunmow,  216. 

Westleton  Beds,  occurrence  of,  in  N.W. 
Essex,  210. 

Whales,  Bottle-nosed,  in  Thames,  170  ; 

Rorquals  in  Crouch  River,  35,  124, 

134- 
Wickham  Bishop,  "  Fault  "  at,  204. 
Wildfowl  in  Essex,  68. 

Wire,  A.  P.,  Parasitic  VoritcelliT,  136  ; 

exhibits  Photographs  of  Essex  \'iews, 

131. 
Woodham  Walter   Common,   visit    to, 

208. 

Zoology,  Marine,  of  Crouch  River,  145  ; 
of  Estuaries  of  Orwell  and  Stour, 
242-246. 


Erratum. — Page   255,  line   15    from  bottom,  yy;-  "  Aubrey  de  Vere,"  read 


Aubre}'. 


PLATES. 

I. — Dr.  William  Gilbert Frontispiece. 

II. — Ezekiel  George  Varenne,  of  Kelvedon  .        .        .  to  face  page  42 

III. — Map    of    the    Sub-Tertiakv    Contour    of    the 

Chalk  in  Essex „       .,     113 

IV. — Common  Rorqual.     River  Crouch,  Feb.  12th,  1891  ,,       „     128 

V. — Fairlop  Oak „       „     183 


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The  Es»ex  Field  Club.— Ordinary  and  Annual  General  Meeting  and  Special  Meeting,  31  ; 
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FOR     1891. 


THE  CRYPTOGAMIC  FLORA  OF  KELVEDON 
AND  ITS  NEIGHBOURHOOD,  TOGETHER 
WITH  A  FEW  COAST  SPECIES;  COMPILED 
FROM  THE  HERBARIUM  AND  NOTES 
MADE  BY  THE  LATE  E.  G.  VARENNE, 
M.R.C.S. 

By     E.      D.     MARQUAND, 
[Kcoii  Feb>uary  zSth,  i8gi\. 

'T^HE  following  lists  have  been  carefully  compiled  from  the  collec- 
-*■  tions,  notes,  and  memoranda  made  during  a  period  of  over 
forty  years  by  my  valued  friend,  the  late  Mr.  E.  G.  Varenne,  surgeon, 
of  Kelvedon,  who  died  on  the  22nd  of  April,  1887,  at  the  age  of 
seventy-five.'  As  a  contribution  to  the  Cryptogamic  Flora  of  the 
county  of  Essex,  so  far  as  at  present  known,  these  lists  cannot  fail 
to  be  of  great  interest  and  value,  since  they  embody  the  labours  of 
an  acute  botanist  whose  researches  in  this  department  of  science 
have  never  yet  been  published. 

Although  possessing  a  wide  practical  acquaintance  with  all  sec- 
tions of  plant  life,  it  was  as  a  lichenologist  that  Mr.  Varenne  excelled  ; 
the  lichens  were  to  him  especial  favourites,  and  of  these  he  had,  by 
a  lifetime  of  study,  acquired  a  critical  knowledge  surpassed  by  very 
few  British  botanists.  His  last  work  was  the  compilation  of  the 
lichen  list  which  follows,  the  introductory  preface  to  which  unhappily 
remains  in  too  rudimentary  a  condition  to  be  available  for  the  pur- 
poses of  this  paper. 

1  A  short  memoir  of  Mr.  Varenne  (with  portrait)  by  Prof.   Boiilger,  is  printed  in  the  present 
volume.  —  Ed. 

B 


2  THE    CRYPTOGAMIC    FLORA    OF    KELVEDON 

The  Other  Hsts  I  have  prepared  from  a  thorough  examination  of 
the  specimens  in  his  extensive  herbarium  (so  far  as  they  relate  to  the 
county  of  Essex)  and  also  from  the  copious  notes  in  his  own  neat 
hand-writing  in  the  text-books  he  used.  In  numbers  of  cases  two  or 
more  gatherings  of  the  same  species  were  made  in  the  same  locality 
at  different  dates  ;  but  I  have  not  considered  it  needful  to  give  more 
than  one  of  these,  and  that  always  the  earliest. 

The  number  of  cryptogams  now  recorded  is  as  follows  :  Mosses, 
i6o  species  and  lo  varieties;  Hepaticae,  22  species;  Lichens,  208 
species  and  141  varieties  and  forms" ;  Fungi,  136  species  ;  Seaweeds, 
36  species  ;  Fresh-water  Algae,  129  species  :  amounting  in  all  to  842. 

As  regards  the  names  and  classification  here  adopted  the  mosses 
and  hepaticae  follow  the  order  of  the  second  edition  of  the  "  London 
Catalogue"  (1880)  ;  the  lichens,  Leighton's  "  Lichen  Flora,"  third 
edition  (1879)  ;  the  fungi,  Cooke's  "Handbook  of  British  Fungi" 
(187 1 ) ;  the  seaweeds,  Harvey's  "  Manual  of  British  Marine  Algae  " 
(1849),  ''^"d  the  remaining  section  Hassall's  "History  of  the  British 
Fresh-water  Algae  "  (1845).  I"  the  last  case  I  am  well  aware  that 
the  nomenclature  is  in  a  great  measure  obsolete ;  but  as  the  list 
is  mainly  drawn  up  from  marginal  notes  in  Mr.  Varenne's  copy  of 
Hassall,  I  have  not  ventured  upon  any  attempt  to  modernise  it — ■ 
which  indeed  would  have  been  a  task  presenting  considerable  diffi- 
culty, and  might  have  led  to  serious  error. 

Although  some  of  the  stations  indicated  in  the  lists  lie  beyond 
the  neighbourhood  of  Kelvedon,  strictly  so  called,  the  great  bulk  of 
the  localities  are  situated  in  that  region  of  the  county  of  which 
Kelvedon  forms  the  centre,  and  therefore  I  trust  that  no  very  grave 
inaccuracy  has  been  committed  in  giving  to  this  paper  its  present 
title. 

The  cryptogams  of  Essex  form  only  a  portion,  though  naturally  the 
most  important  one,  of  Mr.  Varenne's  extensive  botanical  collections, 
the  whole  of  which  are  now  in  my  possession.  Wherever  he  went  for 
his  annual  outing  he  brought  home  stores  of  gatherings  for  future 
study.  Dartmoor  he  knew  well  botanically,  and  his  manuscript  lists 
of  the  mosses,  hepaticae  and  lichens  he  collected  there  are  very  full 
and  valuable.  West  Cornwall  he  knew  even  better  than  Dartmoor  ; 
and  during  his  repeated  visits  to  Penzance  it  was  my  privilege  to 
accompany  him  in  his  rambles  over  the  rugged  earns  and  breezy 

2  In  the  Rev.  J.  M.  Crombie's  paper  on  the  "  Lichen  Flor.i  of  Epping  Forest,  and  the 
Causes  affecting  its  Recent  Diminution"  (Trans.  Essex  Field  Club,  vol.  iv.,  pp.  54-75),  only 
136  species  and  28  "  forms  "  of  lichens  are  recorded  from  the  forest  districts. — Eu. 


AND    ITS    NEIGHBOURHOOD.  3 

moors  of  the  Land's  End,  and  to  point  out  many  a  rare  plant  which 
made  his  eyes  ghsten  with  dehght. 

But  it  was  not  the  acquisition  of  a  rarity,  merely  as  such,  that 
gave  him  pleasure  ;  it  was  the  seeing  and  gathering  for  himself  in  its 
own  native  habitat  any  unfamiliar  form — moss  or  hepatic,  lichen, 
fungus  or  alga — and  the  subsequent  leisurely  examination  of  it  at 
home,  with  his  microscope  and  his  books  ;  for  it  was  a  characteristic 
of  Mr.  Varenne  that  he  would  take  nothing  for  granted — he  would 
never  accept  a  name  without  verifying  it  by  every  available  means — 
after  which  it  would  be  duly  tabulated  in  his  own  methodical  way. 
Even  on  his  deathbed  the  recollection  that  he  had  inadvertently 
entered  a  lichen  under  a  wrong  name  disturbed  his  peace  of  mind, 
and  caused  him  uneasiness  until  the  error  was  rectified. 

It  is  very  probable  that  some  of  Mr.  Varenne's  early  hunting- 
grounds  have  long  since  lost  their  botanical  features,  and  that  many 
of  the  plants  enumerated  below  are  now  extinct  in  the  localities 
specified.  If  so  it  will  but  add  to  the  value  of  the  present  record, 
the  publication  of  which  is  a  humble  tribute  to  the  memory  of  one 
to  whom  I  was  attached  by  strong  ties  of  personal  friendship  and 
esteem. 

MOSSES. 

Sphagnum  acutifolium,  Ehr.  West  Bergholt  Heath,  i860. 
Woodham  Walter  Common,  and  Galleywood  Common,  1862.  Var. 
pur/>ii renin,  Schpr.     Tiptree  and  Bergholt  Heath,  1862. 

S.  intermedium,  Hoffm.  Woodham  Mortimer  Common, 
1862. 

S.  rigidum,  Schpr.     High  Beach,  1883. 

S.  subsecundum,  Nees.  Tiptree  Heath  and  West  Bergholt 
Heath,  i860.  Warley  Common,  1883,  Var.  confortufn,  Schultz. 
Galleywood  Common  and  Bergholt  Heath,  1862.  Pods  Wood, 
Tiptree  Heath,  1865.  Var.  obesum,  Wils.  High  Beach,  1883. 
Var.  auricu/atitm,  Schpr.     Galleywood  Common,  1882. 

S.  cymbifolium,  Ehr.  West  Bergholt  Heath,  i860.  Wood 
ham  Walter  Common,  1863.  Warley  Common,  1866.  Var. 
squarrosulum,  Nees.     Bog,  Pods  Wood,  i860. 

Systegium  crispum,  Hedw.     Kelvedon,  1861. 

Gymnostomum  microstomum,  Hedw.  Inworth,  1862. 
Siblc  Hcdingham,  1864.      Kelvedon,  1880. 

Weissia  viridula,  Brid.     Kelvedon,  i860. 

B  2 


4  THE    CRVPTOGAMIC    FLORA    OK    KKLVEDON 

W.  mucronata.  Bruch.     Near  Halstead,  1875. 
W.   cirrhata,  Hcdw.     Kclvedon,  i860. 

Dicranella  cerviculata,  Hedw.  Banks,  Woodham  Walter, 
1862.  On  a  common  at  Little  Baddow,  1864.  Pods  Wood,  1875. 
Warley,  1882. 

D.  varia,  Hedw.     Kelvedon,  1861. 

D.  heteromalla,  Hedw.  Braxted,  i860.  Woodham  Walter, 
1862. 

Dicranum  scoparium,  L.  Great  Totham,  1861.  Woodham 
Walter  Common,  Tiptree  Heath,  and  Wickham,  1862. 

D.  palustre,  Brid.  West  Bergholt  Heath  and  Woodham 
Walter  Common,  1862. 

Campylopus  fragilis,  Br.  and  Schpr.     Chauntry  Wood,  1873. 
C.   pyriformis,  Brid.     Wood  near  Woodham  Walter,  1863. 
Leucobryum    glaucum,    L.     Tiptree    Heath,    i860.     Wood 
near  Woodham  Walter  Common,  1863.     Wood   near  Warley  Bar- 
racks, 1866.     High  Beach,  1883. 

Pleuridium  nitidum,  Hedw.  Wood  near  Inworth  Church, 
1863. 

P.  subulatum,  L.     Totham  and  Braxted,  1861. 
P.  alternifolium,   Br.  and  Sch.     Totham,    1861.     Kelvedon, 
1866.     Wood  at  Braxted,  1868. 

Sphaerangium  muticum,  Schreb.     Kelvedon,  i860. 
Phascum  cuspidatum,  Schreb.     Kelvedon,  i860. 
Pottia  cavifolia,  Ehr.     Kelvedon,  1845.     Rivenhall,  1861. 
P.  minutula,  Schwg.     Braxted;  Kelvedon,  i860. 
P.  truncata,  L.     Kelvedon,  i860.     Tiptree  Heath. 
P.  intermedia,  Turn.     Kelvedon,  1881. 
P.  wilsoni,  Hook.     Near  Wivenhoe,  1864. 
P.   heimii,    Hedw.      Bank  of  Stour  near  Manningtree,   1863. 
Dovercourt,  1865.     Near  Alresford  Creek,  1876. 

P.  starkeana,  Hedw.     Kelvedon,  1845.     Peering,  1880. 
P.    lanceolata,    Dicks.      Peering,    i860.      Kelvedon,    1862. 
Yeldham,  1863. 

Didymodon  rubellus,  Br.  and  Sch.  Inworth,  1861.  Near 
Halstead,  1875. 

Ditrichum   homomallum,    Hedw.     Mile    End,   Colchester, 

1873- 

Trichostomum  rigidulum,  Sm.  On  a  tree  in  Kelvedon 
Meadows,  1873.     On  top  of  piles  in  the  river,  Kelvedon,  1876. 


AND    ITS    NKICHBOURHOOD.  5 

Barbula  ambigua,  Br.  and  Sch.     Kelvedon,  1862. 

B.  aloides,  Koch.  Kelvedon,  1862.  Halstead.  Near  Yeld- 
ham,  1865. 

B.  atrovirens,  Sm.  Amongst  Pottia  heimii,  Alresford  Creek, 
1876. 

B.  cuneifolia,  Dicks.  Military  road,  Colchester,  i860.  Near 
West  l?ergholt  Mill,  1862.     Near  Wivenhoe,  1876. 

B.  marginata,  Ik.  and  Sch.     Kelvedon,  1866. 

B.  muralis,  L.  Kelvedon,  i860.  Var.  cestiva,  Schultz. 
Kelvedon,  1868.  Nayland,  1881.  Var.  iticana,  Wils.  Kelvedon, 
1876. 

B.  unguiculata,  Dill.  Kelvedon,  i860.  Copford,  1882.  Var. 
cuspidata.  Bry.  Eur.     Marks  Tey,  1881. 

B.  fallax,  Hedw.  Braxted,  i860,  Kelvedon,  1861.  Tiptree 
Heath,  1862.     Yeldham,  1865. 

B.  hornschuchiana,  Schultz.     Colchester  Castle,  1864. 

B.  revoluta,  Schwg.  Oyn's  Brook  Bridge,  i860.  Buttress  of 
Kelvedon  Church,  1863. 

B.  brebissonii,  Brid.  On  a  tree  in  the  meadows  at  Widford, 
1876. 

B.  subulata,  L.     Kelvedon,  i860. 

B.  Isevipila,  Brid.     Kelvedon  and  Braxted,  i860. 

B.  latifolia,  Br.  and  Sch.     Kelvedon,  i860.     Notley. 

B.  ruralis,  T..     Kelvedon,  i860.     Peering. 

B.  intermedia,  Brid.     On  the  stones  of  Kelvedon  Church, 

1877. 

B.  papillosa,  Wils.     Trees,  Inworth,  i860. 

Ceratodon  purpureus,  L.  Kelvedon,  1845.  Rivenhall, 
i860. 

Grimmia  apocarpa,  L.  Kelvedon,  i860.  Withani,  1862, 
Tiptree  Heath,  1863.      Rivenhall,  1873. 

G.  pulvinata,  Dill.     Kelvedon,  i860. 

Racomitrium  canescens,  Hedw.     Tiptree  Heath,  i860. 

Zygodon  vihdissimus,  Dicks.  Inworth  ;  Rivenhall,  i860. 
Easthorpe,  1864. 

Z.  conoideus,  Dicks.     Tree,  Kelvedon  Meadows,  1866. 

Ulota  bruchii,  Hornsch.  Wood  at  Mile  End,  near  Colchester, 
1863. 

U.  crispa,  Hedw.  Chantry  Wood,  1861.  Wickham  ;  Felix 
Hall  Shrubbery,  1862.     Flories  Wood  ;  Great  Tey,  1883. 


6  THE   CRYPTOGAMIC    FLORA    OF    KELVEDON 

Orthotrichum  anomalum,  Br.  and  Sch.  Feering,  1862. 
Halstead  ;  Colchester;  Kelvedon,  1866.     Hatfield  Forest,  1873. 

O.  affine,  Schrad.  Kelvedon,  i860.  Woods  at  Wickham ; 
Alresford,  1876. 

O.  stramineum,  Hornsch.     Kelvedon,  1863.     Lyston,  1865. 

O.  pumilum,  Dicks.     On  an  ash-tree,  Kelvedon,  1873. 

O.  tenellum,  Bruch.  Kelvedon  and  Feering,  1862.  Pods 
Wood,  1868. 

O.  pallens,  Bruch.     On  an  ash-tree,  Kelvedon,  1874, 

O.  diaphanum,  Schrad.     Rivenhall,  i860. 

O.  lyellii,  H.  and  T.  Wood  at  Copford,  1863.  Felix  Hall 
Woods,  1864.     Messing,  1868. 

O.  leiocarpum,  Br.  and  Sch.     Near  Halstead. 

O.  sprucei,  Mont.  Old  pales  near  the  Chelmer,  Chelmsford, 
1866. 

Ephemerum  serratum,  Schreb.  Kelvedon,  i860.  Braxted, 
1864. 

Physcomitrella  patens,  Hedw.  On  damp  garden  ground, 
Kelvedon,  1877. 

Physcomitrium  pyriforme,  L.  Kelvedon,  1861.  Riverside, 
Braxted,  1866. 

Funaria  fascicularis,  Dicks.  About  Kelvedon,  Langford, 
«S:c.,  on  gravel  and  clay,  1861.     Halstead,  1875. 

F.  hygrometrica,  L.     Kelvedon,  i860. 

Bartramia  pomiformis,  L.     Pods  AVood  Lane,  i860. 

Philonotis  fontana,  L.  Galleyvvood  Common,  and  West 
Bergholt  Heath,  1862. 

Leptobryum  pyriforme,  L.  On  the  brick  of  a  culvert, 
Feering,  i860. 

Webera  nutans,  Schreb.  Braxted,  1861.  Woodham  Walter 
Common,  and  Wickham,  1862.     Wood  at  Warley,  1866. 

W.  carnea,  L.     Kelvedon,  1861.     Marks  Hall. 

Bryum  pendulum,  Hornsch.     Kelvedon,  1862. 

B.  inclinatum,  Swartz.     Kelvedon,  i860. 

B.  intermedium,  W.  and  M.     Kelvedon,  i860. 

B.  bimum,  Schreb.  Kelvedon,  i860.  Tiptree,  1865.  Bright- 
lingsea  Common,  1866. 

B.  erythrocarpum,  Schwg.  Tiptree  Heath;  Roman  Wall, 
Colchester;  and  Rivenliall,  1862.     Kelvedon  Church  wall,  1863. 

B.  atropurpureum,  W.  and  M,     Kelvedon,  i860. 


AND    ITS    NEUJHBOURHOOl).  7 

B.  caespiticium,  L,  Kclvedon,  i860.  Beckinghani  and  In- 
worth,  1 86 1. 

B.  argenteum,  L.     Kelvedon,  i860. 

B.  capillare,  L.     Kelvedon  and  Inworth,  i860. 

B.    pallens,    Swartz.      Near   Kelvedon,    1862.      Pods   Wood, 

1875. 

Mnium  affine.  Bland.     Copford.     Felix  Hall  Shrubbery,  1882. 

M.  undulatum,  Hedw.  Kelvedon,  i860.  Woodham  Walter 
Common,  1863. 

M.  hornum,  L.     Pods  Wood  Lane,  i860. 

M.  punctatum,  Hedw.  Brook  bank  on  Chedingsell  Grange 
Farm,  1S61. 

M.  subglobosum,  B.  and  S.  Woodham  Walter  Common,  1862. 

Aulacomnion  androgynum,  L.  Totham,  1861.  Plentiful 
in  Baddow,  1864.  Inside  an  old  decayed  willow  trunk  by  riverside, 
Feering,  1882. 

A.  palustre,  L.  Tiptree  Heath,  i860.  Woodham  Walter 
Common;  Galleywood  Common;  West  Bergholt  Heath,  1862. 
Warley  Common,  1866. 

Tetraphis  pellucida,  L.     Woodham  Walter  Common,  1862. 

Atrichum  undulatum,  L.     Braxted,  i860. 

Pogonatum  nanum,  Neck.     Tiptree  Heath,  i860. 

P.  aloides,  Hedw.     Gravel-pit,  Totham,  1861. 

Polytrichum  formosum,  Hedw.  Pods  Wood,  i860.  Chaulk- 
ney  Wood,  1861.     Wickham,  1862.     Woodham  Walter,  1863. 

P.  piliferum,  Schreb.  Tiptree,  i860.  Warley  Common, 
1880. 

P.  juniperinum,  Willd.  Totham,  1861.  Woodham  Walter 
Common,  1862.     Warley  Common,  1880. 

P.  commune,  L.  Tiptree  Heath,  i860.  Woodham  Walter 
Common,  1862.     Warley  Common,  1866. 

Fissidens  bryoides,  Hedw.     Kelvedon,  i860. 

F.  exilis,  Hedw.     Kelvedon  Hall  Wood,  1879. 

F.  incurvus,  W.  and  M.     Bank,  Kelvedon  Hall  Wood,  1861. 

F.  viridulus,  Wils.     Kelvedon,  i860.     Braxted,  1862. 

F.  taxifolius,  L.     Kelvedon,  i860. 

Fontinalis  antipyretica,  L.  Pond  on  AUshots  Farm, 
Kelvedon,  i860. 

Cryphaea  heteromalla,  Hedw.  White  Notley,  i860.  Kelve- 
don, 1862. 


8  THE   CRYPTOOAMIC    FLORA    OF    KELVEDON 

Leucodon  sciuroides,  L.     Messing,  i860. 

Neckera  complanata,  L.     Prested  Hall  Wood,  i860. 

Homalia  tricomanoides,  Schreb.     Rivenhall,  i860, 

Leskea  polycarpa,  Ehr.     Kelvedon,  i860. 

Anomodon  viticulosus,  L.     Kelvedon,  i860. 

Thuidium  tamariscinum,  Hedw.     Braxted,  i860. 

Thamnium  alopecurum,  L.     Kelvedon,  i860. 

Pylaisia  polyantha,  Schreb.  On  an  elm-tree,  EwcU  Hall 
Farm,  i86[. 

Isothecium  myurum,  Poll.     Kelvedon,  i860. 

Homalothecium  sericeum,  L.     Kelvedon,  i860. 

Camptothecium  lutescens,  Huds.     Kelvedon,  i;86o. 

Brachythecium  albicans.  Neck.  Donyland  Heath,  i860. 
Banks  of  the  Colne,  near  Wivenhoe,  1863. 

B.  velutinum,  L.     Kelvedon,  i860. 

B.  rutabulum,  L.  Kelvedon  and  Cressing  Temple,  i860. 
Chaulkney  Wood,  1861.     In  worth,  1862. 

Eurhynchium  myosuroides,  L.     Kelvedon,  i860. 

E.  striatum,  Schreb.     Kelvedon,  i860. 

E.  piliferum,  Schreb.  Kelvedon  and  Donyland,  i860.  Banks 
of  the  Colne,  near  Wivenhoe,  1863. 

E.  swartzii.  Turn.     Kelvedon.     1861. 

E.  prselongum.  Dill.     Kelvedon,  i860. 

E.  pumilum,  Wils.     Inworth,  1862.     Aldham,  1864. 

Rhynchostegium  tenellum,  Dicks.     Inworth,  1861. 

R.  confertum,  Dicks.     Great  Braxted,  i860. 

R.  megapolitanum.  Bland.  Kelvedon,  1862.     Copford,  1882. 

R.  murale,  Hedw.     Kelvedon  Church,  i860. 

R.  ruscifolium,  Neck.     Kelvedon,  i860. 

Plagiothecium  denticulatum,  L.  Pods  Wood  Lane,  i860. 
Chauntry  Wood,  1873.     Chaulkney  Wood,  1882. 

P.  sylvaticum,  L.     Chaulkney  Wood,  1861. 

Amblystegium  serpens,  L.  Kelvedon,  i860.  Copford, 
1882. 

A.  irriguum,  Wils.     On  the  wall  by  Peering  Mill  dam,  1866. 

A.  riparium,  L.  Waste  water  near  Kelvedon  Mill,  i860. 
River  Chelmer,  1866. 

Hypnum  aduncum,  L.    Tiptree  Heath,  1873. 

H.  kneiffii,  Schpr.  West  Bergholt  Heath,  i860.  Galleywood 
Common,  1862. 


AND    ITS    NEIGHBOURHOOD.  9 

H.  intermedium,  Lind.     Lingwood  Common,  1864. 

H.  fluitans,  L.  Kelvedon,  i860.  Tiptree  Heath,  1861. 
\' AX.  fa  lea  turn,  Schpr.     Warley  Common,  1866. 

H.  uncinatum,  Hedw.     Tiptree  Heath,  i860. 

H.  filicinum,  L.  Kelvedon  ;  near  Bergholt ;  Braxted  ;  Mes- 
.sing,  i860.     Banks  of  the  Cohie  near  Yeldham,  1865. 

H.  commutatum,  Hedw.     Hickmore  Fen  Wood,  1862. 

H.  cupressiforme,  L.  Kelvedon;  Feering,  i860.  Chauntry 
Wood,  1 86 1.     Var.  lacunosum,  Wils.     Kelvedon,  1861. 

H.  resupinatum,  Wils.  Braxted,  i860.  Donyland  Hall, 
1884. 

H.  molluscum,  Hedw.     Rivenhall,  i860. 

H.  stellatum,  Schreb.  Galleywood  Common.  West  Bergholt 
Heath,  1862.     Lingwood  Common,  near  Danbury,  1864. 

H.  cordifolium,  Hedw.     Wood  at  Totham,  1861. 

H.   cuspidatum,  L.     Kelvedon,  and  near  Felix  Hall,  i860. 

H.  schreberi,  Ehr.  Tiptree  Heath,  i860.  Galleywood 
Common,  1862.     Woodham  Walter  Common,  1863. 

H.  purum,  L.  Kelvedon,  i860.  Galleywood  Common, 
1882. 

H.  stramineum,  Dicks.  Woodham  Walter  Common  and 
West  Bergholt  Heath,  1862. 

Hylocomium  splendens,  Dill     Tiptree  Heath,  i860. 

H.  squarrosum,  L.     Tiptree  Heath,  i860. 

H.  triquetrum,  L.     Chaulkney  Wood,  1861. 

HEPATIC.-E. 

Marchantia  polymorpha,  L.  Kelvedon,  1844.  Feering, 
i860. 

Lunularia  vulgaris,  Mich.     Great  Baddow,  1882. 

Riccia  glauca,  F.     Kelvedon,  1863. 

Ricciella  fluitans,  L.     Layer  Marney,  1861. 

Frullania  dilatata,  L.     Kelvedon,  i860. 

Radula  complanata,  L,     Kelvedon. 

Porella  platyphylla,  L.     Kelvedon  ;  Colchester. 

Lepidozia  reptans,  L.     Warley,  1883. 

Lophocolea  bidentata,  L.     Kelvedon  and  Braxted,  1861. 

L.  heterophylla,  Schrad.     Braxted  Woods  and  Inworth,  1861. 

Trichocolea  tomentella,  Ehr.  AVoodham  Mortimer  Com- 
mon, 1862. 


lO  THE   CRYPTOGAMIC    FLORA    OF    KELVEDON 

Blepharozia  ciliaris,  Nees.     Tiptree  Heath,  1862. 

Scapaniaundulata,  Dill.  Tiptree,  1861.  Bergholt  Heath,  1862. 

S.  nemorosa,  L.     Chauntry  Wood. 

Diplophyllum  albicans,  L.     Marks  Hall,  1863. 

Plagiochila  asplenioides,  L.     Chaulkney  Wood,  i860. 

Jungermannia  crenulata,  Sm.     Tiptree  Heath,  1862. 

J.  inflata,  Huds.     Tiptree  Heath,  1863. 

Nardia  scalaris,  Schrad.     Kelvedon,  1861. 

Pellia  epiphylla,  L.     Woodham  Walter  Common,  1882. 

Aneura  multifida.  Dill.     West  Bergholt  Heath. 

Metzgeria  furcata,  L.     Braxted,  1861. 

LICHENS. 

Collema  pulposum,  Bernh.  Peering,  Yeldham.  f.  granu- 
latuiii,  S\v.  On  limestone,  Kelvedon  ;  Salcot.  f.  tenax,  Ach.  On 
earth,  Kelvedon. 

C.  limosum,  Ach.     Kelvedon,  Peering.     On  clay. 

C.  crispum,  Huds.  On  gravel,  Kelvedon,  Peering,  Yeldham. 
Roman  Wall,  Colchester. 

C.  cheileum,  Ach.     On  the  mortar  of  walls.  Peering. 

Leptogium  microphyllum,  Ach.     Old  elm,  Kelvedon,  1882. 

L.  biatorinum,  Nyl.     Bank  at  Inworth,  1863. 

L.  tenuissimum,  Dicks.  Hedge-bank,  Inworth ;  Braxted ; 
Kelvedon. 

L.  pusillum,  Nyl.     Bank  at  Messing,  1863.  ' 

Sphinctrina  turbinata,  Pers.  On  Fertusaria  communis,  In- 
worth. 

Calicium  chrysocephalum,  Ach.     Old  elm,  Braxted. 

C.  aciculare,  Sm,     Old  elms,  Kelvedon. 

C.  trichiale,  Ach.  Var.  ferrugineum,  Borr.  Old  oak  post, 
Great  Tey  ;  Coggeshall. 

C.  melanophaeum,  Ach.  Palings,  Braxted.  Oak  post,  Kel- 
vedon. 

C.  hyperellum,  Ach.     Old  oak,  Messing. 

C.  trachelinum,  Ach.  On  oak  post  and  boarded  building, 
Kelvedon. 

C.  quercinum,  Pers.  Old  wood,  Inworth  ;  Kelvedon  ;  Cog- 
geshall. 

C.  curtum,  Borr.     Old  wood,  Kelvedon  ;  Braxted. 

C.  subtile,  Pers.     Old  tree  and  old  boarding,  Kelvedon. 


AND    ITS    NElGlir.OURHOOl).  11 

Coniocybe  furfuracea,  Ach.  Sandy  bank,  Braxted,  and  Marks 
Hall. 

Trachylia  tigillaris,  Fr.     Old  paling,  Braxted. 

T.  tympanella,  Fr.     Old  posts,  .^c,  Kelvedon. 

T.  stigonella,  Fr.     On  Pertusaria,  Marks  Hall. 

Baeomyces  rufus,  1).  C.     On  earth,  Tiptree  Heath  ;  Warley. 

Cladonia  pyxidata,  Fr.  Banks,  Kelvedon.  Var.  fimbriata, 
Hoffm.  Braxted  Park  wall.  Hedge-bank,  Myland.  f.  contuto- 
radiafa,  Leight.     Mile  End,  Colchester. 

C.  gracilis,  Hoffm.  f.  hybrida  ?  Tiptree  Heath.  Var.  chorda/is, 
Ach.     Tiptree  Heath. 

C.  furcata,  Hoffm.     Tiptree  Heath,  Braxted. 

C.  cornucopioides,  Fr.     Braxted  Park  wall. 

C.  digital  a,  Hoffm.  Var.  madlenta,  Hoffm.  Old  paling, 
Kelvedon,  Copford.     Brick  wall,  Braxted. 

C.  florkeana,  Fr.     Var.  bacillaris,  Ach.     Tiptree  Heath. 

Cladina  sylvatica,  Hoffm.     Tiptree  Heath. 

C.  rangiferina,  Hoffm.     Tiptree  Heath. 

C.  uncialis,  Hoffm.     Tiptree  Heath. 

Usnea  barbata,  L.  {.  hirta,\..  Trees,  Kelvedon.  i.  plicata, 
L.     Trees,  Kelvedon. 

Alectoria  jubata,  L.     Paling,  Braxted.     Trees,  Pods  Wood. 

Evernia  furfuracea,  Mann.     Wooden  fence,  Braxted. 

E.  prunastri,  L.  On  palings  and  trees,  Braxted;  Kelvedon; 
Feering.     The  yellow  form,  Copford. 

Ramalina  farinacea,  L.  Trees  and  palings,  Kelvedon; 
Braxted. 

R.  fraxinea,  L.  f.  tcenta'formis,  Ach.  Trees,  Kelvedon. 
f.  ampliata,  Ach.     Trees,  Kelvedon. 

R.  fastigiata,  Pers.     On  trees,  Kelvedon. 

R.  pollinaria,  Ach.  f.  humilis,  Ach.  On  old  boarded  barn, 
Rivenhall.     f.  elatior,  Ach.     On  trees,  Kelvedon. 

R.  evernioides,  Nyl.     Trees,  Feering  ;  Kelvedon  ;  Totham. 

Cetraria  aculeata,  Yx.  f.  typica,  Leight.  Tiptree  Heath. 
/.  tnuricata,  Ach.     Paling,  Kelvedon  ;  Tiptree  Heath. 

Peltigera  canina,  L.     Banks,  Kelvedon. 

P.  spuria,  Ach.     Bank,  Kelvedon. 

P.  polydactyla,  Hffm.     Grassy  bank,  Great  Tey. 

Parmelia  caperata,  L.     On  trees,  (S:c.,  Kelvedon  ;  Braxted. 

P.  olivacea,  L.     Kelvedon. 


12  THE    CRYPTOGAMIC    FLORA    OK    KELVEDON 

P.  physodes,  L.  On  trees  and  palings.  Var.  recurva,  Leight. 
Braxted,  on  trees.  Var.  labrosa,  Ach.  On  fir-branches,  Kelvedon. 
Old  palings,  Braxted  ;  Colne. 

P.  reddenda,  Stirt.     Trees,  Kelvedon  ;  Peering. 

P.  perlata,  L.  On  trees,  Kelvedon;  Peering;  Inworth; 
Easthor[)e. 

P.  borreri,  Turn.     Trees,  Kelvedon  ;  Braxted  Park  ;  Inworth. 

P.  fuliginosa,  Dub.  f.  olivacea,  Leight,  On  trees  and  palings, 
frequent  but  barren,  Kelvedon  ;  Inworth,  &c. 

P.  acetabulum.  Neck.  On  elm,  ash,  and  lime  trees,  Kel- 
vedon ;  Coggeshall ;  Rayne ;  Great  Braxted ;  Witham ;  Felix  Hall 
Park  ;  Rivenhall ;  Lyston. 

P.  saxatilis,  L.  On  trees  and  pales.  Easthorpe,  in  fruit; 
Kelvedon. 

Physcia  parietina,  L.  Trees  and  walls,  Kelvedon.  Var. 
aureola^  kz\\.  Brick  walls,  Kelvedon;  Chipping  Hill.  \ar.  /aciniosa, 
Uuf.  On  trees,  Kelvedon  ;  Yeldham.  Var.  lychnea,  Ach.  On 
trees,  frequent,  Kelvedon.  On  walls,  Earl's  Colne.  At  base  of  old 
elms,  Kelvedon,  of  a  dark  orange-yellow.  Var.  polycarpa,  Ehrb. 
Willow-tree,  Rivenhall.  Palings,  Kelvedon  and  Walton,  f.  cineras- 
cens,  Leight.     Elms,  Kelvedon. 

P.  ciliaris,  L.  Trees,  Kelvedon.  Old  wall.  Chipping  Hall, 
f.  aciinofa,  Ach.     Trees,  Kelvedon. 

P.  pulverulenta,  Schreb.  On  trees,  Kelvedon.  Ashy-grey 
form  on  horse-chestnuts,  Kelvedon,  1884.  f.  pityrea,  Ach.  On 
trees,  Braxted ;  Kelvedon.  On  mosses  on  walls.  Chipping  Hill  ; 
Peering,     f.  afigustata,  Hffm.     On  moss,  Kelvedon. 

P.  obscura,  Ehr.     On  trees,  Kelvedon  ;  Peering. 

P.  adglutinata,  Plk.  On  elm  and  ash  trees,  Kelvedon.  On 
wall,  Braxted.     On  a  culvert,  Peering. 

P.  erosa,  Borr.     Base  of  old  elm.     Messing. 

P.  astroidea,  Clem.     Kelvedon. 

P.  stellaris,  L.  Trees,  Kelvedon;  Totham;  &c.  \slx.  leptalea, 
Ach.  Ulting,  near  Maldon,  Mr.  Piggott.  Var.  tenella,  Scop.  On 
trees,  walls,  and  palings,  Kelvedon  ;  Chipping  Hill ;  Lyston  ;  Riven- 
hall. Var.  ccesia,  Hffm.  On  brick  walls,  trees,  and  slates,  Kelvedon; 
Coggeshall ;  Great  Tey. 

Squamaria  saxicola,  Poll.  Prequent  on  brick  walls,  and  on 
tiles,  Kelvedon.  Van,  with  margin  of  apothecia  albo-pulverulent,  on 
a  tile,  Kelvedon. 


AND    ITS    NFJGHHOURHOOD.  13 

Placodium  murorum,  Hffm.  On  mortared  walls  and  brick 
walls,  Kelvedon  ;  Colne  ;  Feering ;  Misdey.  f.  lobulatum,  Smrft. 
On  stone,  Chelmsford. 

P.  decipiens,  Am.  On  walls,  Kelvedon  ;  Mistley.  On  flint 
wall,  Thetford,  in  small  round  spots. 

P.  callopismum,  Ach.  f.  plicatum,  Wedd.  Mortared  walls, 
brick  walls,  and  sandstone,  Kelvedon  ;  Coggeshall. 

P.  miniatum,  Hffm.  f.  obliteratum,  Pers.  On  limestone, 
Coggeshall. 

P.  citrinum,  Ach.  Trees,  palings,  brick  walls,  and  mortared 
walls,  Halstead     Kelvedon  ;  Feering ;  Braxted. 

P.  chalybaeum,  Duf.     Limestone,  Coggeshall. 

Lecanora  vitellina,  Ach.  Old  palings  and  walls,  Kelvedon. 
Var.  coruscans,  Ach.  Palings,  Kelvedon.  Var.  €pixa?itha,  Nyl. 
Kelvedon. 

L.  candelaria,  Ach.  On  willow  and  horse-chestnut,  on  palings 
and  old  boarded  barns,  Kelvedon  ;  Great  Tey ;  Lyston.  f.  granu- 
losa, Leight.     On  paling,  Great  Tey. 

L.  glaucocarpa,  Whlnb.  {.  pruinosa,  Sm.  Great  Coggeshall ; 
on  limestone,  T.  B.  Hall. 

L.  squamulosa,  Schrad.     Sandstone,  Feering,  1881. 

L.  fuscata,  Schrad.     Sandstone,  Feering  ;  Kelvedon. 

L.  sarcopsis,  Whlnb.     Kelvedon. 

L.  varia,  Ehrb.  Old  palings,  Kelvedon;  Great  Tey;  tree, 
Braxted. 

L.  atra,  Huds.  On  old  walls,  abundant,  Kelvedon.  f.  corticola, 
Larbal.     On  trees,  Messing  ;  Kelvedon. 

L.  circinata,  Pers.     On  limestone,  Coggeshall. 

L.  sulphurea,  Hffm.  Old  walls,  Kelvedon  ;  Great  Tey  ;  Chip- 
ping Hill.     Variable  as  to  colour. 

L.  symmicta,  Ach.  On  palings,  old  posts,  and  rails,  Kelvedon; 
Feering  ;  Pods  Wood  ;  Coggeshall.     Var.  aitema,  Ach.     Kelvedon. 

L.  expallens,  Ach.  On  palings,  Kelvedon.  Var.  /3.  Ach. 
{orosthea,  Sm.)      Trunk  of  horse-chestnut,  Kelvedon. 

L.  subfusca,  L.  On  trees,  Gosfield.  f.  alhphana,  Ach.  Trees, 
Rivenhall ;  Kelvedon ;  Messing,  f.  parisiensis,  Nyl.  Kelvedon. 
f.  rugosa,  Pers.  Kelvedon.  f.  argentata,  Ach.  On  trees  and  brick 
walls,  Kelvedon  ;  Wivenhoe  ;  Coggeshall ;  Totham.  f.  contufnesceiis, 
Rob.  Upper  branches  of  trees,  Kelvedon.  f.  atrynea,  Ach.  Brick 
walls,  palings,   ash-tree,  sandstone,   Braxted ;    Kelvedon ;   Feering ; 


14  THE    CRYPTOGAMIC    FLORA    OF    KELVEDON 

Messing.  f.  epibrya,  Ach.  On  moss,  on  old  walls,  Kelvedon. 
f.  chlarona,  Ach.  Palings  and  trees,  Coggeshall ;  Kelvedon  ;  Totham  ; 
Troyes  Wood.     Often  with  Sphcvria  epicymatia  on  its  apothecia. 

L.  galactina,  Ach.  On  brick,  mortared  walls,  and  old  palings, 
Kelvedon ;  Peering,  f.  dispersa,  Pers.  On  mortared  wall,  and  on 
sandstone,  Kelvedon. 

L.  hageni,  Ach.  On  palings,  trees,  mortared  walls,  Osey 
Island ;  Goldhanger ;  Kelvedon  ;  Braxted.  Var.  paliidior,  Larb. 
Ash-tree,  Kelvedon. 

L.  gibbosa,  Ach.  Coggeshall,  on  limestone,  f.  vulgaris,  Th.  Fr. 
On  oolite,  Gosfield.     On  sand.stone,  Kelvedon, 

L.  calcarea,  L.     f.  concreia,  Schoer.     Limestone,  Coggeshall. 

L.  parella,  L.  Tiles  and  brick  walls,  Kelvedon.  f.  palkscens, 
L.  Walls,  Kelvedon.  f.  tumidula,  Pers.  On  trees,  Kelvedon ; 
Bocking.  On  boarded  building,  Easthorpe.  Old  gate-post,  Cogges- 
hall.    f.  turneri,  Sm.     Trees,  Kelvedon. 

L.  rupestris,  Scop.  f.  calva,  Dicks.  Old  mortared  wall,  Kel- 
vedon. 

L.  angulosa,  Ach.  On  elm,  apple,  poplar,  and  old  paling, 
Kelvedon  ;  Rayne  ;  Halsted ;  Messing ;  Myland ;  Rivenhall  ; 
Totham. 

L.  albella,  Pers.     Kelvedon,  on  aspen-tree. 

L.  aurantiaca,  Lightf.  Var.  salicina,  Lightf.  Elm-trees,  Hal- 
stead  ;  Steeple  Bumpstead.  Var.  erythre/Ia,  Ach.  On  sandstone, 
paling,  sea-bank,  Kelvedon ;  Goldhanger.  Var.  inalpina,  Ach. 
Brick  wall,  mortared  wall,  old  paling,  Kelvedon  ;  Feering  ;  Messing. 

L.  ferruginea,  Huds.  f.  corticola,  Leight.  Elm  and  apple 
trees,  and  old  gates,  Feering  ;  Messing  ;  Kelvedon ;  Rivenhall. 

L.  cerina,  Ehrh.  On  trees,  Kelvedon ;  Colchester;  Easthorpe; 
Osey  Island;  Wivenhoe.  On  maple,  Braxted  Park.  Var.  cyafiolepra, 
D.C.  On  aspen,  Kelvedon  ;  Easthorpe.  Var.  chlorina,  Fw.  On 
sandstone  boulder.  Great  Tey.  Var.  stil/iddiorum,  Horn.  Gold- 
hanger.   Form  with  fuscous  apothecia.    Paling,  Kelvedon  ;  Wivenhoe. 

L.  pyracea,  Ach.     Elm-tree,  mortar,  sandstone,  paling,  Braxted  ; 
Halstead  ;  Coggeshall ;  Kelvedon  ;  Osey  Island.    Var.  ulmicola,  D.C 
On  horse-chestnuts,  old  willows,  aspens,  and  elms,  frequent,  Cogges- 
hall ;  Kelvedon ;  Witham  ;  Braxted.  Var.  holocarpa,  Ehr.     Old  pal- 
ing ;  flint  stone,  Kelvedon;  Coggeshall. 

L.  arenaria,  Pers.  On  sandstone,  brick  walls,  Coggeshall ; 
Chipping  Hill. 


AND    ITS    NKI(;HliOUKHOOn.  I5 

L.  phlogina,  Ach.     On  elm,  Kelvedon  ;  Braxtcd  ;  Rayne. 

L.  sophodes,  Ach.  On  slates,  on  Colchester  Roman  wall ;  and 
on  sandstone,  Kelvedon ;  Colchester,  f,  exigua,  Ach.  Palings, 
W'alton-on-Naze ;  Kelvedon  ;  Coggeshall.  f.  vieiabolica,  Ach.  On 
sandstone,  Kelvedon.  Brick  wall,  Coggeshall.  f.  kcideoides,  Nyl. 
Old  paling,  Kelvedon,  1884. 

L.  erysibe,  Ach.  Trees  and  walls,  Kelvedon  ;  Halstead  ;  Peer- 
ing,    f.  fusco-cifierea,  Mudd.     On  hedge-bank,  Inworth. 

L.  arthroocarpa,  Dub.  f.  fusce//n,  Schoer.  Fir-trees,  Kelve- 
don.    Wood,  Totham. 

L.  haematomma,  Ehrh.     On  limestone,  Coggeshall. 

Pertusaria  dealbata,  Ach.     Ash-tree,  Rivenhall ;  Kelvedon. 

P.  communis,  1).C.  Trees,  Pods  Wood,  Messing;  Braxted  ; 
Kelvedon  ;  Marks  Hall. 

P.  melaleuca,  Sm.     Tree,  Mile  End,  Colchester. 

P.  fallax,  Pers.  Trees,  Kelvedon  ;  Wickham  ;  Marks  Hall ; 
Pods  Wood. 

P.  velata,  Turn.  Palings,  Kelvedon  ;  Braxted.  f.  variolaria- 
aspergi/Ia,  T.  and  B.  Oak-tree,  Marks  Hall,  mixed  up  with  F.  com- 
munis. 

P.  faginea,  Ach.  Trees,  brick  walls,  palings,  old  posts,  Kelve- 
don, (5v:c. 

P.  globulifera.  Turn.     Ash-trees,  Kelvedon  ;  Inworth. 

P.  pustulata,  Ach.  On  trees  in  woods,  Kelvedon  ;  Yeldham  ; 
Bentley  ;  Braxted  ;  Messing. 

P.  leioplaca,  Ach.  Trees  in  woods,  Kelvedon ;  Braxted  ; 
Pods  Wood. 

Urceolaria  scruposa,  L.  On  l^rick  walls  and  trunks  of  oak 
and  elm,  Kelvedon  ;  Braxted  ;  Peering,  f.  bryophila,  Ach.  On 
mosses  on  old  walls,  Kelvedon. 

Phlyctis  agelaea,  Ach.  On  trees,  oak  and  ash,  Kelvedon  ; 
Braxted  ;  Messing  ;  Copford  ;  Halstead  ;  Hatfield  Broad  Oak. 

Lecidea  ostreata,  Hffm.  On  very  old  oak  palings  and  posts, 
abundant  where  it  grows,  Rivenhall ;  Kelvedon  ;  Marks  Hall  ;  Aid- 
ham. 

L.  friesii,  Ach.     Old  oak  post,  Inworth,  1884. 

L.  fuliginosa,  Tayl.  K — C — ■  C.  dissolves  the  crust. 
Sandstone,  Kelvedon. 

L.  dispansa,  Nyl.  On  flint  stones,  Tiptree  Heath ;  Wick- 
ham ;   \\"itham. 


1 6  THE    CRYPTOOAMIC    FLORA    OF    KEI.VEDON 

L.  crustulata,  Ach.     On  flint  stones  in   fields  and   roadsides, 
and  on  sandstone  in  a  wall,  Great  Tey ;  Tiptree ;  Kelvedon. 
L.  flexuosa,  I-r.     Old  palings,  Copford. 
L.  decolorans,  Flk.     Kelvedon. 

L.  dubia,  Borr.     On  the  boarding  of  an  old  barn,  Kelvedon. 
L.  quernea,  Dicks.     On  oaks,  Kelvedon;  Easthorpe. 
L.  enteroleuca,  Ach.     Brick  walls,  tiles,  and  sandstone,  Kel- 
vedon ;  Peering.     Corticole,  Kelvedon  ;  Copford ;  Witham  ;    Great 
Tey. 

L.  minuta,  Schrer.     Tree,  Great  Braxted. 
L.  tenebricosa,  Ach.     Gelat.  hymenea   I.  blue.     Tree,  Pods 
Wood  ;  Ikaxted  ;  Hickmore  Fen  Wood. 

L.  parasema,  Ach.  Trees,  old  palings,  walls,  Peering;  Cog- 
geshall ;  Kelvedon ;  Messing ;  Rivenhall.  Var.  tabescens,  Korb. 
On  oak.  Pods  Wood.  Var.  flavens,  Nyl.  On  palings,  Peering  ; 
Copford.  Var.  e/ieochroma,  Ach.  Trees  and  palings,  Witham ; 
Kelvedon  ;  Rivenhall  ;  Peering  ;  Baddow ;  Lyston  ;  Walton-on- 
Naze. 

L.  uliginosa,  Schrad.  On  earth,  Warley  Common ;  Mile 
End,  Colchester,  f.  fulighwsa,  Ach.  Old  railings  and  ancient  oak, 
Kelvedon ;  Bocking.  On  the  mortar  of  an  old  building  with 
Verrucaria  ?iigrescens. 

L.  coarctata,  Sm.  f.  elacista,  Ach.  W^all,  and  on  surface  of 
a  sand-pit,  Braxted  ;  Copford.  f.  involuta,  Tayl.  Brick  copings, 
sandstone  walls,  Kelvedon ;  Great  Tey ;  Braxted ;  Coggeshall. 
f.  glebulosa,  Sm.  Essex,  T.  B.  Hall.  f.  ornata,  Smft.  AVall,  sandy 
bank,  Braxted ;  Bergholt  ;  Copford. 

L.  fuscoatra,  Ach.  Sandstone,  bricks,  tiles,  Coggeshall ;  Kel- 
vedon ;  Chipping  Hill ;  Peering,  f.  fumosa,  Ach.  Brick  walls, 
Kelvedon ;  Braxted ;  Messing,  f.  meiosporiza,  Nyl.  Brick  wall, 
Kelvedon. 

L.  sub-kochiana,  Nyl.     On  sandstone,  Kelvedon. 
L.  taylori,  Salw.     Coggeshall. 

L.  contigua,  Pr.     Var.  aggerata,  Mudd.     Kelvedon. 
L.  confluens,  Web.     Tiptree,  rocks,  conglomerate  gravel,     f. 
/(Fvigato,  Leight.     Kelvedon. 

L.  canescens,    Dicks.     Chiefly  on  elms,  Kelvedon  ;  Peering  ; 
White  Notley  ;  Inworth.     (In  fruit  at  Tattingstone,  Suffolk). 
L.  disciformis,  Fr.     Kelvedon;  uncommon. 
L.  myriocarpa,  D.C.     f.  chloropolia,  D.C.     Old  trees  and  pal- 


Fssr.x  A'>i///m//s/,  \'ol.   V.   iSgi.     PI 


EZEKIEL  GEORGE  VARENNE,  of  Kelvedon. 

Boru  i8li.  Diet/  1887. 


AND    ITS    NEK'.UBOURHOOI).  17 

ings,  Kelvedon  ;  Great  Tey  ;  Messing,  f.  pinicola,  Ach.  On  elm, 
willow,  fir,  and  horse-chestnut,  Kelvedon  ;  Coggeshall.  f.  leprosa, 
1).C.  On  elm,  Kelvedon.  f.  quercicola,  Rabh.  On  an  oak,  Kelve- 
don.    f.  saprophila,  Ach.     On  paling,  Kelvedon. 

L.  nigritula,  Nyl.     l<".lm-tree,  Kelvedon. 

L.  chalybeia,  Borr.  Flint  stones,  Tiptree  Heath  ;  Witham  ; 
Wickham. 

L.  grossa,  Pers.  On  elms,  Kelvedon  ;  Rivenhall  ;  (iosfield 
Hall,  Mr.  Piggott. 

L.  anomala,  Fr.  Kelvedon;  Tods  Wood;  Messing;  Feli.x 
Hall  Park  ;  Mile  End,  Colchester;  Hickmore  Fen  Wood. 

L.  tricolor,  With.  On  various  trees,  Kelvedon  ;  Wickham  ; 
Mile  End,  Colchester  ;  Troyes  Wood  ;  wood  at  Gosfield  ;  Lyston. 

L.  ehrhartiana,  Ach.  Old  wooden  barns,  Rivenhall  ; 
Ivxsthorpe  ;  Messing  ;  Kelvedon.  Apothecia  liable  to  be  destroyed 
by  an  insect  pest. 

L.  caradocensis,  Leight.     Kelvedon  ;  Marks  Hall. 

L.  incompta,  Borr.     On  an  old  tree.  Great  Braxted,  1883. 

L.  alboatra,  Hffm.  Trees,  Kelvedon,  &c.  f.  populorion, 
Mass.  On  poplar  and  ash-trees,  Kelvedon  ;  Coggeshall.  f.  epipolia, 
Ach.  On  tombstones;  on  flint  in  a  wall,  Kelvedon;  Me.ssing ; 
Coggeshall.     On  old  mortared  wall,  Ashdon. 

L.  dilleniana,  Ach.  On  Brightlingsea  Church  wall.  Habitat 
destroyed  by  the  restoration  of  the  church. 

L.  aromatica,  Sm.     Old  wall,  Kelvedon. 

L.  sphaeroides,  Dicks.     Kelvedon  ;  Feering. 

L.  umbrina,  Ach.     On  sandstone,  Kelvedon. 

L.  mi  Hi  aria,  Fr.     f.  terristris,  Fr.     Tiptree  Heath. 

L.  phacodes,  Korb.     On  aged  elm,  Braxted  Park,  1884. 

L.  sabuletorum.  Elk.     On  moss  on  walls,  Feering  ;  Kelvedon. 

L.  premnea,  Ach.  On  old  trees,  Marks  Hall ;  Rivenhall  ; 
Kelvedon.     Common  in  parks. 

L,  endoleuca,  Nyl.  On  trees,  Kelvedon  ;  Braxted ;  Marks 
Hall;  Wivetihoe  ;  Great  Tey  ;  Sible  Hedingham. 

L.  rubella,  Ehr.  On  elms  and  other  trees,  Kelvedon  ;  Aid- 
ham  ;  Hickford  Fen  Wood  ;   Braxted  Park. 

L.  effusa,  Sm.  Var.  fuscclla,  Fr.  On  trees  in  woods  and 
parks,  Kelvedon  ;  Felix  Hall  Park  ;  Fairstead  ;  Great  Tey.  \'ar. 
ci'ien'o-prui/iosci,  Mudd.     Chelmsford,  Mr.  Piggott. 

L.  petraea,  Wulf.    i.fuscescens,  Leight.  On  sandstone,  Kelvedon. 

c 


i8  THi:  c:k\  pto(;amic   i'i.ora  of  kei.vkdon 

L.  tantilla,  Nyl.  On  old  rails  and  oak  fences,  Kelvedon  ; 
Feerinu;. 

L.  parmeliarum,  Smrft.  On  the  crust  of  Lecidea  quernea, 
Dicks.      I'vasthorpe. 

L.  parasitica,  I'l.     On  Pertusaria  communis^  Braxted,  1883. 
Opegrapha  herpetica,  Ach.     f.   vera,   Leight.     Chelmsford, 
Mr.  Piggott.     f.  rubella,   Pars.     On  a  tree,  Rivenhall.     f.  ru/escens, 
Pers.     On  trees,  Totham  Wood  ;  Messing. 

O.  atra,  Pers.  On  British  and  other  trees  and  on  a  wooden 
barn,  Kelvedon  ;  Fordham.  f.  denigrata,  Ach.  On  ash-tree,  Kel- 
vedon ;  Colne.  f.  nigrita,  Leight.  On  birch  and  i\y  and  old 
barns,  Kelvedon  ;  Woodham  \Valter ;  Coggeshall.  f.  parallela, 
I-eight.  On  trees,  Kelvedon ;  Inworth  ;  Woodham  A\'alter.  f. 
hapalea,  Ach.  On  a  tree  near  Orwell  station,  f.  arthonoidea, 
Leight.  On  trees,  Kelvedon  ;  Marks  Hall ;  Stoke-by-Nayland. 
O,  turneri,  Leight.  On  trees  and  palings,  Colne;  Kelvedon. 
O.  saxicola,  Ach.  Var.  cheva/lieri,  Leight.  On  old  mortar, 
Kelvedon. 

O.  varia,  Pers.  f.  pulicaris,  Lightf.  On  trees,  Kelvedon  ; 
Epping  Forest;  Dr.  Crombie.  f  notha,  Ach.  On  trees,  Kelvedon; 
Braxted.  i.  diaphora,  Ach.  On  trees,  Braxted;  Kelvedon.  f.  ti- 
grina,  Ach.     Kelvedon.     f.  tridens,  Ach.     Kelvedon. 

O.  vulgata,  Ach.  f.  vulgata,  Ach.  On  elm,  ash,  yew,  Kelve- 
don ;  Braxted ;  Messing ;  Woodham  Walter,  f.  stetwcarpa,  Ach. 
On  old  willows,  elm,  oak.  Great  Braxted  ;  Kelvedon.  f.  suhsiderella, 
Nyl.     On  elm,  yew,  Kelvedon  ;  Messing. 

O.  lyncea,  Sm.     On  old  oaks,  Kelvedon  ;  Rivenhall ;  Braxted. 
Stigmatidium  crassum,  Dub.    On  hornbeam,  Great  Braxted  ; 
Epping  Forest,  1873. 

Arthonia  lurida,  Ach.     On  oak,  Halstead. 
A.  vinosa,  Leight.       On   trees,  Hickmore  Fen  Wood  ;  Pods 
Wood ;    Messing.      Var.  pinefi,    Korb.       Kelvedon ;    Pods   Wood. 
Wood  near  Gosfield. 

A,  punctiformis,  Ach.  On  oak,  Kelvedon;  Braxted;  In- 
worth  ;   ALirks  Mall. 

A.  astroidea,  Ach.     On  ash,  Braxted  ;  Kelvedon  ;  Inworth. 
A.  epipasta,  Ach.     Braxted. 

A.  swartziana,  Ach.  On  trees,  Kelvedon  ;  Braxted  ;  Becking- 
ham  :  Pods  Wood  ;  \Vickham  ;  Great  Tey,  Peering. 

A.    cinnabarina,    AN'allr.        On    trees.        \'ar.    kermesitia,    Nyl. 


AND    lis    NKICHUOUKHOOI).  19 

f.  rosacea,  T.  and  B.  Easthorpe  ;  Rivenliall  ;  Woodham  Walter, 
f.  »iargi/iata,  T.  and  B.  Kelvedon  ;  Woodham  Walter  ;  Riven- 
hall  ;  Great  Tey.  \ar.  pnnnata,  Del.  f.  diihia,  '\.  and  B.  Great 
Toy  ;  Kelvedon.  \'ar.  aneryfhra'a,  Nyl.  On  trees  in  woods,  Kelve- 
don ;  Braxted  ;  Great  Tey.     f.  detrita,  T.  and  \\.     Kelvedon. 

A.  pruinosa,  Ach.  On  old  palings,  and  hoarded  buildings, 
Kelvedon  ;  Coggeshall. 

A.  anastomosans,  Ach.     On  young  oak,  Braxted,  1863. 

Graphis  elegans,  Sm.     Loughton. 

G.  scripta,  Ach.  f.  minuta,  Leight.  On  trees,  Kelvedon. 
f.  varia,  Leight.  Kelvedon.  f.  horizontalis,  Leight.  Kelvedon. 
f.  divan'cata,  Leight.  \\'ood  at  Totham.  Var.  serpentina,  Ach. 
Kelvedon.  f.  eutypa,  Ach.  Kelvedon  ;  Marks  Hall ;  Baddow  ; 
Hickmore  Fen  ^Vood.  f.  spathea,  Ach.  Copford.  f.  tremulans, 
Leight.     Chelmsford,  Mr.  Piggott.     f.  radiata,  Leight.      Pods  Wood. 

G.  dendritica,  Ach.  f.  smithii,  Leight.  Hickmore  Fen 
Wood  ;  Pods  Wood  ;  Messing,  f.  acuta,  Leight.  Wood,  at  Mess- 
ng.     f.  obtusa,  Leight.     Epping  Forest,  Dr.  Crombie. 

G.  inusta,  Ach.  f.  vera,  Leight.  Inworth  ;  Hickmore  Fen 
\N'ood.  f.  elongata,  Leight.  Pods  \\'ood  ;  Messing,  f.  siniplicuis- 
ciila,  Leight.  IVLarks  Hall ;  Inworth  ;  Pods  Wood ;  Messing,  f.  macu- 
laris,  Leight.     Pods  Wood  ;  Marks  Hall. 

G.  sophistica,  Nyl.  On  trees,  Kelvedon.  f.  fiexuosa,  Leight. 
Marks  Hall.  f.  radiata,  Leight.  Marks  Hall  ;  Baddow.  f.  diva- 
ricata,  Leight.  (ireat  Braxted  ;  Totham.  Var.  piilverulenta,  Sm. 
On  trees  in  woods,  Kelvedon  ;  Terling  ;  Halstead  ;  Braxted  ;  Mess- 
ing ;  Totham.  \"ar.  dendriticoides,  Leight.  Kelvedon  ;  Troyes 
Wood. 

Mycoporum  miserrimum,  Nyl.  On  young  oaks  in  woods 
and  hedges,  ( Jrcat  Braxted  ;  Great  Tey  ;  Marks  Hall. 

Verrucaria  papillosa,  Ach.  Inworth.  Var.  acrotella,  Ach. 
On  flint  stones  in  fields,  Great  Tey  ;  Kelvedon  ;  Coggeshall. 

V.  mutabilis,  Borr.     Kelvedon. 

V.  mauroides,  Schoer.     On  sandstone,  Kelvedon. 

V.  nigrescens,  Pars.  Sandstone,  flintstones,  and  mortar,  Kel- 
vedon ;  CJoggeshall  ;  Great  Braxted. 

V.  plumbea,  Ach.      Brightlingsea. 

V.  glaucina,  Ach.     Old  mortared  wall,  Kelvedon. 

V.  furcella,   Turn.     Old  mortared  wall,  Ashdon. 

V.  macrostoma,  Duff.     Coggeshall,  old  wall. 

c-   2 


20  THK    CkVrrOGAMIC    FLORA    OF    KKI.VEDON 

V.  viridula,  Schrad.  On  sandstone,  mortared  walls,  and  brick 
walls,  Kelvcdon  ;  Feering  ;  Coggeshall  ;  Mistley  ;  Braxted.  Roman 
wall,  Colchester. 

V.  rupestris,  Schrad.  On  a  piece  of  chalk,  Kelvedon.  Oyns 
Brook  Bridge. 

V.  muralis,  Ach.     Mortared  and  brick  walls,  Kelvedon. 

V.  subalbicans,  Leight.     On  mortar,  Kelvedon. 

V-  calciseda,  D.C.     On  limestone,  Coggeshall. 

V.  gemmata,  Ach.     Trees,  Hickmore  Fen  Wood  ;  Kelvedon. 

V.  conformis,  Nyl.     Tree,  Kelvedon. 

V.  epidermidis.  Birch-trees,  Kelvedon.  Var.  anakpta,  Ach. 
Kelvedon  :  Myland  ;  Great  Tey.  f.  fal/ax,  Nyl.  Young  oaks, 
Braxted  ;  Mile  End,  Colchester,  f.  ciiiereo-pruinosa,  Schoer.  On  a 
tree,  Kelvedon. 

V.  punctiformis,  Ach.     On  holly,  Colne  Engaine. 

V.  biformis,  Borr.  On  willow  and  other  trees,  Kelvedon  ; 
Rivenhall  :  Felstead  ;  Witham. 

V,  salweii,  Leight.     Old  mortared  wall,  Kelvedon. 

V.  rugulosa,  Borr.     On  an  old  tile,  Kelvedon. 

V.  chlorotica,  Ach.      f.  carpinea,  Schoer.     Colne  Engaine. 

V.  nitida,  Weig.  Trees,  Kelvedon  ;  Messing.  Var.  fiitidelhr, 
Flk.     Rivenhall ;  Kelvedon. 

V.  glabrata,  Ach.  ^\ar.  dermatodes,  Borr.  On  trees,  Braxted; 
Rivenhall. 

V.  albissima,  Ach.  On  birch,  Braxted;  Pods  Wood,  Kelve- 
don. 

V.  epipolytropa,  Mudd.  Parasitic  on  S(]ua»iafia  saxicola.  On 
a  tile,  Kelvedon. 

V.  hymenogonia,  Nyl.     Kelvedon  ;  Messing;  Mistley. 

Melanotheca  gelatinosa,  Chev.     On  hazel,  Kelvedon. 

FUNGI. 

Agaricus  (Amanita)  strobiliformis,  Fr.  Meadow,  Braxted 
1S76. 

A.  (Lepiota)  rachodes,  \itt.  \\'ood,  Braxted,  1875.  Kelve- 
don, uSiSo. 

A.  (Tricholoma)  gambosus,  Fr.  Pasture,  Cireat  Tey,  1877. 
Rivenhall,  1877.     Easthorpe,  1878. 

A.  (Clitocybe)  geotrupus,  Bull.   Braxted  Rectory  Park,  1875. 

A.  (Pleurotus)  leightoni.  Berk.     In  a  cellar,  Kelvedon,  1883. 


AND    ITS    NEIf;HBOlIKH()()li.  21 

A.  (Claudopus)  enosmus,l^erk.  On  dcaclclin-trces,  Kclvcdon, 
1873  and  1 88 1. 

A.  (Pholiota)  durus.  Holt.     Kclvcdon,  1874. 

A.  (Pholiota)  spectabilis,  Fr.     Kelvedon,  187  4  and  1881. 

A.   (Naucoria)  semiorbicularis,   Bull.     Pasture,   Kclvcdon, 
1876. 

A.  (Panaeolus)  campanulatus,  L.     Rivcnhall  I'ark,  1876. 

Polyporus  fulvus,  I'r.     On  elm,  Kclvcdon,  1881. 

Corticium  laeve,  Vr.     Kclvcdon,  1880. 

Lycoperdon  saccatum,  Vahl.     Kclvcdon,  1879. 

Didymium  physarioides,  Fr.     Near  Kelvedon  Hall  Woods, 
and  at  Tkaxtcd,  1875. 

Arcyria  punicea,  P.     Kelvedon,  1879. 

Cyathus  striatus,  Hoffm.     Braxted,  1883. 

C.  vernicosus,  D.C.     Oreat  Tey,  1881. 

Phoma  radula,  B.  and  Br.     On  yew,  Feering,  1881. 

P.  depressum,  B.  and  Br.     Kclvcdon,  1881. 

Leptothyrium  ribis,  Lib.     Kelvedon,  1881. 

L.  juglandis,  Lib.     Kelvedon  School-grounds,  abundant,  1865. 

Dothiora  sphoeroides,  Fr.     Ash-trees,  Kelvedon,  1881. 

Piggottia  astroidea,  B.  and  Br.     Kelvedon,  1872. 

Discella  carbonacea,  B.  and  Br.     Braxted,  1873. 

Torula  ovalispora,  Berk.     Kelvedon,  1880. 

T.  pulvillus,  B.  and  Br.     Inworth,  1880. 

T.  pulveracea,  Corda.     Kelvedon. 

Phragmidium  mucronatum,  Link.     Kelvedon,  1873. 

P.  bulbosum,  Sch.     Kelvedon,  1851. 

P.  gracile,  (irev.     On  raspberry,  Kelvedon,  187 1. 

Puccinia  arundinacea,  Hedw.     Kelvedon,  1871. 

P.  graminis,  Pcrs.     Kelvedon,  1865.     Wivenhoe,  1873. 

P.  coronata,  Corda.     Kelvedon,  1873. 

P.  polygonorum,  Link.     Kelvedon,  i860. 

P.  vincae,  Berk.     Kelvedon,  1874. 

P.  sparsa,  Cooke.     Kelvedon,  1878. 

P.  compositarum,  Sch.     Kelvedon,  186^5. 

P.  syngenesiarum.  Link.     Kclvcdon,  1870. 

P.  malvacearum,  Corda.      Kelvedon;    Feering;    Rivcnhall, 
1874. 

P.  discoidearum,  Link.    Kclvcdon,  1865.    Braxted  and  Feer- 
ing, 1875. 


2  2  THE  CRYPTOGAMIC  FLORA  OF  KELVEDON 

P.  glomerata,  (irev.     Kelvedon,  1873. 

P.  umbelliferarum,  D.C.     Kelvedon,  1865. 

P.  apii,  C'orda.     Kelvedon,  1877. 

P.  lychnidearum,  Link.     Kelvedon,  1865. 

P.  epilobii,  D.C.     Kelvedon,  1877. 

P.  prunorum,  Link.     Kelvedon,  1865.     Leering,  1867. 

P.  circseae,  Fers.     Kelvedon,  1873. 

P.  pulverulenta,  Grev.     Kelvedon,  1871. 

P.  fabse,  Link.     Kelvedon,  1851. 

Tilletia  caries,  Tul.     Allshots  Larm,  Kelvedon,  1872. 

Ustilago  carbo,  Tul.     On  barley,  187 1  [locality  not  stated]. 

U.  longissima,  Tul.     Kelvedon,  1876. 

U.  hypodytes,  Lr.     Alresford,  1874. 

U.  utriculosa,  Tul.     Kelvedon,  1851. 

U.  receptaculorum,  Fr.     Kelvedon,  1874. 

U.  antherarum,  Fr.     Kelvedon,  1870. 

Uromyces  apiculosa,  Lev.  Kelvedon,  1865.  Leering, 
1872. 

U.  ficariae,  Lev.     Wood,  Braxted,  1873. 

U.  appendiculata,  Lev.     Kelvedon,  1865. 

Coleosporum  tussilaginis,  Lev.  Braxted,  185 1.  Kelve- 
don, 1865. 

C.  petasitis.  Lev.     Kelvedon,  1865. 

C.  sonchi-arvensis,  Lev.     Kelvedon,  1865. 

Melampsora  populina.  Lev.  Kelvedon,  1865.  Leering, 
1871. 

M.  salicina.  Lev.     Kelvedon,  1865.     Braxted,  1873. 

M.  euphorbiae,  Cast.     Kelvedon,  185 1. 

M.  tremulae,  Tul.     Chaulkney  Wood,  1878. 

Cystopus  candidus,  Lev.     Kelvedon,  185 1, 

C.  cubicus,  Str.     Kelvedon,  187 1. 

Uredo  potentillarum,  D.C.  Tiptree  Heath,  1873.  Colne 
and  Copford,  1877. 

U.  hypericorum,  D.C.     Liworth,  1853. 

U.  confluens,  D.C.     Wood,  Braxted,  1873. 

Trichobasis  caricina,  B.     Wood,  Colne,  1877. 

T.  oblongata,  B.     Chaulkney  Wood,  1877. 

T.  suaveolens,  Lev.     Kelvedon,  185 1. 

T.  geranii,  15.      Kelvedon,  1865. 

T.  betae,  Lev.     Kelvedon,  1851. 


AND    ITS    NKICHISOURHOOI).  23 

Lecythea  epitea,  Lev.     Little  Hraxted,  1H77. 

L.  mixta,  Lev.     Kelvedon,  1865.     Braxted,  1877. 

L.  saliceti.  Lev.      Marks  Hall. 

Raestelia  cancellata,  Reh.     Inworth,  1869. 

R.  lacerata,   lul.     Kelvedon,  1878. 

iEcidium  albescens,  Grev.     Inworth,  1878. 

JE..  tragopogonis,  I'ers.     Great  Tey,  1877. 

JE..  crassum,  Pers.     Near  Kelvedon. 

JE..  berberidis,  Pers.     Kelvedon,  1853. 

JE.    r..nunculacearum,    D.C.      Kelvedon,    1872.      Bra.xted, 

JE.  urticae,  D.C.     Witham,  1873. 

JE.  compositarum,  jVLart.  Kelvedon,  1852.  Var.  tussila- 
gifiis,  Pers.     Little  Braxted,  1867. 

JE.  violae,  Sch.     Kelvedon,   1880. 

JE.  geranii,  D.C.     Kelvedon,  1852. 

JE.  primulae,  D.C.     Inworth,  1880. 

JE.  rubellum,  Pers.      Kelvedon,  1853. 

Tubercularia  granulata,  Pers.     Kelvedon,  1868. 

Helminthosporium  tiliae,  Fr.     Felix  Hall  Park,  1872. 

Macrosporium  sarcinula,  Berk.  Kelvedon,  on  pea-pods, 
very  abundant,  187  i.      On  ivy-leaves,  1881. 

M,  cheiranthii.  Fa.     Var.  /3.  betcB,  Cooke.     Peering,  1872. 

M.  brassicse,  Berk.     Kelvedon,  1866. 

M.  concinnum,  Berk.     On  leeks,  Kelvedon,  1878. 

Cladosporium  dendriticum,  Wallr.  On  pears,  Kelvedon, 
abundant,  1876. 

C.  epiphyllum,  Nees.     Kelvedon,  1872. 

Peronospora  infestans,  Mont.     Kelvedon,  187 1. 

P.  gangliformis,  Berk.  On  Soiichus  okraceus,  Kelvedon, 
1871. 

P.  urticae,  Casp.     Kelvedon,  187 1. 

P.  schleideniana,  De  By.     Kelvedon,  187 1. 

Polyactis  vulgaris,  Lk.  On  grapes,  greenhouse,  Kelvedon. 
1877. 

P.  fascicularis,  Corda.  (Jn  Iris  pseudaconis  in  decay,  1880 
[no  locality  given]. 

Oidium  concentricum,  W.  and  Br.      Kelvedon,  1872. 

O.  erysiphoides,  Berk.  On  vegetable-marrow,  Kelvedon, 
18S4. 


24  THK    CRYPTOGAMIC    FLORA    OF    KF.LVEDON 

Sphserotheca  castagnei,  Lev.     Kelvedon,  1865. 
Uncinula  adunca,  Lev.    Kelvedon,  187 1. 
U.  bicornis,  Lev.     Kelvedon,  1865. 
Phyllactinia  guttata,  Lev.     Kelvedon,  1865. 
Podosphseria    kunzei,    Lev.      On   apricot-leaves,    Feering, 
1884. 

P.  clandestina,  Lev.     Kelvedon,  1870. 
Microsphaeria  grossulariae,  Lev.     Kelvedon,  1870. 
M.  mougeotii,  Lev.     Kelvedon,  1865. 
M.  penicillata,  Lev.     Kelvedon,  1865. 
Erysiphe  lamprocarpa,  Lev.     Kelvedon,  1865. 
E.  martii,  Link.     Kelvedon,  1865. 
E.  montagnei,  Lev.     Kelvedon,  187 1. 
E.  tortilis,  Link.     Kelvedon  and  Braxted,  1865. 

E.  communis,  Schl.     Kelvedon  and  Liworth,  1865. 
Peziza  salm   nicolor,   B.  and  Br.     On  the  earth  in  a  fern- 
pot,  Kelvedon,  1881. 

P.  domestica.  Sow.     Kelvedon,  1882. 

Patellaria  lignyota,  Fr.     Feering,  1882. 

Claviceps  purpurea,  Tul.     Kelvedon,  187 1. 

Rhytisma  acerinum,  Pers.     Kelvedon,  185 1. 

Hysterium  angustatum,  A.  and  S.     Colne. 

Epichloe  typhina,  Berk.     Kelvedon,  1852.     Alresford,  1878. 

Dothidea  rubra,  Pers.     Kelvedon,  1851. 

D.  ulmi,  Fr.     Kelvedon,  185 1. 

D.  trifolii,  Fr.     Kelvedon,  1873. 

Diatrype  quercina,  Tul.     Inworth,  1880. 

D.  verrucaeformis,  Fr.     Braxted,  1873. 

Massaria  currei,  1'ul.     Kelvedon,  1881. 

Sphaeria  apotheciorum,  Mass.     Kelvedon. 

MARINE    ALG.F:. 

Fucus  vesiculosus,  L.     Walton,  1867. 

F.  serratus,  L.     Walton,  1867.     Harwich,  1876. 
Himanthalea  lorea,  Lyngb.     Walton,  1867. 
Dictyota  dichotoma,  Huds.     Walton,  1867. 
Punctaria  plantaginea,  Roth.     Harwich,  1876. 
Elachistea  fucicola,  \'cl.     Maldon,  1867. 
Cladostephus  verticillatus,  Light.     \\'alton,  1845. 
Sphacelaria  scoparia,  L.     Walton,  1845. 


AND    ITS    NF.ICHBOURHOOn.  25 

Ectocarpus  littoralis,  1,.     Walton,  US45. 

Bostrychia  scorpioides,  dm.  On  the  lower  part  of  stems 
o'i  Spdr/iNd  stricta,  Wivenhoe,   1S73. 

Polysiphonia  atrorubescens,  Dillw.     Essex  coast. 

P.  byssoides,  (iood.     \\'alton,  1845. 

CoralHna  officinalis,  L.     Walton,  1867. 

Jania  rubens,  L.     Harwich,  1876. 

Nitophyllum  laceratum,  Clrev.     Walton,  1867. 

Plocamium  coccineum,  Hiuls.     Walton,  1845. 

Rhodymenia  ciliata,  L.     Walton,  1845. 

R.  palmata,  L.     Harwich,  1876. 

Gracilaria  confervoides,  L.     W^alton  and  Harwich,  1867. 

Chondrus  crispus,  L.     Southend,  1864. 

Polyide''  rotundus,  Gmel.     Walton,  1845. 

Furcellaria  fastigiata,  Huds.     Walton,  1845. 

Ceramium  rubrum,  Huds.  IVIaldon,  1844.  Walton,  1867. 
Harwich,  1880. 

Griffithsia  setacea.  Ell.     Walton,  1867. 

Cladophora  rupestris,  L.     Southend,  1844. 

C.  laetevirens,  Dill.     Walton,  1845. 

Conferva  litorea,  Harv.     Walton,  1873. 

C.  linurri,  Roth.     Southend,  1844. 

Enteromorpha  intesti, Talis,  L.  Blackwater  River,  1844. 
Maldon,  1868. 

E.  compressa,  L.     Walton,  1845. 

E.  erecta,  Eyngb.     Wivenhoe,  1875. 

E.  clathrata,  Roth.     Wivenhoe,  1873.     Maldon. 

E.  percursa,  Ag.  Maldon,  1868.  Wivenhoe,  1873.  Mist- 
Icy,  1880. 

Ulva  latissima,  E.     Maldon,  1884.     Harwich. 

Porphyra  laciniata,  Eight.     Maldon,  1867. 

P.  vulgaris,  Ag.     Southend,  1844. 

FRESH-WATER   AEG^'. 

Vaucheria  dillwynii,  Ag.     Kelvedon,  1850. 

V.  repens,  Hass.     Kelvedon,  1850. 

V.  hamata,  Vauch.     Kelvedon,  1850. 

V.  terrestris,  Vauch.     Kelvedon,  1850. 

V.  aversa,  Hass.     Kelvedon,  1850. 

V.  ornithocephala,  Ag.     Kelvedon,  1850. 


26  THE    CRYPTOdAMIC    FLORA    OF    KELVEDON 

V.  sessilis,  Vauch.     Kelvedon,  1850. 

V.  geminata,  \'auch.     Kelvedon,  1850. 

V.  racemosa,  Vauch.     Rivenhall,  1850.     Kelvedon,  1865. 

V.  ovoidea,  Vauch.     Kelvedon,  1850. 

V.  po'ysperma,  Hass.     Pond,  Messing,  1880, 

Batrachospermum  confusum,  Hass.  Near  Kelvedon 
Bridge.  Brook,  Peering  Hill,  1855.  Ditches,  Coggeshall  Meadows, 
1859. 

B.  stagnale,  Hass.  Rivenhall  Water,  1850.  Kelvedon,  1855. 
Coggeshall  Meadows,  1859.  Oyns  Brook,  Messing,  on  submerged 
branches  and  roots,  1880. 

B.  moniliforme,  Hass.  Kelvedon,  1850.  Rivenhall  Brook, 
1858. 

B.  vagum,  Ag.     Rivenhall,  1858. 

B.  atrum,  Harv.  Brook  near  Kelvedon  Bridge,  1855.  Tip- 
tree  Heath,  i860. 

Draparnaldia  glomerata,  Ag.     Kelvedon,  1850. 
D.  plumosa,  Ag.     Blackwater  River,  Kelvedon,  1850. 
D.  elongata,  Hass.     Ditch,  Easthorpe  Lane,  1880. 
D.  nana,  Hass.     Braxted,  1859. 

Chaetophora  endivisefolia,  Ag.  Rivenhall,  on  decaying 
leaves,  1850.     Pond,  Kelvedon,   1862.     Near  Hatfield  Broad  Oak, 

1873- 

C.  tuberculosa,  Hook.  Pond,  Rivenhall,  1858.  Fountain, 
Coggeshall  Road;  Kelvedon,  1858.     Pond,  Ewell  Hall,  1859. 

C.  elegans,  Ag.  Tey,  1850.  Peering  Moors,  1855.  Kelvedon, 
1867. 

C.  pisiformis,  Ag.     Ditch,  Easthorpe  Lane,  1880. 

Zygnema  orbiculare,  Hass.     Brook,  Easthorpe,  1859. 

Z.  interrupt  um,  Hass.  Waste  water  beyond  Kelvedon 
(Everett's)  Mill,  1858.  Abundant  at  bottom  of  river  there,  1859. 
Near  Maldon,  1858. 

Z.  serratum,  Hass.     Colne,  near  Chaulkney  Mill,  1876. 

Z.  nitidum,  Ag.     Kelvedon  and  Tiptree  Heath,  1850. 

Z.  belle,  Hass.  Kelvedon,  1850.  Pond  near  Marylands, 
Braxted,  1859.     Brickfield,  Inworth,  1883. 

Z.  neglectum,  Hass.     Gore  Pit,  1865. 

Z.  deciminum,  Ag.      Rivenhall,  1858.     Witham,  1859. 

Z.  quininum,  Ag.  Blackwater  River,  Kelvedon,  1855.  Pond 
and  ditch  on  Langley's  Parm,  Kelvedon,  1858. 


AND    ITS    NKUlIIHOURHOOl).  27 

Z.  varians,  Hass.  Kelvedon  and  Hraxtcd,  1850.  Pond  near 
Ewell  Hall,  1855.      Fleering,  1859. 

Z.  aestivum,  Hass.  Ditch,  Church  Hall,  Kelvedon,  1858. 
Easthorpe,  1876. 

Z.  malformatum,  Hass.     Rivcnhall,  1858. 

Z.  catenseforme,  Hass.     Kelvedon,  1880. 

Z.  gracile,  Hass.     Pond  near  Kevedon  Hall,  1865. 

Z.  commune,  Hass.     Peering,  1867. 

Z.  flavescens,  Hass.  Messing,  1858.  Brickfield,  Inworth, 
1883. 

Z.  inaequale,  Hass.     Kelvedon,  1850. 

Z.  tenuissimum,  Hass.      Kelvedon  and  Peering,  1883. 

Z.  wood  ii,  Hass.     Kelvedon,  1850. 

Z.  affine,  Hass.     Inworth,  1883. 

Z.  mirabile,  Hass.  Near  Docwra's  Mill,  Kelvedon,  1858. 
Easthorpe  Lane,  and  pond  on  Ewell  Hall  Farm,  1859.  Messing, 
1869. 

Z.  hassallii,  Jenner.  Rivenhall,  1850.  Gore  Pit,  1855 
Kelvedon,  1858. 

Z.  quadratum,  Hass.     Kelvedon,  1850. 

Z,  jenneri,  Hass.     Braxted,  1850.     Kelvedon,  1883. 

Z.  insigne,  Hass.     Peering,  1850. 

Tyndaridea  anomala,  Ralfs.  Claypit,  Messing,  1858. 
Easthorpe,  1859. 

T.  lutescens,  Hass.     Bergholt  Heath,  1862. 

Mesocarpus  scalaris,  Hass.     Kelvedon  and  Peering,  1883. 

M.  intricatus,  Hass.     Kelvedon  and  Peering,  1883. 

M.  parvulus,  Hass.     Kelvedon  and  Peering,  1883. 

Mougeotia  genuflexa,  Ag.  Kelvedon,  1850.  Pond,  Gore 
Pit,  1855. 

Zygogonium  ericetorum,  Kutz.     Tiptree  Heath,  1850. 

Vesiculifera  paludosa,  Hass.     Cranes  Pond,  1865. 

V.  fasciata,  Hass.  Pond  near  Rook  Hall,  1865.  Peering, 
1867. 

V.  sphaerica,  Hass.  Pond  near  Kelvedon  Hall,  i860.  Ditch 
in  Coggeshall  Hall  Meadows,  1866.     Kelvedon,  1883. 

V.  flavescens,  Hass.     Rivenhall,  1850. 

V.  hexagona,  Hass.  Ditch,  Western's  Meadows,  1855.  I'l'" 
tree  Heath,  1865. 

V.  mulleri,  Hass.     Kelvedon,  1850. 


28 


THE    CRVPTOGAMIC    FLORA    OK    KELVEDON 


V.  rothii,  Hass.  Kelvedon,  1850.  Near  Birch  Holt,  1859. 
Cranes  Pond,  1865. 

Bulbochsete  setigera,  Ag.  On  Rajmnculus  tricJiophyllus, 
1 85 1.     [No  locality  given]. 

Cladophora  glomerata,  Dillw.  Kelvedon,  1844.  Messing, 
1850. 

C.  crispata,  Sm.     Kelvedon;  Tiptree,  1850. 

Conferva  linum,  Roth.     Ditch,  Dovercourt,  1865. 

Coleochaete  scutata,  Breb.  Var.  /3.  on  a  \Kf\ioi Hypuin  fluiians, 
pond  near  Kelvedon  Hall,  i860. 

i  yngbya  zonata,  Hass.  On  stones  in  the  waste  water  near 
Braxted  Mill,  1855.     Kelvedon,  1858. 

L.  muralis,  Ag.     Kelvedon,  1850. 

L.  copulata,  Hass.     Ditch  near  sea-wall,  Dovercourt,  1865. 

L.  thompsoni,  Harv.    On  a  stick  in  a  pond,  Kelvedon,  1858 

L.  floccosa,  Ag.  Kelvedon,  1850.  Birch  Holt,  1855.  Messing, 
1858.     Feering,  1883. 

L.  punctalis,  Hass.  Near  Docwra's  Mill,  Kelvedon,  1855. 
In  an  aquarium,  attached  to  Ranunculus  aquatilis,  1858.  Felix  Hall, 
1865.     Tiptree  Heath,  1880. 

L.  vermicularis,  Hass.  Ditch,  Feering  Moor,  1855.  Tiptree 
Heath,  1858.     Pond  on  Ewell  Hall  Farm,  1859. 

Hydrodictyon  utriculatum,  Roth.  Blackwater  River,  Kel- 
vedon, and  abundantly  in  the  back  ditch  at  Docwra's  Mill,  1859. 

Oscillatoria    limosa,    Ag.     Near  Docwra's    Mill,    Kelvedon, 

1855- 

O.  cinerea,  Hass.     Kelvedon,  1858. 

O.  tenuis,  Ag.     Inworth,  1850.     Kelvedon,  1855. 

O.  muscorum,  Ag.     On  Hypnum  ruscifolium,  Kelvedon,  1863. 

O.  contexta,  Carm.     Kelvedon,  1850. 

O.  decorticans,  Grev.     Wall  near  Kelvedon  Mill,  1858. 

Microcoleus  repens,  Harv.     Kelvedon,  1868. 

Raphidia  angulosa,  Hass.     Feering,  1867. 

R.  viridis,  Hass.     Feering,  1867. 

Spirillum  jenneri,  Hass.  Kelvedon,  intermixed  with  Oscilla- 
toria tenuis,  1859.     Feering  and  Braxted  Hall,  1880. 

Anabaina  flosaquae,  Bory.  Kelvedon.  Near  Dovercourt, 
1865. 

A.  impalpebralis,  Bory.     Kelvedon,  1865.     Yeldham,  1866. 

Nostoc  commune,  Vauch.     Kelvedon,  1844. 


AND    ITS    NKICHHorKHOOD.  29 

N.  foliaceum,  Ag.     Messing,  1880. 

Ulva  bullosa,  Roth.  Kelvedon,  1850.  Oyns  Brook,  Messing, 
,858. 

U.  crispa,  Light.     Kelvedon,  1850. 

Tetraspora  lubrica,  Ag.  Blackwater  ditches,  Kelvedon,  1847. 
On  stones  in  brook  at  Rivenhall,  1848. 

T.  gelatinosa,  Desv.     Kelvedon,  1845. 

Enteromorpha  intestinalis,  Link.  Kelvedon,  in  the  rivers 
and  ditches,  abundant. 

Botrydium  granulatum,  drev.     Kelvedon. 

Palmella  cruenta,  Ag.     Kelvedon,  1850. 

Haematococcus  vulgaris,  Hass.     Kelvedon. 

Glaeoprium  mucosum,  Berk.     Feering  and  Braxted,  1850. 

Coccochloris  protuberans,  Spreng.     Kelvedon,  1859. 

C,  hyalina,  Meneg.     Kelvedon,  1850. 

C.  mooreana,  Hass.     Kelvedon,  1850. 

Closterium  ehrenbergii,  Meneg.     Kelvedon,  1858. 

C.  moniliferum,  Ehr.     Feering,  1880. 

C.  rostratum,  Ehr.     Feering,  1880. 

C.  lunula,  Ehr.     Kelvedon,  1880. 

C.  acerosum,  Ehr.     Feering,  1880.     Inworth,  1883. 
Scenedesmus  acutus,  Meyen.     Kelvedon,  1883. 
Meloseira    varians,    Ag.      Kelvedon,    1858.       Feering,    and 

Long  Mclford.  1865.      In  the  Chelmer  at  Chelmsford,  1866. 
Achnanthes  minutissima,  Kutz.     Feering  Moors,  1865. 
Tabellaria  flocculosa,  Ag.     Kelvedon,  1858. 
Diatoma  vulgare.  Bory.     Kelvedon,  1850. 

D.  elongatum,  Ag.     Feering,  1865. 
Fragilaria  hyemalis,  Lyng.     Feering,  1880. 

F.  rhabdosoma,  Ehr.  Chelmer  at  Broomfield,  1865.  Kelve- 
don, 1867. 

Gomphonema  truncatum,  Ehr.     Kelvedon,  1858. 

G.  cristatum,  Ralfs.     Kelvedon,  1867. 

G.  berkeleyi,  (irev,  Feering  Moors,  1865.  Brook  in  Ewell 
Hall  Lane,  Kelvedon,  1867. 

Cymbella  turgida,  Hass.     Kelvedon,  1864. 

Navicula  phcenicenter.  n,  Ehr.     Kelvedon,  1867. 

N.  palea,  Hass.     Feering,  1880. 

N.  lanceolata,  Ehr.     Kelvedon,  1845.     Feering  Moors,  1865. 

Exilaria  capitata,  Ehr.     Kelvedon,  1865. 


30  THK    I!1I!LI0(;RAPHY    of    ESSEX. 

E.  ulna.  Ag.     Kelvedon,  1865. 

E.  fascicuiata,  Kutz.     Rivenhall,  1844.     Peering,  1865. 
Gyrosigma  hippocampa,  Ehr.     Ditch,  Kelvedon,  1880. 
Nitzschia  elongata,  llass.     Kelvedon,  1880. 
Sphinctocystis  librilis,  Hass.     Pond,  Messing,  1880. 
Frustulia  viridis,  Kutz.     Kelvedon,  1880. 
Encyonema  prostratum,    Kutz.       Among    Zygnema    inter- 
mpium^  in  the  river  at  Kelvedon,  1870. 


THE    BIBLIOGRAPHY    OF    ESSEX. 

A\  influential  Committee,  consisting  mainly  of  members  of  the  Essex  Field 
Club  and  the  Essex  Archaeological  Society,  has  been  formed  for  the  purpose 
of  arranging  for  the  compilation  and  publication  of  a  comprehensive  Bibliography 
of  Essex,  which  shall  enumerate  all  books,  pamphlets,  magazine  articles,  maps, 
prints,  and  other  publications  that  wholly  or  largely  treat  of  the  Topography  or 
History  of  the  County  of  Essex  ;  or  that  have  been  written  by,  or  about,  prominent 
natives  of,  or  residents  in,  the  county  ;  together  with  all  works  that  have  been 
published  within  its  borders.  Lord  Rayleigh  has  consented  to  act  as  President ; 
Mr.  F.  Chancellor,  Treasurer ;  and  Messrs.  E.  A.  Fitch  and  Miller  Christy  Hon, 
Secretaries.  When  the  work  is  considered  sufficiently  complete,  the  MS.  will  be 
offered  to  the  Essex  Field  Club,  for  publication  as  one  of  the  "  Special  Memoirs." 
On  Wednesday  afternoon,  March  i8th,  the  first  meeting  of  the  Committee  was 
held  in  the  Shire  Hall,  Chelmsford.  Dr.  Henry  Laver,  of  Colchester,  was  voted 
to  the  chair,  and  others  present  were  Messrs.  Thomas  Bird,  Romford  ;  Fred 
Chancellor,  Chelmsford  ;  Wm.  Cole,  Buckhurst  Hill  ;  E.  Durrant,  Chelmsford  ; 
Arthur  J.  Furbank,  Chelmsford  ;  J.  Chalkley  Gould,  Loughton  ;  J.  C.  Shenstone, 
Colchester  ;  Miller  Christy,  Chelmsford  ;  E.  A.  Fitch,  Maldon  and  W.  H.  Dal- 
ton.  It  was  agreed  that  the  AsFociation  should  be  known  as  the  "  Essex  Biblio- 
graphical Committee,"  and  it  was  resolved  that  it  should  consist  of  not  more  than 
thirty  members,  and  that  the  contribution  of  each  member  should  be  two  guineas. 
Lord  Rayleigh,  who  wrote  expressing  his  approval  of  the  scheme,  was  elected 
President  of  the  Committee,  Mr.  Chancellor,  Treasurer,  and  the  election  of  the 
Hon.  Sees,  was  confirmed.  Messrs.  G.Alan  Lowndes,  Bird,  Durrant,  and  Gould, 
with  the  Officers,  were  appointed  an  Executive  Committee,  with  power  to  add 
two  other  members  to  their  number.  The  General  Rules  for  the  guidance  of  the 
Executive  Committee  were  agreed  to,  and  it  was  understood  that  a  set  of  complete 
rules  to  be  observed  by  the  compilers  would  at  once  be  drawn  up,  together  with  a 
typical  set  of  specimen  title-slips,  &c.  Any  further  information  will  be  gladly 
given  by  the  Hon.  Secretaries,  Mr.  E.  A.  Fitch,  Brick  House,  Maldon,  and  Mr. 
Miller  Christy,  Chelmsford.  The  members  of  the  Club  are  strongly  urged  to  aid 
the  Committee  in  any  way  in  their  power — a  good  bibliography  of  the  county 
would  be  of  the  greatest  service  to  all  interested  in  Essex. 


31 


THE    ESSEX    FIELD    CLUB. 

Orpinakv  and  Annual  General  Meeting,  and  Stecial  Meeting. 

Saturday,  January  31st,  1891. 

[The  members  from  a  distance  assembled  in  the  Museum  during  the  afternoon,  where  they 
examined  the  loan  collections  from  South  Kensington,  and  some  explored  the  environs  of  the 
town.     Tea  was  taken  at  the  "  Saracen's  Head  "  Hotel,  the  President  in  the  chair.] 

The  Eleventh  Annual  General  Meeting  ot  the  Club  was  held  in  the  Essex  and 
Chelmsford  Museum,  New  Bridge  Street,  Chelmsford  (kindly  placed  at  the  dis- 
posal of  the  Council  by  the  Committee  of  the  Museum),  at  half-past  six  o'clock, 
Mr.  E.  A.  Fitch,  President,  in  the  chair. 

Previous  to  the   .\nnual   Meeting,  an  Okdinaky  Meeting  (the   121st)  was 
held.     The  Rev.  W.  S.  Lach-Szyrma,  M.A.,  was  elected  a  member. 
The  meeting  then  resolved  itself  into  the 

Eleventh  Annual  General  Meeting. 

The  minutes  of  the  tenth  Annual  Meeting,  held  on  February  1st,  1890.  were 
read  and  confirmed. 

The  Secretary  (Mr.  W.  Cole)  read  the  Annual  Report  of  the  Council  for  1890 
(see  p.  35). 

Mr.  Walter  Crouch  read  the  Treasurer's  Annual  Statement  of  Accounts,  which 
had  been  duly  audited  by  Mr.  C.  Ridley  and  himself  (see  pp.  40,  41). 

On  the  motion  of  Mr.  Avery,  seconded  by  Mr.  Corcoran,  the  report  and  state- 
ment were  received  and  adopted. 

Mr.  Float  and  Mr  Day  were  chosen  as  scrutineers  of  the  ballot  for  the  election 
of  new  members  of  Council  and  officers  for  l89i,the  President  remarking,  alluding 
to  the  nom.inations  for  the  Council,  that  it  was  the  first  "contested  election"  of 
the  Club. 

The  following  members  retired  from  the  Council  in  accordance  with  Rule 
111. : — Messrs.  W.  J.  Argent,  G.  C.  Harcourt,  N.  F.  Robarts,  and  Thomas  Royle. 

To  fill  the  four  seats  so  rendered  vacant,  the  following  members  were  proposed 
at  the  meeting  on  December  30th,  1890  :  Messrs.  H.  Cohn,  Edmund  Durrant,  A. 
J.  Furbank,  T.  B.  Linley  and  J.  H.  Porter. 

While  the  votes  were  being  counted,  Mr.  F.  Chancellor  (Chairman  of  the 
Committee  of  the  Essex  and  Chelmsford  Museum)  accorded  all  a  very  hearty  wel- 
come in  the  name  of  the  Museum  authorities,  and  at  the  request  of  the  President, 
spoke  of  the  Loan  Collection  of  Indian  Art  fabrics  and  Art  specimens  which  had 
been  placed  in  the  Museum  by  the  South  Kensington  authorities  to  illustrate  a 
course  of  lectures  on  India  which  had  been  carried  on  during  the  winter.  He  also 
alluded  to  the  collection  of  Geological  specimens,  formed  by  the  late  Rev.  E.  S. 
\Vright,  rector  of  \'ange,  which  had  been  bequeathed  to  the  Museum,  and  recentiv 
handed  over  by  his  son  and  daugiiter. 

The  scrutineers  reported  that  the  following  had  been  elected  into  the  Council  : 
.Mes?r^.  II.  Cohn,  E.  Durrant,  A.  .1.  Furbank,  and  J.  H.  Porter. 


32  THE    ESSEX    FIELD    CLUB. 

They  also  reported  that  the  following  had  been  elected  as  officers  for  1891  : 
President,  Mr.  E.  A.  Fitch  ;  Treasurer,  Mr.  A.  Lockyer  ;  Hon.  Secretary,  Mr,  W. 
Cole  ;  Assistant  Hon.  Secretary,  Mr.  B.  G.  Cole  ;  Librarian,  Mr.  A.  P.  Wire. 

Mr.  Fitch  warmly  thanked  the  members  for  re-electing  him  as  their  President. 
In  accordance  with  the  unwritten  law  of  the  Club,  he  had  exceeded  the  usual  term 
of  office,  but  his  colleagues  were  anxious  that  he  should  continue  during  the 
settlement  of  the  scheme  of  amalgamation,  and  as  he  had  taken  very  great  interest 
in  the  question  of  the  Museum  he  was  very  happy  to  assume  the  pleasant  duties 
of  President  for  another  year.  As  so  much  important  business  lay  before  the 
meeting,  he  had  thought  it  best  to  omit  the  usual  Address  on  this  occasion. 

Mr.  Varley  proposed  a  vote  of  thanks  to  the  officers,  which  was  seconded  by 
Mr.  Cohn,  and  carried  unanimously. 

The  President  then  declared  the  meeting  a  SPECIAL  one,  for  the  purpose  of  con- 
sideringthe  scheme  forthe  amalgamation  of  the  Essex  and  Chelmsford  Museum  with 
the  Club,  and  other  matters,  in  accordance  with  the  notice  given  at  the  last  meeting. 

The  President  then  read  the  scheme  (which  is  printed  in  full  in  the  Essex 
Naturalist,  vol.  iv.  pp.  236-241,  and  also  separately)  and  in  doing  so  alluded  to 
the  cordial  relations  which  existed  between  the  present  Committee  of  the  Museum 
and  the  Club,  and  the  friendly  way  in  which  the  somewhat  difficult  negociations 
for  the  amalgamation  had  been  carried  on  by  the  Joint  Committee  appointed  for 
the  purpose.  The  scheme  had  been  unanimousl}-  passed  by  the  Joint  Committee 
and  by  the  Council  of  the  Club,  and  it  was  now  submitted  to  the  members. 

Professor  Meldola,  in  an  earnest  speech,  strongly  recommended  the  scheme  to 
the  favourable  consideration  of  the  meeting  The  formation  of  a  really  good 
local  Museum  had  always  an  object  with  the  Club — they  had  made  progress  in 
gathering  materials,  and  a  scheme  had  been  much  discussed  some  years 
ago,  but  they  had  never  been  able  to  meet  with  sufficient  support.  The  present 
scheme  had  been  carefully  drawn  up  by  their  Secretary,  and  had  been  fully  con- 
sidered and  unanimously  agreed  to  by  the  representatives  of  the  two  bodies  ;  it 
had  been  received  with  approval  by  all  their  coUeagues,  and  as  far  as  he  could 
learn  b}'  all  the  members.  If  a  local  Museum  was  to  be  established  in  Essex, 
Chelmsford  was  certainly  the  best  site  for  it — as  being  the  county  town,  and  as 
occupj^ing  a  very  central  position.     He  therefore  begged  to  move  : — 

"That  the  plans  for  the  nrmalgamation  of  the  Essex  and  Chelmsford  Museum 
with  the  Essex  Field  Club,  and  for  the  establishment  of  a  Local  Museum,  as  set 
forth  in  the  scheme,  be  adopted." 

Dr.  Thresh,  as  an  inhabitant  of  Chelmsford,  and  as  a  member  of  the  Club, 
seconded  the  resolution.  He  pointed  out  the  advantages  to  the  county  town,  and 
the  advantages  which  would  accrue  to  both  the  Field  Club  and  Museum  by  the 
amalgamation,  adding  that  the  Museum  would  be  built  up  and  made  worthy  of 
Essex  by  the  labours  of  the  Field  Club,  and  the  latter  would  add  a  local  habitation 
to  its  name.  Unfortunately  in  many  respects  Chelmsford  had  not  taken  the 
position  which  a  county  town  might  be  expected  to  take,  more  particularly  in 
regard  to  education.  It  was  quite  time  some  effort  was  made  to  shake  off  this 
indifterence,  and  to  realise  that  there  were  responsibilities  as  well  as  privileges 
attaching  to  the  position  of  county  town  of  such  a  district  as  Essex.  With  the 
erection  of  a  new  Grammar  School  one  reproach  would  be  wiped  away  ;  whilst, 
by  the  amalgamation  of  the  Field  Club  and  Museum,  another  would  be  removed. 

Mr.  J.  Taylor  owned  to  a  feeling  of  regret  that  the  words  "Chelmsford 
Museum  "  did  not  in  any  wa}^  form  part  of  the  title  of  the  new  Society. 

The  President  pointed  out  that  the  Committee  had  thoroughly  considered  the 


THE    ESSEX    Fin.D   CLITB.  ZS 

matter,  and  they  liad  decided  to  unite  tlie  two  bodies  under  the  name  of "  The 
Kssex  Field  Club,"  thinkinji^  that  as  Chelmsford  would  get  the  Museum  it  did  not 
much  matter,  and  that  there  would  be  very  serious  objections  to  altering  the  title 
of  the  Club.  There  was  really  not  much  in  the  point,  as  the  proposed  institution 
would  be  the  Museum  of  the  Essex  Field  Club  at  Chelmsford — the  greater 
included  the  less.  The  objection  was  also  answered  by  Mr.  Chancellor,  Mr.  F. 
n.  Meggy,  Mr.  J.  C.  Shenstone,  and  Professor  Boulger,  Mr.  Chancellor  saying 
that  he  thought  tie  substance  was  worth  far  more  than  the  shadow.  Mr.  Meggy 
complimented  the  Committee  on  their  very  comprehensive  and  able  scheme,  and 
gave  it  his  hearty  support.  Professor  Boulger  hoped  there  would  be  no  note  of 
discord  emanating  from  Chelmsford,  and  pointed  out  that,  as  a  county  institution, 
they  would  be  in  a  far  better  position  toappealfor  funds  than  as  a  merely  local  society. 

The  resolution  was  passed  unanimously  amid  cheers. 

In  reply  to  a  question  from  the  President,  Mr.  Chancellor,  as  Chairman  of  the 
Committee  of  the  Essex  and  Chelmsford  Museum,  stated  that  the  scheme  had  been 
passed  unanimously  by  the  Committee  and  by  the  Subscribers  to  the  Museum. 

On  the  recommendation  of  the  Council  it  was  also  agreed  that  if  and  when  the 
amalgamation  takes  effect,  the  annual  subscription  of  tiew  members  elected  after 
the  date  of  such  event  shall  be  £i  is.,  with  an  entrance-fee  of  105.6^.  (to  include 
the  Essex  Naturalist,  post-free  as  published),  and  that  the  life-membership 
shall  be  ^10  los.phis  the  entrance-fee. 

The  President  said  that  the  next  subject  to  be  brought  before  the  members 
was  the  important  scheme  of  technical  instruction,  which  had  been  prepared  with 
very  great  care  hy  the  Secretary,  with  the  assistance  and  advice  of  several  scientific 
men  and  teachers,  and  which  had  been  submitted  to  the  County  Council,  many 
members  of  which  body  had  favourably  received  it.  The  Parliamentary  Com- 
mittee had  appointed  a  sub-committee  to  consider  the  question  of  technical 
instruction  in  the  county  under  the  authority  of  the  recent  Acts  of  Parliament, 
and  they  had  consented  to  receive  an  important  deputation  from  the  Club  on 
Monday  next,  so  that  the  details  of  the  Club's  scheme  might  be  brought  before 
them.     He  asked  the  Secretary  to  read  the  scheme. 

The  Secretary  read  the  scheme,  which  is  fully  set  out  in  the  last  volume  of  the 
Essex  Naturalist  (vol.  iv.  pp.  259-262),  and  which  had  been  printed  in  a 
separate  form  and  extensively  circulated. 

Professor  Meldola,  who  has  had  a  very  large  experience  in  connection  with 
technical  education,  spoke  in  high  terms  of  the  scheme,  dwelling  on  the  great 
advantage  there  would  be  in  establishing  one  roally  good  centre,  which  must  be 
much  more  beneficially  productive  than  if  the  money  were  frittered  away  in  small 
sums.  He  gave  a  happy  definition  of  what  technical  education  is,  namely, 
"science  applied  to  human  industries." 

Professor  Boulger  was  equally  warm  in  favour  of  the  project.  His  only  objec- 
tion was  that  the  Council  did  not  ask  enough  ;  he  noticed  that  the  word  "  minima  " 
was  used  in  connection  with  the  sums  asked  for  in  the  scheme,  and  he  rather 
thought  that  instead  of  five  or  six  centres  there  ought  to  be  five-and-twent}'.  No 
county  had  yet  propounded  any  such  comprehensive  scheme  as  this,  and  it  wai 
greatly  to  the  credit  of  the  Club  that  they  had  taken  the  lead  in  this  important 
matter. 

The  President  said  it  was  very  probable  if  the  County  Council  were  satisfied 
with  what  the  Field  Club  did  in  a  small  wa}-,  to  begin  with,  they  would  be  in- 
clined to  make  a  much  larger  grant  than  was  now  asked  for. 

D 


34  THE    KSSEX    FIELD    Cr.Ul:. 

Ml'.  Shenstone  thoroughly  backed  up  the  idea  of  an  efficient  central  organisation. 

Mr.  W.  G.  Shadrake,  a  member  of  the  Leyton  School  Board,  said  he  had  no 
doubt  that  many  of  the  local  bodies  who  had  sent  in  applications  to  the  County 
Council  for  a  share  of  the  money  had  done  so  simply  with  the  view  of  being  in  it 
when  the  plunder  was  divided.  (Laughter).  He  regarded  the  small  sums 
they  were  likely  to  get  as  a  white  elephant,  as  they  would  be  too  small  to  be  of 
any  practical  use  for  technical  education.  He  believed  many  of  them  would  be 
willing  to  withdraw  their  applications,  and  to  petition  the  County  Council  in 
f.ivour  of  the  scheme  of  the  Field  Club.  He  should  be  very  glad  to  bring  forward 
a  motion  of  that  kind  at  the  Board  of  which  he  was  a  member. 

Several  other  members  took  part  in  the  discussion,  and  the  unanimous  opinion 
appeared  to  be  that  the  scheme  was  one  well  worthy  of  support,  but  no  vote  was 
taken  on  the  subject, 

This  brought  to  a  close  one  of  the  most  interesting  and  fully-attended  Annual 
Meetings  ever  held  by  the  Club  (members  came  from  all  parts  of  the  county,  as  well 
as  from  London,  to  attend),  and  genuine  enthusiasm  was  shown  in  the  two  schemes 
which  came  under  discussion.  The  arrangements  for  the  meeting  in  the  Museum, 
the  tea,  etc.,  were  very  kindly  undertaken  by  Mr.  Durrant,  to  whom  the  best  thanks 
of  the  Club  are  due. 
Deputation  to  the  County  Council,  Monday,  February  2nd,  1891. 

By  invitation,  a  deputation  from  the  Club,  consisting  of  Sir  Henry  Roscoe,  M.P., 
F.R.S.  (one  of  the  authors  of  the  Technical  Instruction  Act,  1889),  Prof.  W.  H., 
Flower,  C.B.,  F.R.S.  (Director  of  the  British  Museum),  Prof.  Meldola,  F.R.S. 
(City  Guilds  Technical  College),  Prof.  Boulger,  F.G.S.,  xMr.  F.  W.  Rudler,  F.G.S. 
(Director  of  the  Museum  of  Practical  Geology),  and  Mr,  W.  Cole,  Hon.  Sec  , 
waited  upon  the  Parliamentary  Committee  of  the  E^sex  County  Council,  at  35. 
New  Broad  Street  (Mr.  E.  N.  Buxton,  Chairman  of  the  Parliamentary  Committee, 
presiding),  to  advocate  the  central  scheme  of  Technical  Education  in  Essex,  put 
forward  by  the  Council  of  the  Essex  Field  Club.  Lord  Rayleigh,  Secretary  to 
the  Royal  Society,  was  unavoidably  prevented  from  being  present.  The  speakers 
strongly  urged  the  claims  of  the  Essex  Field  Club  to  bear  some  part  in  any  work 
for  the  promotion  of  scientific  and  technical  instruction  in  the  count)',  and  bore 
testimony  to  the  high  position  the  Club  had  attained  by  reason  of  its  excellent 
publications,  and  steady  adhesion  to  one  plan  of  work.  The}-  explained  the  broad 
features  of  the  Club's  scheme  (fully  set  out  in  the  last  volume  of  the  ESSEX 
NatUR.ALIST,  vol.  iv.  pp.  259-62),  and  insisted  on  the  great  importance  of 
establishing  a  central  institution,  in  addition  to  making  an}'  grants  for  local  pur- 
poses. The  scheme  would  provide  such  a  central  body,  and  would  send  competent 
teachers  and  lecturirs,  furnished  with  apparatus  for  practical  class-teaching,  into 
the  rural  districts,  thus  bringing  high-class  instruction  to  the  very  doors  of  the' 
country  and  agricultural  folk,  and  affording  them  advantages  from  the  grant 
almost  equal  to  those  possessed  by  the  urban  populations. 

After  answering  some  questions,  and  being  assured  by  the  Chairman  that  their 
\iews  would  receive  due  consideration,  the  members  of  the  deputation  withdrew. 

Ordinary  Meeting,  Saturday,  February  28th,  1891. 
Thk    I22nd    Onlinary  Meeting  was  held  in    the    Town   Hall,   Leyton,  at  6.30, 
Mr.  E.  A    Fitch,  President,  in  the  chair. 

The  following  were  elected  members  of  the  Club:  Messrs.  Gerald  Christy, 
W,  W.  Duffield,  A.  C  Freeman,  J.  1).  L.  Lamarque,  Xorm.in  l.ott,  H.  B.  Rowan, 
Augustus  A.  Tiniliiirll,  C'.t'.,  and  Mrs.  M .  V..  Marsh, 


ANNUM.    RKI'ORT    OF    THK    ESSEX    FIELD    CI.UB.  35 

The  President  nominated  the  following  as  \'ice-Presidents  during  his  year  of 
office:  Messrs.  K.  \.  Buxton,  J. P.,  Aldm.,  C.C,  Walter  Crouch,  F.Z.S.,  Henry 
Laver,  M.R.C.S.,  F.L.S.,  F.S.A,,  and  the  Right  Hon.  Lord  Rayleigh,  F.R.S. 

The  Librarian  announced  the  additions  to  the  Library  b}-  gift,  purchase  and 
exchange,  and  thanks  were  \oted  to  the  donors. 

Prof.  Meldola  called  attention  to  the  work  of  the  Committee  appointed  by  the 
liritish  Association  "  to  report  upon  the  application  of  photography  to  the 
elucidation  of  meteorological  phenomena,  and  to  collect  any  photographs  of  such 
phenomena."  He  distributed  copies  of  the  circular  issued  by  the  Committee,  and 
hoped  that  all  members  who  were  practical  photographers  would  aid  inithe  work. 

Mr.  Fitch  read  a  paper  entitled  "A  Day  on  the  Crouch  River,"  being  an 
account  of  a  day's  "  fishing  "  with  a  trawl-net  in  company  with  Mr.  Crouch  last 
summer.  In  illustration  of  the  paper  were  exhibited  preserved  specimens  of  the 
species  obtained,  comprising  Crustacea,  Mollusca,  Echinodermata,  Sponges,  &c. 
Many  of  the  species  had  never  before  been  recorded  from  Essex,  thus  showing  that 
there  was  plenty  of  work  for  the  members  to  do  in  the  department  of  marine  zoology. 

Prof.  Meldola,  in  proposing  a  vote  of  thanks  to  Mr.  Fitch,  said  that  he  looked 
upon  the  paper  as  quite  a  typical  one  for  a  Naturalists'  societ)- — it  was  a  careful 
record  of  actual  work  done  and  observations  made  in  their  own  district,  and  he 
should  like  to  see  more  papers  of  the  kind  communicated  to  the  Club. 

Mr.  Crouch  read  "  Notes  on  a  Female  Specimen  of  the  Common  Rorqual 
(Balcenoptera  musculus)  lately  stranded  near  Burnham,  with  remarks  on  the 
Balasnopteridas  (Finner  Whales)."  In  illustration  of  the  paper  Mr.  Crouch  showed 
a  long  series  of  drawings,  diagrams  and  prints,  and  Mr.  A.  P.  Wire  also  showed 
some  drawings. 

Remarks  on  the  paper  were  made  by  Mr.  Gillham,  Mr.  A.  C.  Freeman,  tl  e 
President,  &c.,  and  a  cordial  vote  of  thanks  was  accorded  to  the  author. 

The  Secretary  read  for  Mr.  J.  French  a  paper  entitled  "  Notes  on  the  la'c 
prolonged  Frost,"  upon  which  a  short  discussion  arose,  carried  on  b}'  Prof.  Meldola, 
Mr.  Wire,  Mr.  Filch,  and  others,  the  latter  reminding  members  that  such  notes 
were  just  the  kind  of  communications  they  desired  for  the  Essex  Naturalist. 

The  introductory  portions  of  an  elaborate  paper  on  "The  Cryptogamic  Flora 
of  Kelvedon  and  its  neighbourhood  ;  compiled  from  the  collections  and  notes 
made  during  half  a  century  by  the  late  E.  G.  Varenne,"  was  read  for  Mr.  Marquand 
(see  ante,  pp.  I-30),  by  the  Secretary,  who  referred  to  the  very  valuable  character 
of  the  paper,  and  moved  a  very  hearty  vote  of  thanks  to  Mr.  Marquand  for  the 
trouble  he  had  taken  in  compiling  the  lists. 

A  very  large  number  of  specimens,  drawings,  photographs,  &c.,  were  exhibited 
by  Mr.  Crouch,  Mr.  Fitch,  Mr.  Wire  and  others,  and  the  usual  service  of  light 
refreshment  brought  the  meeting  to  a  close. 


ANNUAL  REPORT  OF  THE  COUNCIL   FOR  THE 
YEAR    ENDING    DECEMBER   31st,    1890. 

\,Rcaci  and  adopted  at  the  Annual  Mectiiif;,  an  January  Jist,  iSgi.] 
The  Council  is  glad  to  report  that  the  considerable  accession  of  new  members 
which  commenced  some  few  years  back  still  continues,  and  more  than  compen- 
sates  for   the   usual   number  of  resignations  and  removals  from   various  causes. 
During    the    past   year  43    persons    have    joined    the    Cliih.       Ilniii   the  Council 

D    2 


36  ANNUAL    RKPORT    OF 

finally  decides  011  ihe  louise  of  action  wiih  regard  to  membeis  in  arrear  with 
their  subscriptions  it  is  difficult  to  state  the  exact  number  of  members.  It  may 
Le  put  provisionally  at  about  420. 

In  accordance  with  the  intimation  in  last  year's  report,  the  Council  very  care- 
fully considered  the  important  question  of  the  revision  of  tl.e  rate  of  subscription, 
and  eventually,  with  some  reluctance,  decidetl  to  recommend  the  members  to 
adopt  the  foUovvinir  proposals  : — 

That  the  Subscription  shall  remain  as  before,  viz.,  lOs.  bd.  per  annum ^  but  thai 
each  member  wishing  to  receive  the  "  Essex  Naturalist "  shall  subscribe  a  furthtr  sum 
of  ifS.  6d.  in  advance  in  each  year  io^cards  the  expensiS  of  publication,  postages,  5fc. 

That  the  Life  Membership  shall  be  £?,  85. 

The  reasons  for  these  proposals  were  fully  put  before  the  members  in  a  special 
circular  (which  is  set  out  in  the  E.N.,  vol.  iv.,  pp.  228,  229),  and  need  not  be 
repeated  here.  The  question  was  simply  whether  the  publications  should  be 
curtailed,  with  an  almost  certain  injury  to  the  usefulness  and  prestige  of  the 
Club,  or  whether  the  members  should  voluntarily  tax  themselves  with  an  increased 
subscription,  and  so  enable  the  Council  to  carry  on  the  work  with  vigour.  The 
latter  course  was  adopted,  and  the  Council  feels  assured  that  w^hen  the  slight 
difficulties  and  friction  consequent  upon  an}'  changes  of  the  kind  have  passed 
away,  the  new  rules  will  work  well. 

The  Council  much  regrets  that,  notwithstanding  every  reasonable  economy, 
the  payments  on  the  general  account  have  again  exceeded  the  receipts,  and  the 
balance  on  the  wrong  side  is  now  £^6  4s.  4d.,  as  against  ^41  l8s.  lod.  on  the 
31st  of  December,  1889,  being  an  increase  of  ^"34  5s.  6d.  A  considerable  portion 
of  this  is,  however,  accounted  for  by  the  exceptionally  heavy  printers'  bill  which 
was  carried  over  from  1889,  viz.,  ^46  2s.  6d.,  as  compared  with  the  one  now  due, 
viz.,  £2^  2s.  3d.,  and  it  is  confidently  anticipated  that,  under  the  operation  of 
the  new  rules  as  regards  subscriptions,  the  debtor  balance  will  rapidly  disappear, 
and  the  expenditure  be  eventuall}'  brought  well  within  the  income. 

It  will  be  observed  by  the  balance-sheet  that  fair  progress  has  been  made  in 
collecting  the  overdue  subscriptions,  which  have  figured  to  so  serious  an  extent 
in  former  reports.  Of  the  amount  due  at  the  end  of  1889  a  sum  of  £^0  was 
estimated  as  gooJ,  and  of  this  about  ;^35  (in  subscriptions  and  entrance-fees)  had 
actually  been  received  by  the  31st  ultimo,  and  £2  I2s.  6d.  has  since  come  in. 
In  round  figures  this  item  stood  at  about  ;^8o  at  the  close  of  last  year,  and  of  this 
the  Treasurer  estimates  £^0  as  good,  _^20  as  doubtful,  and  fio  as  bad.  Every 
effort  will  be  made  to  render  it  as  productive  an  asset  as  possible,  but  the  above  is 
as  sanguine  a  view  as  can  be  safely  adopted  in  the  light  of  painful  experience. 

The  Council  desires  to  direct  attention  to  the  fact  that  the  amount  of  unpaid 
subscriptions  almost  exactly  corresponds  with  the  excess  of  payments  over 
receipts,  so  that  if  the  ladies  and  gentlemen  who  are  in  default  had  dul}'  dis- 
charged their  obligations  to  the  Club  (as  the  Council  had  a  perfect  right  to 
expect)  the  accounts  would  have  exhibited  at  least  an  equilibrium,  instead  of  a 
considerable  deficit. 

In  last  year's  report  allusion  was  made  to  the  proposed  renewed  attempt  to 
establish  a  Local  Museum  in  Essex.  This  very  important  subject  has  received 
great  attention  during  the  year.  The  Committee  appointed  in  1889  to  draw  up  a 
scheme  for  the  amalgamation  of  the  Essex  and  Chelmsford  Museum  with  the 
Essex  Field  Club,  has  now  agreed  upon  such  a  scheme,  which  will  be  placed 
before  the  members  at  the  Annual  .Meeting.  .\s  that  meeting  will  be  devoted  to 
a  discussion  of  the  scheme,  it  is  unnecessary  to  enlarge  upon   it  here.     [It   is  set 


THK  i;s.si:\   Fii:i.i>  cirn.  37 

out  in  full,  R.X.,  \\.,  pp.  J36-241.J  1  lie  Comuil  lomuiL-ii  Js  it  with  LuntKieiue  to 
the  members,  feeling  assured  thai  the  establishment  of  such  an  institution  would 
not  only  he  of  the  greatest  service  to  the  Club  and  its  members,  but  would  also 
be  the  means  of  stimulating  a  love  for  science  and  the  practical  study  of  Nature 
throughout  the  county.  When  the  scheme  is  finally  accepted  by  the  members,  a 
committee  will  be  appointed  to  make  an  appeal  for  the  necessary  funds,  not  only 
to  the  members,  but  also  the  public  generally,  by  means  of  meetings,  ciicular 
letters,  e'.c.  The  Club  will  have  an  excellent  cause  to  promote,  and  the  Council 
has  high  hopes  that  the  appeal  will  prove  successful. 

In  connection  whh  the  proposed  Museum,  allusion  should  be  made  to  tiie 
important  subject  of  Technical  Education,  which  has  received  so  great  an  impetus 
from  the  passing  of  the  Local  Ta.\ation  Act,  i8go,  under  which  Act  very  con- 
siderable sums  are  placed  in  the  hands  of  the  County  Councils  for  the  promotion 
of  the  teaching  of  technical  subjects  and  the  elements  of  science.  '1  he  County 
Council  of  Essex  will  have  a  sum  estimated  at  ;{^i-j.ooo  for  these  objects.  In 
response  to  a  public  notice  issued  by  the  County  Council,  the  Secretary,  on 
behalf  of  the  Council  of  the  Club,  made  an  application  for  a  grant  under  the  Act 
for  the  purpose  of  giving  practical  instruction  in  science  and  technical  subjects. 
This  application  has  been  supp'emented  bj-  the  publication  of  a  detailed  scheme 
for  Technical  Instruction  in  the  county,  copies  of  which  will  be  laid  upon  the 
table  at  the  Annual  Meeting,  and  which  will  be  printed  in  full  in  the  ESSFX 
Naturalist.  [See  E  X..  iv.,  pp.  259  262.]  The  scheme  is  now  under  con- 
sideration by  the  County  Council.  Should  the  Club's  application  for  a  grant  be 
acceded  to,  the  question  of  the  establishment  of  a  Museum  and  Laboratory  will 
receive  additional  importance,  the  practical  carrying  out  of  the  Educational 
scheme  being  ckjsely  connected  therewith. 

The  Ordinary  and  Field  Meetings  of  the  Club  have  certainly  not  lost  interest 
during  the  past  year.  They  have  all  been  well  attended,  and  it  is  with  great 
satisfaction  that  the  Council  is  enabled  to  reiterate  this  statement.  We  are  now 
entering  upon  the  twelfth  year  of  the  Club's  existence,  and  it  is  a  legitimate 
subject  of  congratulation,  that,  with  no  change  of  methods,  and  with  a  close 
adhesion  to  matters  of  local  interest,  the  supply  of  papers  and  addresses  shows 
no  signs  of  diminution,  and  the  Field  Meetings  continue  to  be  carrit  d  on  most 
successfully.  During  the  j^ear  fourteen  Ordinary  and  Field  Meetings  have  been 
held.  At  these  meetings  the  following  papers  have  been  read,  or  have  been  com- 
municated direct  to  the  Editor  for  publication  in  the  Essex  Naturalist,  those 
marked  with  an  asterisk  having  already  been  printed  : — 

*  "  Binl  Migrations  :  Being  the  Presidential  Address  delivered  at  the 
loth  .Annual  Meeting."     ¥..  A.  Fitch,  F.L.S. 

•"Suggestions  on  the  Collecting  and  Study  of  the  Minute  Fungi  of 
Essex."     Dr.  M.C.  Cooke. 

*  "The  Threatened  Destruction  of  the  Essex  Oyster  Culture."  William 
Rome,  F.S.A. 

*  "  Suggestions  for  the  Formation  of  a  County  Herbarium.  "  J.  C. 
Shenstone,  F.R.M.S. 

".An  Historical  Sketch  of  Waltham  .Abbey  and  its  Foundation,  with  a 
Description  of  its  .Architecture  "  (^Address').     G.  H.  Birch,  F'.S.A. 

"On  some  .Abnormal  Forms  of  Vegetation."  Part  II.  (^Lecture.)  Charles 
Browne,  M.A.,  F.S.A. 

*  "  Notes  of  Geological  Rambles  in  the  Braintree  District  in  connection 
with  the  Easter  F^xcursion  of  the  Club.'"     W.  H.  Dalton,  F'.G.S. 

*  "Chelmsford  Water  Supply."     T.  \'.  Holmes,  F.G.S. 

*  "  Remarks  on  Collecting  Diptera."     CJ.  H.  \'errall,  F'.E.S. 


38  ANNUAL    KKPOkT    Ol' 

*  "  Un    the    OccurreiK-e     of    Cyclos.'ona    eUgans    in    a    living    state    at 
Felstead."     J.  French,  uith  Remarks  by  W.  H.  Dalton. 

*  "  The  '  Silting  up  '  of  the  River  Roding."     Henry  Stock. 

*  "  The  Sanitary  Condition  of  Essex."     Dr.  J.  C.  Thresh. 

*  "  On  the  Nature  of  some  of  the  Gravel  Patches  in  Esse.\  "  {^Kevieit'). 
T.  V.  Holmes,  F.G.S. 

*  ''Concerning  certain  Rivers  in  Essex."     Thomas  M.  Blackie,  F.S.A. 

*  "  Tiie   Channel   of  Drift  in  the  \'alley  of  the  Cam  "  (^Review).     T.  V. 
Holmes,  F.G  S. 

*  '•  The  Lapland  Bunting  ;  an  Addition  to  the  Avifauna  of  Essex."    Rev. 
H.  A.  Marpherson,  iM.A. 

*  "John  Ray,  the  Naturalist."     Prof.  Boulger,  F.L.S. 

*  "  Rats  and  Mice  in  Essex."     E.  A.  Fitch,  F.L.S. 

*  "The  Threatened  Destruction  of  the  Essex  Ovster  Culture."     Editor. 

*  "  Memoir  of  the  late  John  Brown,  F.G.S.,  of  Stanway."     A.  P.  Wire. 
"  On  the  Undulations  of  the  Chalk  in  Essex."     W.  H.  Dalton,  F.G.S. 

*  "  Note  on  Punctured  Pottery  found  at  Fryerning."     F.  W.  Reader. 

*  "  Notes  on  the  Carices  of  the  Epping  Forest  Area."     Robert  Paulson. 

*  "  Danbury  Camp,  Essex."     F.  C.  J.  Spurrell,  F.G.S. 

*  "  An  Essex  Curlew  Sandpiper."     Rev.  H.  A.  Macpherson,  M.A. 

*  "  On  some  Sections  between  West  Thurrock  and  Stifford,  on  the  Grays 
and  Upminster  Railway."     T.  V.  Holmes,  F.G.S. 

*  "  Hsesten's   Camps    nt    Shoebury   and    Benfleet,    Essex."       F.    C.    J. 
Spurrell,  F.G.S. 

*  "  The  Estuaries  of  the  Orwell  and  the  Stour."     Dr.  J.  E.  Taylor,  F.G.S. 
"  The    Early   Magnetic   Experiments   of  Gilbert  of  Colchester."       Prof. 

Silvanus  P.  Thompson,  D.Sc,  &c. 

*  "Note  on  the  Upminster  Brickyard,  1890."     W.  H.  Dalton,  F.G.S. 

*  "  Acidalia  marginepunctata  in  Essex  "     E.  A.  Fitch,  F.L.S. 

*  "  Benjamin  Allen,  of  Braintree."     E.  A.  Fitch,  F.L.S. 

*  "Notes  on  the  Mineral  Spring  on  Tyler's  Common."     W^alter  Crouch. 

*  "Notes  on  Hvdrobia jenkinsiy     Edgar  A.  Smith,  F.L.S. 

*  "  List  of  Land  and  Fresh-water  MoUusca  occurring  in  the  Neighbour- 
hood of  Bishop's  Stortford."     Edwin  G    Ingold. 

"Essex  Meteorological  Records."     Rev.  T.  A.  Preston,  M.A.,  F.R.Met.S. 
"Notes  on  Dipsacus  sylvestris  and  D.  pilosus  and  their  Natural  Relation- 
ship."    J.  French. 

*  "  The  Butterflies  of  Essex."     E.  A.  Fitch,  F.L.S. 

"Biographical  Notice  of  Ezekiel  George  Varenne."  Prof.  G.S.  Boulger. F.L.S 
In    addition    many    short   papers   and   notes  have   been    printed,    as  well    as 
extended  reports  of  the  meetings  of  the  Club. 

Field  Meetings  have  been  held  at  Kelvedon  and  Coggeshall,  when  the 
members  were  most  hospitabl)^  received  at  Felix  Hall,  by  Captain  R.  B.  Colvin 
(High  Sheriff)  and  Mrs.  Watson  ;  at  Waltham  Abbey,  when  Col.  W.  H.  Noble 
kindly  allowed  a  visit  to  the  Government  Powder  Mills,  and  acted  as  cicerone  ; 
in  Epping  Forest  ;  at  W'alton-on-Naze  ;  a  dredging  excursion  in  company  with 
members  of  the  Ipswich  Scientific  Society  on  the  Orwell  and  Stour;  at  Col- 
chester, in  memory  of  Dr.  Gilberd,  the  first  electrician,  in  company  with  the 
members  of  the  Gilbert  Club,  on  which  occasion  a  most  brilliant  reception 
was  accorded  to  the  Societies  by  the  Mayor,  in  the  Town  Hall  ;  at  Tyler's 
Common  and  Upminster  Hall,  where  again  the  Club  was  received  most  cordially 
by  our  kind  member  Mr.  G.  P.  Hope,  and  lastl}- the  lith  Annual  Cryptogamic 
Meeting  was  held  in  Hatfield  Forest,  by  courteous  permission  of  our  member  Mr. 
J.  Archer  Houblon.  In  the  last  report  the  Council  gratefully  acknowledged  the  hos- 
pitality and  friendliness  so  often  freely  shown  to  the  Club.  What  was  then  said  can 
but  be  repeated — such  kindnesses  form  some  of  the  most  pleasant  reminiscences 
of  each  year's  work.     Full  reports  of  the  above   meetings  appear   in  the  Essex 


rilK    IlSSKX    I'IKl.l)    tl.LH.  39 

Nai  UKAI.I^i'r,  bill  ihc  Couiu-il  Uikcslhis  opiHirlunity  oi  ;ukiunv!c(.igin^  the  j^real 
assistance  received  at  the  Field  Meetin<js  from  the  following  : — 

Rev.  C.  L.  Acland,  Mr.  G.  V.  Beaumont,  Mr.  G.  II.  Hirch,  Mr.  j.  liritlcn,  Mr. 
C.  Browne,  Mr.  VV.  Carruthers,  Messrs.  Christy,  Son  and  Norris,  Mr.  R.  T.  Cobbold, 
Dr.  M.  C.  Cooke,  Mr.  Walttr  Crouch,  Mr.  W.  II.  Ualton,  Mr.  E.  A.  Fitch,  Mr. 
G.  W.  Hewiison,  Mr.  E.  M.  Holmes,  Mr.  T.  V.  Holmes,  Rev.  H.  J.  Kenworthy, 
Dr.  H.  Laver,  Mr.  G.  Massee,  Prof.  Meldula,  Col.  \V.  H.  Noble,  Mr.  J.  N. 
Paxman,  Mr.  G.  E.  Pritchelt,  Lord  Rayleigh,  Mr.  J.  C.  Shenstone,  Dr.  J.  K. 
Taylor,  Prof.  Silvanus  Thompson,  Mr.  W.  Whitaker,  and  others. 

The  Field  Meeting  Committee  was  not  re-appointed  last  season,  and  the 
Secretaries  do  not  propose  to  ask  for  its  renewal,  at  any  rate  for  the  present.  The 
business  at  the  Field  Meetings  is  often  so  closely  interwoven  with  the  ordinary 
routine  of  the  Club,  and  with  the  preparation  of  the  circulars  and  editing  of  the 
journal,  that  anything  like  a  dual  control  was  not  found  to  work  well.  The 
better  plan  appears  to  be  for  the  Conductors  at  each  meeting  to  work  with  the 
Secretaries  in  arranging  the  details  of  such  meeting.  Tiiis  was  the  method 
pursued  last  season,  and  its  success  was  most  encourjging.  In  this  connection 
the  Secretaries  have  to  thank  Mr.  Walter  Crouch,  Mr.  Shenstone,  Mr.  Beaumont 
Mr.  Pritchett,  Dr.  Laver,  and  Mr.  W.  H.  Dalton,  for  most  useful  assistance. 

The  second  volume  of  the  Club's  "  Special  Memoirs  "  under  the  arrangement 
with  the  author  alluded  to  in  last  year's  report  was  published  early  in  the  year. 
The  book  has  been  reviewed  most  favourably  by  the  press,  and  it  is  likely  to  be 
exceedingly  useful  to  ornithologists,  both  local  and  general  The  Council  has  to 
thank  Mr.  A.  P.  Wire  for  the  great  care  taken  by  him  as  publisher  of  the  book  on 
behalf  of  the  Club. 

The  Library  has  steadily  increased,  but  the  large  arrears  of  books  needing 
binding  still  remains  a  serious  difficult}'.  A  considerable  number  of  local  books 
and  pamphlets  have  been  purchased,  but  the  much-needed  sels  of  standard  works 
on  Natural  Science  are  still  among  the  things  hoped  for.  Pending  the  proposed 
amalgamation  of  the  Libraries  of  the  Essex  Field  Club  and  the  Chelmsford 
Museum,- it  is  still  a  moot  point  whether  the  catalogue  should  be  printed  yet. 

The  Editor  has  almost  completed  the  preparation  of  the  MS.  of  Pt.  2,  vol.  iv.  of 
the  old  "  Proceedings,"  and  a  plan  for  its  publication  will  be  shortly  brought  forward. 

Four  parts  of  the  Essex  Naturalist  have  been  published  within  the  year, 
comprising  282  pages,  many  of  small  type.  The  last  part  of  vol.  iv.  is  now  being 
printed,  and  the  Editor  then  proposes  to  issue  a  part  comprising  the  numbers  for 
January-April,  1891,  after  which  the  tnonthly  issue  ■will  be  resumed  as  an  experi- 
ment until  the  end  of  the  year.  The  Council  and  Editor  are  persuaded  that  this 
step  will  much  increase  the  interest  and  usefulness  of  the  NATURALIST,  but  the 
permanent  continuance  of  a  monthly  publication  must  necessarily  depend  upon 
the  amount  of  support  (in  subscriptions  and  in  literary  and  scientific  aid)  accorded 
to  the  Council  and  Editor  in  their  efforts  for  the  benefit  of  the  Club. 

A  considerable  amount  of  attention  has  been  given  by  the  Council  to  schemes 
for  the  compilation  of  a  "  Bibliography"  of  Flssex,  a  work  much  needed.  When 
the  plans  are  matured,  an  announcement  on  the  subject  will  be  made  to  the 
members  and  the  public. 

The  coming  year  will,  in  all  probability,  bean  eventful  own  in  the  history  of 
the  Club.  A  great  amount  of  labour  has  been  bestowed  on  the  preparation  and 
carrying  on  of  the  schemes  for  enlarging  its  sphere  of  work.  But  the  Council  is 
nonfident  that  the  time  and  labour  will  be  well  spent  if  llic  result  is  the  cM;iMi-ii- 
menl  of  the  Club  on  a  firm  basis  a-  a  iouiii\-  iii.~iituiiiiii. 


4° 


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42 


ESSEX    WORTHIES. 
II.— EZEKIEL  GEORGE  VARENNE,   OF  KELVEDON. 

Hy  PROF.  G.  S.  HOULGER,  F.L.S.,  F.G.S. 
{Kedd,  December  y:>ih,  i8go.] 

"DOTANY  in  England  owes  more  perhaps  of  its  many-sided  pro- 
gress to  the  unostentatious  labours  of  those  enthusiastic  students 
of  Nature  who  have  appeared  but  little  in  print  than  to  its  most  volu- 
minous expositors.  Among  such  enthusiasts  Essex  has  benefited  by 
the  work  of  Samuel  Dale,  Edward  Forster,  William  Williamson  New- 
bould  and  Ezekiel  George  Varenne.  Mr.  Varenne  was  of  Huguenot 
descent,  and  his  father  being  resident  medical  officer  of  Marylebone 
Infirmary  it  happened  to  be  in  that  building  that  the  future  botanist 
was  born,  May  6th,  1811.  He  received  his  medical  training  at 
Westminster  Hospital  and  at  his  father's  Infirmary  and  became  in 
1832  a  licentiate  of  the  Society  of  Apothecaries  and  in  the  following 
year  a  member  of  the  Royal  College  of  Surgeons.  In  1832  he  was 
appointed  surgeon  to  the  Nottingham  Cholera  Board  of  Health  and 
he  seems  to  have  settled  in  practice  at  Kelvedon  about  1847.  Here 
he  passed  the  remainder  of  his  life,  retiring  from  practice  some  time 
before  his  death,  which  was  preceded  by  an  illness  of  two  years' 
duration.  He  died  April  22nd,  1887,  aged  seventy-five  years,  and 
was  buried  in  the  churchyard  of  the  parish.  He  was  a  scholar  and  a 
linguist  as  well  as  a  naturalist,  widely  read  and  most  careful  in 
observation.  In  botany  he  may  well  have  received  part  of  his 
training,  if  not  his  first  stimulus,  from  William  Frederick  Goodger, 
resident  apothecary  to  the  Marylebone  Infirmary  from  181 1  to  1832, 
and  Richard  Rozea,  a  surgeon  practising  in  the  same  parish  about 
the  same  time.  The  herbarium  formed  by  these  two  gentlemen  in 
the  London  district  between  1815  and  1823  was  presented  to  Mr. 
Varenne  about  1862.'  Though  in  this  his  favourite  recreation  he 
worked  largely  at  the  Cryptogamia,  especially  mosses  and  lichens, 
he  also  did  good  service  among  flowering  plants.  He  seems  to  have 
taken  that  special  interest  in  "  critical "  species  that  marks  the 
thorough  botanist.  He  collected  Ritdi,-  Carices,  Fo/a/nogefons,  and 
species  oi  Jiosa,  Chenopoduiin  and  Chara  ;  whilst  his  pai)ers,  mainly 

1  'rrimeii  and  Dyer,  "Flora  of  . Middlesex.  '  p.  398. 

2  (Jibson,  "  Flora  ofEsse.v,"  p.  98. 


K/.KKIVA.    C.KORCUC    VARKNNK.  43 

in  the  tliird  and  fourth  volumes  of  the  "  Phytologist "  (first  series)  are 
on  similarly  difficult  groups.  He  is  credited  by  (iibson  with  the 
addition  of  nine  species  to  the  county  list,  in  addition  to  the  casuals 
A/yssu»i  calycimim  and  Lepidium  draba.     They  are  : — 

Ceratophyllum  suhmersuni,  1833. 

Carex  eiongata,  1 844. 

Filcigo  apiculata,  1848. 

Guh'opsis  ochroleuca,  1848. 

CE  nan  the  pinipinelloides,  1 86 1 . 

Potamogeton  rufescens,  1861. 
And  P.  pnrlongKS,   P.  zosierifolius,  and  P.  Jlabellatus,    in   1861   or 
1862. 

From  this  list  we  also  gather  that  \'arenne  had  made  some  pro- 
gress in  botany  and  had  at  least  visited  St.  Osyth  as  early  as  1833. 
He  continued  to  annotate  his  copy  of  Gibson's  Flora  down  to  1884. 
These  annotations  will  be  utilised  in  the  new  edition  of  that  work 
and  it  is  to  be  hoped  that  his  manuscript  cryptogamic  matter  will 
also  see  the  light. 

In  politics  he  was  an  ardent  Liberal,  acting  for  several  years  as 
secretary  to  the  Kelvedon  Liberal  Association,  and  working  very 
hard  to  secure  the  return  of  his  friend  and  neighbour.  Sir  T.  B. 
Western.  For  upwards  of  fifty  years  of  his  life  he  was  a  total 
abstainer  and  he  took  a  leading  part  in  starting  the  local  Band  of 
Hope.  The  Kelvedon  (ias  Company,  of  which  he  was  at  various 
times  both  secretary  and  chairman,  and  other  local  institutions,  shared 
his  public-spirited  interest  ;  and  since,  though  a  Churchman,  he  was 
a  firm  believer  in  unsectarian  education  and  had  an  intense  hatred  of 
anything  savouring  to  his  mind  of  bigotry,  he  acted  for  many  years 
as  secretary  to  the  British  School. 

He  was  elected  a  member  of  the  Essex  Field  Club  on  December 
17th,  188 1,  but  it  was  always  a  matter  of  regret  that  no  scientific 
communications  to  the  Club  were  ever  received  from  him.  His 
features  betokened  the  alertness  of  his  mind  :  his  grey  hair  curled 
from  a  head  by  no  means  completely  bald  ;  his  high  forehead,  slightly- 
arched  and  bushy  eyebrows,  and  eyes  whose  brightness  was  not 
concealed  by  his  glasses,  his  afjuiline  nose  and  somewhat  large  but 
firm  mouth  all  showed  his  strength  of  character  ;  whilst  his  full  white 
moustache,  whiskers  and  beard  lent  to  his  features  the  gentleness  of 
age.  His  memory  will  long  live  in  the  affection  of  those  who  knew 
him.        The    portrait  accompanying    this    notice    (Plate  11)  is    from 


44  IHF.    METKOKIIK    OK    N'OVKMIUCR    LAST. 

the  last  photograph  taken,  and  is  considered  by  Mr.  Man^uand 
a  very  good  Hkeness. 

His  valuable  herbarium  and  manuscript  materials  for  a  lichen-flora 
of  the  county  were,  according  to  his  direction,  handed  over  by  his 
widow  to  Ernest  D.  Marquand,  Esq.,  a  botanical  friend  of  many 
years'  standing.^ 

I  am  indebted  to  Mrs.  Varenne  and  to  "  The  People's  News,"  of 
April  28th,  1887,  for  some  of  the  materials  for  this  notice. 

The  only  pipers  with  which  Varenne  is  accredited  in  the  Royal  Society's 
Catalogue  (vol.  vi.  p.  no)  are  the  following,  all  in  the  third  and  fourth  volumes 
of  the  old  series  of  the  "  Phytologist,"  1848-1853  :— 

1.  "Occurrence  of  Filago  apiculata  near  Great  Braxted,  Essex."  Ph^t.  iii., 
1848,  305-6,  385. 

2.  "Botanical  Notes  on  Plants  chiefly  growing  in  Essex,  with  Observations  on 
some  of  the  Localities  menti;ned  in  Hooker  and  Arnott's  '  British  Flora,'  "  id.  iv., 
1851,89-94. 

3.  "Occurrence  of  Cuscuta  hassiaca,  Koch,  near  Witham,  in  Essex,"/*/,  iv., 
1851,  382-4. 

4.  "Notes  on  Plants  observed  in  the  county  of  Ess?x  during  the  year  1S51," 
id.  iv.,  1852,  544-8. 

5.  "Observations  on  (Enanthe fiuviatilis,  Coleman,"  id.  iv.,  1852,  673-6. 

6.  "Botanical  Notes  and  Observations  on  Plants  observed  in  Essex,"  ;</.  iv., 
1853,  1109-15. 


THE  METEORITE  OF  NOVEMBER  20th,  1887. 

A  T  the  meeting  of  the  Essex  Field  Club  held  on  November  26th, 
'^  1887,  attention  was  called  to  an  "earthquake  shock  "  or  e.xplo- 
.sion  which  had  been  reported  from  various  parts  of  Bedfordshire, 
Cambridgeshire,  Essex,  Hertfordshire  and  other  counties  as  occurring 
on  the  morning  of  November  20th.  In  the  report  of  the  meeting  in 
the  Essex  Natur.\list  (vol.  i.  p.  277)  the  Editor  stated  that  a 
considerable  amount  of  information  had  been  collected  since  the 
meeting,  showing,  in  the  opinion  of  Mr.  G.  J.  Symons,  that  the 
phenomena  observed  had  not  been  occasioned  by  an  earthcjuake, 
but  were  probably  the  result  of  the  explosion  in  the  air  of  a  large 
"  bolide"  or  meteorite.  It  was  promised  that  full  particulars  would 
be  given  in  a  future  number.  Finding,  however,  that  but  few  obser- 
vations comparatively  had  been  made  in  Essex,  and  that  Mr.  H. 
G.   Fordham,   F.G.S.,   of  Odsey   Grange,  near    Royston,   purposed 

3  The  "  Cryptogamic  Flora  of  Kelvedon,"  compiled  by  Mr.  M.-irquand  from  the  Herbarium, 
and  notes  of  Mr.  Varenne,  is  printed  in  the  present  \olume  of  the  Essex  Naturalist  (pp.  1-30). 
and  prefixed  to  this  are  a  few  personal  reminiscences  of  the  botanist  by  Mr.  Marquand.  — Eu. 


THF.    METKORITF.    OV    NONI.Ml'.KK     LAST.  45 

bringing  a  report  of  the  occurrence  before  the  Hertfordshire  Natural 
History  Society,  the  Editor  abandoned  the  idea  of  drawing  up  a 
separate  account  (for  which  he  had  collected  much  material)  and  he 
accordingly  left  the  matter  in  more  competent  hands. 

liy  an  oversight  no  further  reference  to  Mr.  Fordham's  paper  has 
been  made  in  our  pages  ;  it  appeared  in  the  "Transactions  of  the 
Hertfordshire  Natural  History  Society,"  vol.  iv.  pp.  33-62.  The 
appearance  of  the  remarkable  meteor  of  December  14th  recalled  the 
occurrence  of  the  great  "bolide"  of  1887,  and  it  seems  desirable, 
even  thus  late,  to  print  a  short  notice  of  Mr.  Fordham's  observations 
and  conclusions,  referring  those  readers  specially  interested  to  the 
paper  itself,  which  is  an  admirable  example  of  carefu.1  recording  of 
natural  phenomena. 

The  general  result  of  the  information  obtained  was  that  a  sound, 
variously  described,  and,  naturally  enough,  in  the  first  instance 
regarded  as  arising  from  an  earthquake,  was  heard  about  twenty 
minutes  past  eight  on  the  morning  of  Sunday,  the  20th  of  November, 
over  an  area 

"  Extendinof  east  and  west  from  near  Biiiy  St.  Edmunds  in  Suffolk  to  Upper 
I.amborne  on  the  western  border  of  Oxfordshire,  south  to  Watford  and  Reading-, 
and  north  to  St.  Neots,  Ri^ley  in  the  nonh  of  Bedfordshire,  Sulgrave  in 
N'orthampti)nshire,  and  an  isolated  point  near  Leamington  ;  the  sound  being 
aicompaniid  in  many  places  by  a  movement  of  the  air  of  sufficient  force  to  cause 
windows  to  rattle  and  light  objects  to  mo\e.  Bury  St.  Edmunds  and  Upper 
Lamborne  are  on  an  E^.X.E.  and  W.S.W.  line  about  150  miles  apart." 

According  to  Mr.  Fordham's  data  the  sound  was  heard  in  153 
distinct  localities,  distributed  among  the  following  eleven  counties  : — 
Suffolk,  i;  Essex,  6;  Cambridgeshire,  19;  Huntingdonshire,  3; 
Bedfordshire,  34  ;  Hertfordshire,  43  ;  Northamptonshire,  2  ;  Buck- 
inghamshire, 16  :  Warwickshire,  i  ;  Oxfordshire,  15  ;  and  Berkshire, 

13- 

Mr.  Fordham's  estimate  of  six  stations  in  Essex  at  which  the 
sound  was  heard  is  certainly  too  low — we  have  records  from  the 
following  places  in  the  county  :  —  Arkesden,  Audley  End,  Birchanger, 
Hroxted,  Chcsterford,  Chishall,  Clavering  Debden,  Elmdon,  Elsen- 
ham,  Farnham,  Finchingfield,  Heydon,  Newport,  Saffron  W^alden, 
Stanstead,  Mountfitchet,  Wendon,  (Src. 

From  Hertford,  and  from  Solihill,  near  Birmingham,  about  the 
^ame  time  on  November  20th,  a  meteor  was  seen  ;  from  Hertford 
passing  towards  the  westward,  from   a   i)oint  about  N.E.  to  a  point 


46  THE    METEORITE    OF    NOVKMl'.RR    LAST. 

about  W'.N.W.,  and  from  Solihull  at  a  point  reported  to  be  due  S. 
of  that  place.  Elsewhere  the  foggy  state  of  the  atmosphere  appears 
to  have  prevented  the  meteorite  from  being  seen. 

Mr.  Fordham  admits  the  difficulty  of  bringing  the  whole  numl)er 
of  records  into  complete  harmony,  but  he  thinks  that  the  following 
deductions  seem  fairly  to  arise  from  a  consideration  of  the  various 
reports  : — 

(i)  That  a  meteorite  of  considerable  magnitude  passed  across  central  England 
at  a  very  high  velocity  at  8.20  a.m.  on  the  morning  of  November  20th,  1K87  ; 
(2)  that  its  traclt  may  be  laid  down  approximately  on  the  map  as  passing  over 
East  Harling,  Newmarket,  Barrington,  Aylesbury,  Thame  and  Wantage  :  (3) 
that  its  elevation  was,  at  Ea=t  Harling,  between  twenty  and  thirty  miles,  and  was 
in  the  latter  part  of  its  course  between  five  and  ten  miles  ;  (4)  at  the  points  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Ampthill,  Thame,  and  Abingdon  and  Wantage,  explosions  took 
place  which  account  for  the  sounds  and  shock  reported  by  numerous  observers  ; 
and  (5)  that  the  explosion  in  the  Abingdon-Wantage  district  terminated  the 
course  of  the  meteorite  by  final  dissipation  of  its  mass  either  in  solid  fragments  or 
as  gaseous  products  of  its  combustion. 

The  report  is  furnished  with  a  map  showing  the  area  in  which  the 
meteorite  was  observed  and  laying  down  approximately  its  course. 
There  is  also  a  very  useful  list  of  references  to  records  of  former 
phenomena  of  the  kind. 

[Among  the  letters  collected  for  the  intended  report  is  one  from  Mr.  Working- 
ton Smith  in  which  he  gives  sorr.e  interesting  particulars  of  a  similar  bolide  which 
passed  over  Dunstable  about  forty  years  ago.  As  Mr.  Smith  believes  that  no 
report  has  been  published  of  this  we  print  his  notes  here  : — "  A  gigantic  meteor 
fell  here  [Dunstable]  about  1849,  in  the  summer,  about  11  p.m.  A  few  people 
saw  it,  but  all  heard  it ;  amongst  others  my  wife  that  now  is.  Old  people  remem- 
ber it.  They  say  it  was  a  very  dark  but  very  starlight  night,  when  suddenly  a 
terrific  rush  and  explosion  was  heard  in  the  air.  The  people  who  saw  it  say  that  the 
whole  sky  was  one  mass  of  fire  and  sparks,  and  of  different  colours.  My  wife  was 
going  to  bed  at  the  time,  and  although  the  shutters  were  closed  (she  was  down- 
stairs) the  room  was  illuminated  as  if  by  the  sun  of  mid-da;,-.  She  says  the  sound 
was  like  a  '  ton  of  coal  being  suddenly  thrown  down  in  front  of  the  house.'  She 
was  so  stunned  and  frightened  that  she  dare  not  leave  the  room  or  go  to  the 
door,  but  at  length  she  heard  some  neighbours  speaking  in  the  street,  and  then 
she  went  to  the  door.  From  them  she  learned  of  the  sky  being  one  mass  of  lire 
just  before.  When  she  looke.i  out  the  stars  were  shining  as  usual  and  all  was 
calm." 


Puffin  at  Bures.  — Mr.  Pettit  has  a  Pufifin  {Fralerculn  arctica'),  for  preserva- 
tion, caught  at  Bures  on  the  river  Stour  a  few  days  since,  a  rather  unusual  locality 
for  such  a  sea-loving  bird,  but  the  late  stormy  weather  may  have  driven  it  out  of 
its  course.— IIi-NRV  Lavek,  F.L.S.,  Colciiester,  janiary  17th,  1891. 


47 


VITAL    STATISTICS    FOR    THE    COUNTY    OF 

ESSEX. 

Hy  JOHN  C.  THRF.SH,  D.Sc,  M.n.,   K.R.Mel.Soc,  etc. 

{Medical  Officer  of  Health  for  the  Chelmsford  and  Maldon  Rural  Sanitary  Districts.) 
[Read  March  2lst,  iSgi.^ 

'  I  "*HE  following  statistics  have  been  compiled  from  the  returns  of 
the  Registrar-General  for  the  several  quarters  of  the  year  1890.' 

The  [)()pulation  of  Essex  in  the  middle  of  1890,  according  to  the 
Registrar-General's  method  of  estimation,  will  be  676,410,  but,  as  I 
pointed  out  last  year,  the  probability  is  that  this  is  too  low.  Calcu- 
lating the  population  of  the  rural  and  urban  districts  separately  I 
estimate  the  population  at  743,390.  The  census  to  be  taken  this 
spring  will  show  which  is  the  more  correct.  The  rates  given  in  the 
tables  which  follow,  and  having  reference  to  the  whole  country,  are 
based  upon  the  higher  estimate. 

Marriages. — During  the  year  4,625  marriages  have  been  regis- 
tered in  the  county,  giving  an  annual  rate  of  i2"4  per  1,000  per- 
sons living  as  compared  with  i2-o  for  the  three  preceding  years. 

Births. — The  number  of  births  registered  was  23,254,  giving  a 
birth-rate  of  31  "3  per  1,000  persons  living.  The  mean  rate  for  the 
preceding  three  years  was  33"i,  so  that  the  decline  is  steadily  continu- 
ing. 

Deaths. — During  the  year  12,873  dc-'^ths  have  been  registered, 
giving  a  death-rate  of  17 '3  against  177  for  the  preceding  ten  years 
and  1 5 'I  for  the  year  1889. 

The  number  of  deaths  of  infants  under  i  year  was  3,196,  giving 
a  mortality  of  137  per  1,000  children  born.  This  is  above  the 
average  and  considerably  higher  than  the  rate  which  obtained  last 
year,  viz..,  1 13  deaths  per  1,000  births. 

The  deaths  from  all  causes  included  1,785  from  the  seven  principal 
zvmotic  diseases,  giving  a  death-rate  of  2*4  per  1,000,  which  is  about 
the  mean  for  the  preceding  ten  years,  but  considerably  higher  than 
the  rate  for  1889  which  was  only  i-6. 

In  the  following  table  the  death,  birth,  marriage  rates,  and  infantile 
mortality,  are  compared  with  the  corresponding  rates  for  England  and 
Wales. 

I  Kor  the  summary  of  the  Sanitary  Co  idiiion  of  Essex  for  the  ten  years,  1879-1388,  anil   for 
the  year  1885,  see  I)r'.  Thresh's  papc  in  F.sskx  Natl'rai.ist,  vol.  iv.  pp.  97-99.  -  Etl. 


48 


VITAL    STATISTICS    FOR    THE 


PER     I,000    PERSONS    LIVING. 


1 

iXqo                   !  Marriage 
^^90-                  ,      Rate. 

Birth 
Rate. 

Death 
Rate. 

Death 

Rate  from 

Zymotic 

Disease. 

Death  of 
chldrn  under 
I  year  per 
1,000  chil- 
dren born. 

Essex          ...          ...       12-4 

England  and  Wales         i5"o 

i 

31-3 
29.7 

17-3 
19-2 

2-4 
2-03 

137 

DEATH-RATES    PER      I,000     OF     POPULATION    IN     THE    VARIOUS    SUB- 
REGISTRATION    DISTRICTS. 


Registration  District. 

Typhoid 
Fever. 

Seven   princi- 
pal Z3-motic 
Diseases. 

All  causes. 

West  Ham    ... 

•19 

3-1 

17-9 

Epping 

•17 

2-5 

i8-6 

On  gar 

•20 

2"I 

157 

Romford 

•36 

2-3 

i8-8 

Orsett 

•28 

3  "4 

20-9 

Billericay* 

•43 

1-9 

i7*6 

Chelmsford 

..     1           '12 

2-3 

166 

Rochford 

•79 

2"2 

167 

Maiden 

•25 

17 

17-8 

Tendring 

.. 

•06 

i'4 

i6-5 

Colchester 

■03 

I'2 

19-4 

Lexden 

•00 

■7 

17-3 

Halstead 

■00 

•4 

i8-o 

Braintree 

•04 

II 

17-6 

I^unmow 

•06 

•7 

i6-6, 

Saffron  Walden 

•00 

•6 

15-8 

a  Including  the  County  Asylum. 


There  is  no  doubt  that  the  death-rates  have  been  considerably 
affected  by  the  influenza  epidemic  which  prevailed  in  the  spring.  In 
some  parts  of  the  county  the  medical  practitioners  assert  that  fully 
50  per  cent,  of  the  population  were  attacked.  The  number  of  deaths 
directly  attributable  to  the  disease  was  small,  but  there  is  every  reason 
to  believe  that  indirectly  it  considerably  increased  the  mortality. 


THE    COUNTY    OF    ESSEX. 


49 


METEOROLOGY. 

Tlie  following  table  is  compiled  from  the  daily  observations 
made  at  the  Climatological  Station  of  the  Royal  Meteorological 
Society  at  Chelmsford.  Latitude  5i"44'N.  Longitude  o''3o'  E. 
Height  above  sea-level  135  feet. 


January 

February 

March 

April 

^Lay 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

I  )ecember 


Mean 
Tempera- 
ture. 


42-8 

37  "C) 
427 

45'2 
53"4 
57-8 
597 
59-5 
57-8 
48-3 

417 
28-2 


Mean 

Daily 

Range. 

Relative 
Humidity. 

Num.  of 
Rainy 
Days. 

l2*o 

90- 

17 

IO"I 

93' 

7 

i6-6 

88- 

1 1 

17-4 

73-5 

9 

21-8 

67- 

9 

I9'2 

IT 

16 

i8-i 

8o- 

15 

i8-6 

79- 

14 

i8- 

94* 

6 

17-4 

87- 

10 

13-2 

91- 

21 

123 

90- 

9 

Rainfall. 


2  "04 
1-03 
2*09 

I '93 

2"I2 
4-41 

273 

•67 

I'll 

2*07 

75 


Total 


144 


22"IO 


The  lowest  temperature  recorded  was  on  December  22  nd,  when 
the  min.  thermometer  registered  4*^3  or  nearly  28"  below  freezing 
point.  The  highest  temperature,  79"5,  was  recorded  on  August  6th. 
The  atmosphere  was  dryest  during  May,  when  the  relative  humidity 
was  only  67 "4.  The  air  was  most  moist  during  February  and 
September,  yet  this  latter  month  was  the  month  of  least  rainfall. 
Probably  this  coincidence  had  some  relation  to  the  extensive  preva- 
lence of  typhoid  which  commenced  in  that  month.  The  rainfall  for 
the  year  was  a  little  below  the  average  for  the  past  ten  years,  Mr. 
Impey's  register  at  Bloomfield  Hall  giving  22*5  in.  as  the  average  for 
that  period. 


A  Dry  February.  — Mr.  \V.  II.  Penrose,  J. P.,  of  the  Rookery,  Dedham,  writes  as 
follows  :  "  A  month  without  a  drop  of  rain  is  beyond  my  former  experience.  Such 
has  been  the  month  of  Februar\-,  1891,  the  moisture  registered  being  the  result  of 
the  dense  fogs  so  generally  experienced.  .01  inch  (fog)  was  registered  on  Feb.  4, 
6,  20,  22,  23,  24,  25,  and  26  ;  and  .01  inch  on  Feb.  i  (white  frost).  The  total  for 
the  month  was  .09  inches." 


5° 


ESSEX    WORTHIES. 

III. —WILLIAM   GILBERT.  OF  COLCHESTER,  FOUNDER    OF 
THE   SCIENCE  OF  ELECTRICITY. 

By   SILVANUS   P.   THOMPSON,    D.Sc,    B.A.,    F.R.A.S.,   &c. 

(Principal  and  Professor  of  Physics,  City  and  Guilds  Technical  College,  Finsburj.) 

[A   Lecture  delivered  at  the  Meeting  at  Colchester,  Ju  y  Sth,  iSgo.\ 

A  MONG  the  worthies  whose  names  have  made  famous  the 
"  spacious  times  of  great  EHzabeth,"  none  in  this  nineteenth 
century  deserves  greater  honour  than  Dr.  WilHam  Gilbert,  President 
of  the  Royal  College  of  Physicians,  and  Physician  in  Ordinary  to 
Her  Majesty  the  Queen. ^  His  name,  though  less  familiar  to  the 
general  public,  is  known  to  every  electrician  as  that  of  the  man  who 
not  only  rescued  from  empiricism  and  mysticism  the  subject  of  the 
magnet,  but  who  also  founded  the  theory  of  the  compass  by  his 
demonstration  of  the  magnetism  of  the  globe.  In  an  age  when  the 
fantastic  philosophies  of  the  schoolmen  still  prevailed  he  calmly 
worked  out  the  inductive  method  of  reasoning  from  the  known  to 
the  unknown,  trying  his  arguments  by  the  touchstone  of  experiment. 
Nor  is  even  this  his  greatest  glory.  What  Shakespeare  is  to  the 
drama — what  Raleigh  is  to  geography — what  Drake  is  to  naval 
warfare — what  Bacon  is  to  philosophy — that,  and  more  than  that,  is 
Gilbert  to  the  science  of  electricity.  There  were  dramatists  before 
Shakespeare,  geographers  before  Raleigh,  naval  heroes  before  Drake, 
and  philosophers  before  Bacon,  but  there  were  no  electricians  before 
Gilbert.  He  stands  forth  not  merely  as  the  brilliant  exponent  of  the 
science  of  electricity,  he  is  its  absolute  founder.  His  great  work, 
"De  Magnete,"  published  in  1600,  after  many  years  of  patient, 
laborious,  and  costly  research,  drew  the  attention  of  all  the  learned 
men  of  Europe,  and  won  for  him  an  undying  fame. 

"  I  extremely  admire  and  envy  the  author  of  De  MagKe/e,"  wrote 
Galileo,  the  famous  astronomer.  "  I  think  him  worthy  of  the 
greatest  praise  for  the  many  new  and  true  observations  which  he  has 
made." 

"  Gilbert  shall  live  till  loadstones  cease  to  draw, 
Or  British  fleets  the  boundless  ocean  awe." 

sang  Dryden  in  his  Epistle  to  Dr.  Charlton. 

1  A  considerable  amount  of  information  respecting  Dr.  Clilberd  was  given  in  the  report  of  the 
meeting  at  Colchester,  in  the  Essex  Naturalist,  vol.  iv.  pp.  174-185. — Ed. 


WIM.IAM    ClI.Iil'.RT.  5t 

Fuller,  in  ciuimcrating  the  worthies  who  have  adorned  the  county 
of  Essex,  ([uaintly  writes  of  him  as  follows:  ^^ Mahomet's  totnbe  at 
Afec/iti  is  said  strangely  to  /uj/ii:;  up,  attracted  by  some  invisible  Load, 
stone ;  but  the  memory  of  this  Doctor  will  never  fall  to  the  ground, 
which  his  incomparable  book  '  De  Magnete '  will  support  to  eternity." 

What  manner  of  man  this  was,  and  why  we  ascribe  to  him 
honours  so  unique,  it  is  our  present  task  to  set  forth. 

AN'illiam  Gilbert,  or  Gilberd,  as  his  name  is  sometimes  spelled, 
was  born,  in  1540,  in  Colchester,  of  which  ancient  borough  his 
father,  Hierom  Gilberd,  was  at  one  time  Recorder. 

Of  his  boyhood  little  or  nothing  is  known  ;  indeed  it  is  sur- 
prising that  there  is  little  to  chronicle  about  so  great  a  man  beyond 
the  dates  of  a  few  salient  events  in  his  career.  In  May,  1558, 
being  then  eighteen  years  old,  he  matriculated  at  St.  John's  College, 
Cambridge,  at  which  university  he  remained  for  eleven  years.  At 
the  end  of  1560  he  proceeded  to  his  bachelor's  degree;  and  on 
March  21st,  156^,  he  was  admitted  as  a  Fellow  on  Symson's  Founda 
tion.  In  1564  he  "commenced"  M.A.  For  the  two  following 
years  he  was  mathematical  examiner  in  his  college,  and  appears  to 
have  turned  his  attention  to  medicine;  for  on  May  13th,  1569,  he 
was  admitted  M.D. ;  and  on  December  29th  of  the  same  year  was 
elected  to  a  Senior  Fellowship.  After  this  he  left  England  to  travel 
in  foreign  countries.  His  precise  course  of  travel  is  unknown  ;  but 
he  made  the  acquaintance  of  many  persons  of  distinction  in  the 
great  historic  universities,  with  some  of  whom  he  is  known  to  have 
been  subsequently  in  correspondence.  Passages  in  his  published 
works  show  him  to  have  resided  in  Mantua,  Venice,  and  other 
cities  ;  and  his  knowledge  of  geography  was  very  considerable.  He 
returned  to  England  in  1573,  and  was  at  once  made  a  Fellow  of  the 
Royal  College  of  Physicians.  On  November  27th,  1577,  was 
granted  to  him  the  coat  of  arms  which  is  figured  behind  the  title- 
page  of  his  book,  and  was  subsequently  emblazoned  in  carved  stone 
upon  his  tomb.  From  1581  till  1590  he  was  Censor  of  the  Royal 
College:  he  was  its  Treasurer  from  1587  to  1591,  and  again  from 
1597  to' 1599.  In  1600  he  was  made  President,  an  honour  which 
he  did  not  long  retain,  as  he  died  on  November  3rd,  1603,  aged 
sixty-three  years.  He  was  never  married  ;  but  the  name  of  the 
family  was  preserved  by  his  four  brothers,  one  of  whom,  by  a  curious 
circumstance  also  named  William,  was  a  proctor  in  the  Court  of  Arches. 

Seventy    years    later    there    was    living    at    Burnt,    Ely,    another 

K  2 


52  ESSEX    WORTHIES. 

William  Gilbert,  a  clergyman,  who  bore  the  same  arms  ;  presumably, 
therefore,  a  descendant  of  the  same  family.  The  Gilbert  family  still 
exists,  scattered  chiefly  over  the  county  of  Norfolk. 

It  is  stated  by  Hervey  that  Gilbert  expended  upon  his  magnetic 
researches  no  less  considerable  a  sum  than  ;^5,ooo.  His  experi- 
ments with  loadstones  lasted  for  many  years,  and  he  possessed  a 
remarkable  collection  of  them.  He  al.so  had  many  instruments, 
some  of  which  are  figured  in  his  book.  He  himself  devised 
some  forms  of  instruments  for  navigation,  which  are  described  in  a 
subsequent  work  by  Thomas  Blundeville.  His  charts,  globes, 
magnets,  instruments  and  manuscripts  he  bequeathed  at  his  death  to 
the  possession  of  the  Royal  College  of  Physicians.  He  received  a 
pension  from  Queen  Elizabeth,  by  whom  he  was  much  esteemed. 
It  is  said,  I  know  not  on  what  authority,  that  he  was  the  only  man  to 
whom  she  left  anything  in  her  will.  You  have  also  a  tradition 
amongst  you,  doubtless  derived  from  reliable  sources,  that  Queen 
Elizabeth  once  visited  the  Doctor  at  his  house  in  Colchester. 

To  estimate  the  magnitude  of  his  achievements  in  science  it  is 
requisite  briefly  to  review  the  state  of  knowledge  with  respect  to 
magnetism  and  electricity  before  the  appearance  of  his  epoch- 
making  work. 

The  property  of  the  loadstone  to  attract  pieces  of  iron,  or  other 
loadstones,  was  a  fact  known  to  antiquity,  and  explained  as  usual  by 
the  ascription  of  magical  or  occult  powers.  Pliny  mentions  that  a 
ring  of  iron  hung  to  a  loadstone  can  attract  a  second,  and  the 
second  a  third,  until  a  chain  of  rings  hangs  from  the  stone  ;  an 
experiment  also  described  in  poetry  by  Lucretius.  Lucretius  also  was 
aware  that  magnetic  forces  are  not  screened  off  by  the  interposition 
of  other  metals ;  for  he  mentions  the  attraction  of  iron  toward  a 
brazen  vase  within  which  a  magnet  was  enclosed.  Nothing  more 
appears  to  have  been  known  about  the  magnet  until  about  the 
eleventh  ctntury,  when  the  directive  power  of  the  loadstone  became 
known.  This  discovery,  so  important  in  the  history  of  navigation,  is 
variously  attributed  to  the  Chinese,  the  Arabians,  and  to  an  Italian 
named  Flavio  Goia,  who  lived  at  Amalfi,  in  the  thirteenth  century. 
Gilbert  himself  states  that  the  mariners'  compass  was  first  brought  to 
Italy  from  China,  in  1260,  by  the  famous  traveller,  Marco  Polo.  On 
the  other  hand,  in  the  Icelandic  chronicle  of  Are  Frode,  which  was 
written  about  the  end  of  the  eleventh  century,  there  is  a  distinct 
record    ot    the    use    of    the     loadstone    for   directing    the    seaman. 


WILLIAM    GILBERT.  53 

Further,  Cardinal  de  Vitri,  who  wrote  a  History  of  Jerusalem  about 
the  year  1200,  also  describes  the  magnetised  needle  as  indispensable 
in  navigation.  An  obscure  author,  Peter  Peregrinus,  whose  existence 
was  for  long  considered  mythical,  and  who  wrote  a  letter  upon  mag- 
netism reputed  to  be  of  a  date  at  the  end  of  the  thirteenth  century, 
describes  the  fact  that  the  north-pointing  end  or  region  of  one  load- 
stone will  attract  the  south-pointing  end  or  region  of  another  load- 
stone. Peregrinus's  letter  was  certainly  published  as  a  small  book  of 
forty-three  pages,  small  quarto,  at  Augsburg,  in  1558.  On  14th  of 
September,  1492,  Columbus,  when  about  200  leagues  west  of  the 
European  coast,  noticed  for  the  first  time  the  declination  of  the 
compass  needle  from  the  true  north.  According  to  Gilbert,  the  same 
discovery  was  made  (in  1498)  by  Sebastian  Cabot.  But  it  was  not 
till  the  middle  of  the  sixteenth  century  that  accurate  measurements 
were  made  of  the  amount  of  declination  in  Europe.  Robert 
Norman,  a  compass-maker  in  Limehouse,  found  that  the  compass 
pointed  11°  15'  to  the  east  of  the  true  north.  Borough,  Comptroller 
of  the  Royal  Navy,  in  1580  found  it  to  be  11°  19'.  The  dip  of  the 
needle  was  discovered  also  by  Norman  in  1576;  and  the  same  fact 
was  independently  observed  in  1544  by  Hartmann,  of  Nuremberg. 
Norman  constructed  a  dipping  needle,  by  the  aid  of  which  he  ascer- 
tained the  angle  of  dip  at  London  to  be  71^  50'.  Another  isolated 
fact  was  discovered  in  1590  by  a  surgeon  of  Rimini,  named  Julius 
Ccesar,  namely,  that  a  vertical  bar  of  iron  used  as  a  support  on  the 
top  of  the  tower  of  the  church  of  St.  Augustine,  had  acquired  mag- 
netic properties.  In  1558  John  Baptista  Porta,  the  reputed  inventor 
of  the  magic  lantern,  published  a  work  on  natural  magic,  the  seventh 
chapter  of  which  is  devoted  to  the  magnet,  and  to  the  tricks  which 
may  be  played  by  means  of  it.  Porta  added  a  little  to  previous 
knowledge.  He  speaks  (I  quote,  however,  from  the  subsequent 
edition  of  165 1)  of  the  two  poles  of  the  loadstone,  which  he  some- 
times speaks  of  as  the  boreal  and  austral  poles,  and  sometimes  as 
the  arctic  and  antarctic  poles  of  the  stone.  He  gave  a  method  of 
finding  the  position  of  the  poles  on  the  stone.  He  was  also  aware 
that  a  loadstone  when  divided  into  two  parts  becomes  two  complete 
loadstones.  He  mentions  that  the  magnetism  produced  in  a  piece 
of  iron  by  rubbing  the  end  of  it  with  the  north  pole  of  a  loadstone  is 
diminished  by  subsequently  rubbing  the  same  end  with  the  south 
pole.  He  states  that  the  only  way  of  destroying  the  magnetism  of  a 
magnet  is  by  heating  it  with  fire.    He  also  combated  a  fal)le  handed 


54  ESSEX    WORTHIES. 

down  from  Plutarch  and  Ptolemy  that  garlic  rubbed  over  a  magnet 
destroys  its  power,  unless,  according  to  Ruelius,  it  be  restored  by 
anointing  it  with  goat's  blood.  Another  fable  of  Marbodeus,  that  a 
magnet  is  powerless  in  the  presence  of  a  diamond,  is  also  refuted  by 
Porta.  The  latest  work  on  magnetism,  prior  to  the  appearance  of 
(Gilbert's  treatise,  was  a  small  pamphlet  which  appeared  in  1597, 
entitled  "  The  Seaman's  Supply,"  byWilliam  Barlowe,  which  gave  for 
the  use  of  navigators  many  facts  about  the  declination  of  the  com- 
pass at  different  sea-ports,  and  about  the  amount  of  the  dip  at 
different  parts  of  the  earth. 

All  these  earlier  publications  in  magnetic  subjects  consisted,  as 
will  be  noticed  in  the  announcement  of  isolated  facts  and  properties 
rather  than  in  any  systematic  investigation  or  consistent  explanation. 
The  significance  of  the  facts  was  not  seen  ;  and  they  were  in  many 
cases  mixed  up  with  exaggeration  and  myth.  The  only  explanations 
or  hypotheses  which  had  been  advanced  as  to  the  cause  of  the  ten- 
dency of  the  magnet  or  magnetised  needle  to  point  geographically 
north  and  south  were  wild  in  the  extreme.  Gilbert  himself  enumer- 
ates sundry  of  them  in  order  to  show  how  empty  and  ridiculous  they 
were.  Serapio  Mauritanus  and  others  reported  that  in  the  Indies 
there  were  magnetic  mountains  which  would  attract  the  ships  as  they 
sail  l)y  and  pull  the  iron  nails  out  of  them.  Paracelsus  and  Cardan 
considered  that  the  magnet  was  governed  by  some  virtue  proceeding 
from  the  constellation  of  the  Great  Bear  ;  and  after  the  discovery  that 
the  magnet  did  not  point  truly  northward,  Cardan  suggested  that  the 
star  in  the  tip  of  the  tail  of  the  Great  Bear  was  itself  a  magnet. 
Bessard  declared  that  the  compass  pointed  not  toward  the  pole  of  the 
earth,  but  to  the  pole  of  the  zodiac.  Glaus  Magnus  and  after  him 
Maurolycus  declared  that  there  was  a  magnetic  island  or  loadstone 
rock  in  the  north  sea  toward  which  the  compass  turned  its  point. 
Plancius  even  showed  its  position  upon  a  chart  of  the  globe. 

Such  was  the  state  of  the  science  when  "  De  Magnete  "  appeared. 
The  full  title  of  the  book,  as  it  appears  on  the  frontispiece  of  the 
folio  edition  of  1600  is  :  Guilielmi  Gilberti  Cokestrensis,  media 
Londmensis,  de  magnete,  magneticisqiie  corporilms,  et  de  magna  jnagnete 
iellure ;  Physiologia  ?iova,  plurimis  et  argume7itis,  et  expert  mentis 
demonstrata.     Londini.     Excudebat  Fetrus  Short.     Anno  M.D.C. 

The  volume  opens  with  a  glossary  of  terms  and  a  table  of  con- 
tents. The  work  is  divided  into  six  books,  each  book  being  sub- 
divided into  numerous  short  chapters. 


WILLIAM    GILBERT.  55 

The  first  chapter  of  Book  I.  is  devoted  to  a  review  of  the  older 
writers  and  their  various  opinions  and  vanities,  which  he  scornfully 
dismisses  by  remarking  that  only  plebeian  philosophers  delight  them- 
selves in  such  nonsense,  and  names  the  following  as  the  men  who 
have  really  added  to  magnetic  knowledge  :  Thomas  Hariot,  Robert 
Hues,  Edward  Wright,  Abraham  Kendall,  William  Borough,  William 
Barlowe,  and  Robert  Norman — all  Englishmen. 

In  the  second  chapter  he  enters  upon  a  learned  discussion  as  to 
the  etymology  of  the  word  magnet,  the  origin  of  its  discovery  in 
prehistoric  times,  and  the  localities  whence  the  loadstone  is  procured. 
In  the  third  chapter  begins  the  experimental  method.  The  proposition 
that  a  magnet  possesses  certain  parts,  or  poles,  distinguished  by  their 
natural  power  is  established  by  experiment ;  a  loadstone  ground  down 
on  a  lapidary's  wheel  to  a  spherical  shape  being  the  form  preferred, 
as  being  geometrically  the  most  perfect  and  as  being  fittest  for  experi- 
ments as  resembling  the  globe  of  the  earth.  Such  a  globular  load- 
stone Gilbert  called  a  "Terrella."  To  the  pole  pointing  southwards 
Gilbert  assigned  the  name  "  boreal "  on  account  of  the  law  of 
attraction  between  opposite  kinds  of  poles,  arguing  that  the  polarity 
of  the  pole  which  pointed  southwards  must  be  a  pole  of  the  opposite 
kind.  This  led  to  further  experiments  on  loadstones,  which  were  cut 
into  two  parts,  the  parts  being  floated  on  water  in  little  vessels. 
Subsequent  chapters  deal  with  the  attraction  of  the  loadstone  for  iron, 
and  with  the  properties  of  iron  as  contrasted  with  those  of  other 
metals ;  many  a  passing  hit  at  the  absurdities  of  astrologists  and 
alchemists  being  interposed.  He  then  shows  that  iron  which  has  not 
been  touched  by  any  loadstone  can  nevertheless  act  magnetically  on 
other  iron.  To  show  this  a  light  piece  of  iron  wire  is  thrust  through 
a  small  ball  of  cork  and  set  to  float,  and  toward  it  is  brought  the 
lower  end  of  a  long  iron  rod  held  above  it.  The  one  turns  toward 
the  other.  Another  experimental  discovery  is  that  a  long  iron  rod, 
delicately  hung  by  a  special  silk  thread,  will  turn,  even  though  not 
previously  magnetised  by  contact  with  any  magnet,  and  place  itself  in 
the  direction  of  the  compass.  In  chapters  fourteen  and  fifteen  is 
interpolated  a  description  of  the  alleged  medicinal  powers  of  the 
magnet,  beginning  with  its  use,  as  prescribed  by  Dioscorides  and 
Galen,  to  drive  away  melancholy,  and  ending  with  Paracelsus  who 
recommended  poultices  containing  powdered  magnets.  Short  shrift 
would  modern  magnetopathic  quacks  have  got,  with  their  magnetic 
belts  and  rings,  at  the  hands  of  the  outspoken  doctor.     After  a  short 


56  ESSEX    WORTHIES. 

discussion  of  the  differences  between  magnets  of  loadstone  and 
masses  of  iron  the  first  book  is  brought  to  a  close  with  a  remarkable 
chapter  which  gives  the  key-note  to  the  rest  of  the  work.  Its  title 
advances  the  proposition  that  the  terrestrial  globe  is  magnetic,  and  is 
a  magnet.  "  Our  new  and  unheard-of  opinion  concerning  the  earth  " 
is  his  way  of  emphasizing  his  discovery  that  the  earth  is  itself  also  a 
great  magnet — a  big  loadstone  :  for  it  was  by  this  hypothesis  that  he 
proposed  to  explain  the  puzzling  facts  of  the  several  variations  of  the 
compass  needle.  It  has  poles,  he  says,  not  mathematical  points  but 
natural  terminals,  and  between  them  lies  an  equator,  not  a  mathe- 
matical circle  but  a  natural  separation  between  the  two  polar  regions. 
The  whole  of  the  remainder  of  the  work  is  devoted  to  sustaining  this 
remarkable  generalisation. 

Book  II.  of  the  volume,  the  longest  of  all  the  six  sections,  deals 
with  magnetic  motions  and  forces.  Almost  immediately,  however, 
he  introduces  a  digression  upon  the  attractions  which  can  be  set  up 
by  rubbed  amber  and  other  electric  bodies,  a  digression  which  though 
itself  of  immense  importance  has  little  to  do  with  the  development  of 
his  theme.  We  will  deal  separately  with  this  interpolated  chapter, 
merely  observing  here  that  he  comes  to  the  conclusion  that  electric 
actions  are  comparable  with  cohesion  whilst  magnetic  actions  are 
comparable  with  gravity.  In  his  opinion  the  globe  of  the  earth  is 
collected  together  and  coheres  electrically,  though  it  is  directed  and 
turned  about  magnetically.  This  obscure  saying  becomes  more 
intelligible  by  the  light  of  later  passages.  The  next  chapters  of  Book 
II.  are  occupied  with  a  discussion  of  the  opinions  of  philosophers 
about  the  nature  of  magnets  and  the  origin  of  magnetic  attractions, 
followed  by  Gilbert's  own  views  thereon  and  an  account  of  his  experi- 
ments on  the  effects,  upon  the  attractive  power,  of  varying  the  exter- 
nal shape  of  the  loadstone.  Here  again  we  meet  with  his  spherical 
loadstones,  specially  constructed  for  these  observations.  He  points 
out  that  iron  chips  and  small  magnets  arrange  themselves  in  particu- 
lar directions,  dipping  towards  the  magnetic  poles  of  the  terrella,  as 
the  dipping  needle  does  towards  the  poles  of  the  earth.  He  con- 
ceived the  magnetic  power  as  extending  within  a  certain  limited  region 
external  to  the  stone  ;  and  he  indicates  in  his  simple  woodcuts  with 
external  curved  lines  the  orbits  of  the  magnetic  virtue.  In  one 
woodcut,  here  reproduced  in  reduced  facsimile,  (Fig.  i),  compass 
needles  are  shown  pointing  variously  over  various  regions  of  the 
terrella.      In  another,  (Fig.  2),  the  terrella  is  shown  enclosed  within  a 


WILLIAM    tllLHERT. 


57 


certain  orbit  of  magnetic  virtue,  as  by  a  surrounding  atmosphere.  In 
further  experiments  loadstones  were  cut  into  two  parts,  the  parts  being 
floated  on  water  in  Httle  vessels  to  observe  their  mutual  attractions 
and  repulsions.  All  experiments  which  Gilbert  considered  as  being 
original  he  claimed  as  his  own  by  affixing  an  asterisk,  large  or  small 
according  to  the  importance  of  the  matter,  in  the  margin  of  the  text. 
He  suggest  mapping  out  the  lines  of  magnetic  virtue  upon  the  surface 
of  his  terrella  as  the  parallels  of  latitude.  The  tropics,  the  arctic  circles 


Fig.  2. 


Fig.  I. 


|>'!^ 


J>-»=> 


GiLDEKt's   Sl'HERICAL    LOADSTONE, 

OR  Terrella. 


The  Terrella  and  its  surrounding  field 
of  action. 


and  the  meridians  are  marked  out  upon  a  geographical  chart  o^" 
terrestrial  globe.  The  fact  that  a  magnet  of  elongated  shape — a 
magnetic  rod — is  more  powerful  than  one  of  spherical  or  cubical  or 
any  other  shape  of  equal  weight  (the  horseshoe  shape  not  being  dis- 
covered until  many  years  later)  is  announced.  The  screening  effect 
of  a  sheet  of  thin  iron,  and  the  failure  of  other  metals  to  screen  off 
magnetic  action,  are  noted.  Then  comes  a  series  of  studies  on  the 
effect  of  capping  loadstones  with  armatures  of  iron,  and  on  the 
strengthening  of  the  power  of  loadstones.  Chapter  xxxii.  of  Book  II. 
is  a  notable  one,  containing  a  number  of  magnetic  aphorisms,  each 
tersely  summing  up  some  result  of  experiment  or  observation.  In  it  the 
principleofequalityofactionandreactionisillustrated  by  the  experiment 
of  floating  a  magnet  in  a  little  skiff  and  showing  that  it  attracts  itself  to 
a  piece  of  iron,  just  as  the  iron,  if  placed  in  the  skiff,  will  be  attracted 
to  the  magnet,  thus  furnishing  an  illustration  of  the  principle  of  action 
and  reaction.  Several  experiments  are  also  described  illustrative  of 
the  mutual  repulsions  of  similar  poles,  north  repelling  north  and  south 


58  ESSEX    WORTHIES. 

south.  Most  of  these  experiments  were  original  with  Gilbert,  and  are 
indicated  as  such  by  him,  by  the  placing  of  an  asterisk  opposite  the 
account  of  them  in  the  margin  of  the  book.  These  experiments  and 
aphorisms  are  continued  in  Chapter  xxxiii.,  which  deals  mainly  with 
the  swiftness  of  the  magnetic  motions,  and  he  states  that  the  speed  of 
the  motion  is  proportional  (inversely)  to  the  distance.  He  also 
showed  that  the  magnetic  forces  between  two  distant  magnets  could 
be  conducted  from  one  to  the  other  by  interposing  a  rod  of  iron  ;  the 
magnetic  virtue  being  transmitted  through  iron  much  better  than 
through  air.  At  the  end  of  this  chapter  he  describes  the  method  of 
obtaining  magnetic  figures  by  sprinkling  iron  filings  upon  a  card  laid 
over  a  magnet ;  and  remarks  on  the  movements  of  the  tufts  of  filings 
when  the  magnet  beneath  is  moved.  Chapter  xxxv.  contains  a  most 
characteristic  diatribe  against  certain  earlier  authors,  Cardan,  Peter 
Peregrinus  and  John  Taysnier,  who  had  pretended  that  a  perpetual 
motion  machine  might  be  made  by  means  of  a  magnet ;  and  ends  by 
exclaiming  :  Would  that  the  gods  might  send  to  perdition  all  such 
false,  misleading  and  crooked  labours  by  which  the  minds  of  studious 
men  are  warped  ! 

Book  III.  is  mainly  occupied  with  the  directive  action  of  the 
compass  and  of  loadstones,  and  of  the  property  of  polarity — or 
vcrticity — in  general.  Chapter  i.  describes  further  experiments  with 
the  terrella  made  to  illustrate  observations  made  on  the  compass  in 
distant  lands  which  had  been  communicated  to  Gilbert  by  Francis 
Drake — experiments  which  fully  confirmed  his  theories,  and  the 
results  of  which  are  summed  up  by  saying  that  all  magnetic  bodies 
behave  toward  the  globe  of  the  earth  precisely  as  other  magnets 
behave  toward  the  terrella,  the  laws  of  their  action  being  alike.  In 
the  following  chapters  further  experiments  with  loadstones  and 
needles  are  described,  relating  chiefiy  to  the  results  of  touching  one 
with  the  other.  Amongst  other  matters  which  helped  him  to  this 
conclusion  was  his  discovery  that  if  a  rod  of  iron  is  hammered  whilst 
lying  in  a  north-and-south  position  it  becomes  magnetized  by  the 
influence  of  the  earth's  magnetism.  This  observation  is  illustrated 
by  a  quaint  woodcut,  which  is  reproduced  on  a  smaller  scale  in 
Fig.  3- 

Books  IV.  and  V.  go  into  some  geographical  and  astronomical 
matters  ;  being  intended  chiefly  as  a  contribution  to  the  nautical 
api)lications  of  his  studies.  He  describes  sundry  instruments,  one 
of  them,  for  ascertaining  the  variation  of  the   compass  in  different 


WIl.l.l.Wl    (HLIiKUT. 
Fig.  3. 


59 


Pkocess  ok  Magnetizing   Ik(.in  uv  Hammering   while  it  lies   in    a    North-anu-South 

Position. 


Fig.  4. 


(lll.UtKT's   CoMI'AS.S    11  IK    OuSliKVlNG     IIIE    VaKIAIION 


6o  ESSEX    WORTHIES. 

regions,  being  that  shown  in  the  accompanying  reduced  woodcut. 
Several  others  are  depicted  in  his  book.  He  particularly  discusses 
the  effects  of  masses  of  iron  ore  in  mountains  and  continents  in 
producing  local  perturbations  or  variations  of  the  compass  ;  a  matter 
which  has  quite  lately  received  fresh  attention  recently  from  the 
magnetic  surveys  of  Professors  Riicker  and  Thorpe,  in  which  they 
have  measured  the  perturbing  effects  of  mountain-chains  such  as  the 
Malvern  Hills,  and  have  even  been  led  to  discover  the  existence  of 
underground  mountains,  one  of  which,  for  example,  is  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  Reading.  Book  VI.  is  of  a  more  speculative  character, 
dealing  with  magnetic  motions  and  cosmical  systems  :  the  main  point 
of  interest  in  it  being  its  frank  acceptance  of  the  astronomical 
doctrines  of  Copernicus. 

These  contributions  to  purely  magnetic  knowledge  were  of  great 
importance  ;  but  far  transcending  them  in  interest  is  a  short  digres- 
sion interpolated  in  the  Second  Book.  This  is  the  famous  chapter 
on  Electricity  which  laid  the  foundation  of  that  science.  Prior  to 
his  time  the  only  known  electrical  facts  w^ere  two  isolated  observa- 

FiG.  s. 


Gilbert's  Electroscope,  or  Versorium. 

tions  of  prehistoric  date.  The  mineral  amber,  or  electron^  then  of 
great  rarity  and  regarded  as  a  gem,  was  known  to  acquire,  when 
rubbed,  the  magical  property  of  attracting  straws  and  other  light 
objects,  A  similar  property  had  been  recognised  to  exist  in  jet. 
Amber  was  a  substance  about  which  there  was  something  uncanny. 
It  was  clear  like  glass,  when  of  good  quality,  but  was  often  found  to 
contain  flies  and  other  insects  enclosed  within  itself — "  shining," 
says  Gilbert,  "  in  eternal  sepulchres."  Much  had  the  ancients, 
including  Theophrastus  and  Pliny,  written  about  it  and  the  magical 
properties  which  it  exhibited  after  being  rubbed.  This  peculiar 
phenomenon  was  submitted  to  examination  by  Gilbert  with  an 
industry  and  experimental  sagacity  thoroughly  characteristic  of  the 
man.  He  devised  for  facilitating  the  observation  of  feeble  attractions, 
a  simple  instrument,  consisting  of  a  light,  stiff  arm  of  metal, 
resembling  in  shape,  a  compass  needle,  pivoted  like  a  compass  upon 


WILLIAM    GILBERT.  6 1 

a  pin.  This  apparatus,  termed  by  him  a  versormm,  constituted  the 
electroscope,  by  the  aid  of  which  he  disproved  the  idea  that  the 
alleged  magical  property  was  possessed  only  by  amber  or  by  jet.  He 
poured  out  the  vials  of  his  wrath  upon  the  empty-headed  and  inert 
philosophers  who  merely  copy  from  one  another  and  invent  high- 
sounding  Greek  words  wherewith  to  cloak  their  ignorance.  "  For 
not  only  do  amber  and  jet,  as  they  say,  draw  light  bodies,  but 
diamond,  sapphire,  carbuncle,  cat's-eye,  opal,  amethyst,  vincentina 
and  bristolla  (an  English  gem  or  spar),  beryl  and  rock  crystal  do  the 
same."  And  he  went  on  enumerating  a  host  of  other  substances 
possessing  similar  powers,  following  up  the  true  gems  with  false  gems 
made  from  paste,  glass  of  antimony,  slags,  belemnites,  sulphur, 
mastic,  hard  wax,  sealing  wax  variously  coloured,  resin  and  arsenic, 
and  also,  but  less  powerfully  and  only  in  dry  weather,  rock  salt, 
obsidian,  and  rock  alum.  All  these  substances,  because  they 
resembled  amber,  he  termed  electrics ;  whilst  he  gave  the  name  of 
cinelcctrics  to  another  class  of  substances  which  showed  no  such 
power,  and  which  included  the  following :  Emerald,  agate,  cornelian, 
pearls,  jasper,  alabaster,  porphyry,  coral,  marble,  flint,  haematite, 
emery,  bone,  ivory,  ebony  and  other  hard  woods,  cedar,  gold,  copper, 
iron,  and  the  other  metals,  and,  lastly,  the  loadstone.  The  substance 
which  above  all  others  possesses  the  magnetic  property  of  attracting 
iron  shows  no  trace  of  electric  action  when  rubbed  in  the  hand. 
From  the  terms  assigned  by  Gilbert,  the  word  electricitas — electricity — 
came  into  use  to  denote  the  unseen  agent  operating  in  these  actions. 
Gilbert  further  showed  that  the  power  of  attraction  exercised  by  the 
electric  when  rubbed  was  not  limited  to  mere  straws  or  chaff,  but 
that  all  metals  and  woods,  and  even  stones  and  earths  were  attracted. 
He  even  found  that  liquids,  oil  and  water  were  drawn  by  the  electric 
force.  He  ascertained  that  moisture  exercises  a  prejudicial  effect  on 
electrical  experiments.  He  observed  that  electrical  effects  can  be 
screened  off,  and  in  a  way  that  magnetic  effects  cannot,  by  the  inter- 
position of  a  sheet  of  metal,  or  even  by  a  piece  of  paper.  He  even 
ascertained  the  screening  effect  of  a  ring  of  flames.  His 
observations  stop  short  all  too  soon,  leaving  the  infant  science 
truly  in  a  state  of  infancy.  Nevertheless  he  was  the  pioneer  whose 
first  steps  showed  the  path  to  be  latter  trodden  by  Robert 
Boyle,  by  Francis  Hauksbee,  by  Sir  Isaac  Newton,  and  by  Benjamin 
Franklin  ;  and  therefore  is  beyond  dispute  the  father  of  electric 
science. 


62  ESSKX    WORTHIES. 

It  remains  to  he  told  how  Ciilhert's  work  was  received.  The 
book,  which  he  pubhshcd  in  Latin,  was  followed  by  two  editions, 
also  unfortunately  both  in  Latin,  published  in  Germany.  No 
Enghsh  edition  has  ever  been  published.  Strange  to  say  it  fell 
somewhat  flat.  The  world  was  hardly  prepared  to  accept  a  sober 
treatise,  based  on  simple  facts,  in  place  of  the  wild  and  speculative 
treatises  which  had  hitherto  passed  as  philosophic.  Men  knew  that 
Gilbert  had  travelled  abroad,  and  it  was  known  that  he  had  made 
researches  with  the  magnet;  but  they  were  expecting  him  to  write 
such  a  treatise  as  might  have  been  produced  by  Thomas  x\quinas, 
who  was  capable  of  discussing  how  many  angels  could  dance  on  the 
point  of  a  needle.  Scaliger,  in  one  of  his  epistles  {ad  Casaubon, 
1604),  speaks  of  a  certain  Englishman  who  three  years  previously 
had  brought  out  a  book  on  the  magnet,  which  was  nothing  worthy 
of  the  expectation  which  it  had  excited.  Bacon,  whom  so  many 
revere  as  the  founder  of  the  inductive  science,  calmly  appropriated 
and  reproduced  as  his  own  in  his  "  Opuscula  Philosophica,"  whole 
paragraphs,  almost  verbatim,  from  the  "  De  Magnete,"  but  he  did  not 
say  who  discovered  the  truths  set  forth  ;  and  when  he  mentioned 
Gilbert,  sneered  at  him,  in  his  "  De  Augmentis,"as  the  man  who  had 
made  a  whole  philosophy  out  of  the  observations  of  a  loadstone  ; 
and,  in  another  place,  he  refers  to  "  De  Magnete  "  as  a  "  painfull  and 
experimentall  work."  In  another  place,  in  the  "  Novum  Organon,"  he 
accuses  Gilbert  of  having  created  so  many  fables  about  the  electric 
operation,  which,  he  adds,  is  nothing  else  than  the  appetite  of  the 
body  excited  by  gentle  friction  !  Others  there  were  indeed  who 
better  appreciated  the  magnitude  of  Gilbert's  work.  Galileo,  as  we 
have  seen,  spoke  of  him  as  of  enviable  greatness.  Kepler  warmly 
welcomed  the  new  doctrine  of  the  earth's  magnetism,  and  devoted  a 
long  chapter  in  his  Treatise  on  Astronomy  to  the  exposition  of 
Gilbert's  views.  Barlowe,  the  learned  Archdeacon  of  Salisbury, 
whose  "  Magneticall  Aducrtisements  "  was  published  in  161 8,  speaks 
of  "  De  Magnete  "  as  "  the  very  true  fountaine  of  all  magneticall  know- 
ledge." Dr.  Marke  Ridley,  who  in  1613  published  "A  Short 
Treatise  of  Magneticall  Bodies  and  Motions,"  speaks  of  Gilbert's 
labours  as  "  the  greatest  and  best  in  Magneticall  Philosophic."  Sir 
Kenelm  Digby  classed  Gilbert  along  with  Harvey,  the  discoverer  of 
the  circulation  of  the  blood,  as  men  by  whose  means  our  nation 
may  claim,  even  in  this  latter  age,  a  crown  for  solid  philosophical 
learning. 


WILLIAM    (ilLI'.KRT.  63 

Gilbert  further  laid  the  foundations  of  future  scientific  progress 
by  founding  a  sort  of  society,  or  college,  which  met  monthly  at  his 
house  in  Peter's  Hill,  Knightrider  Street,  for  the  discussion  of 
philosophical  subjects,  and  which,  though  it  fell  into  abeyance  at  his 
death,  was  afterwards  revived  by  Sir  Christopher  Wren  and  others, 
and  received  the  patronage  of  King  Charles  II.,  and  was  called  the 
Royal  Society  in  honour  of  its  pious  founder. 

He  did  not  live  to  add,  as  he  purposed,  an  appendix  of  six  or 
eight  sheets  to  "  De  Magnete  ";  no  such  addition  appearing  in  either  of 
the  German  editions  published  at  Stettin  in  1628  and  1633  respect- 
ively. He  left  behind  him,  however,  the  manuscript  of  another 
work  of  lesser  merit,  which  was  posthumously  published  in  1651  by 
the  famous  printing-house  of  Elzevir,  entitled  "  De  mundo  nostro 
sublunari  Philosophia  novo."  It  is  chiefly  a  meteorological  and  cos- 
mical  treatise,  remarkable  indeed  for  one  speculative  point,  namely, 
a  suggestion  that  the  reason  why  the  moon  always  presents  the  same 
face  towards  the  earth  is  because  the  moon,  like  the  earth,  is 
magnetic. 

His  fame  as  physician  and  physicist  won  him  the  favour  of 
Queen  Elizabeth,  by  whom,  in  February,  1601,  he  was  appointed 
chief  physician.  He  even  received  from  her,  as  has  been  men- 
tioned, an  annual  pension  ;  and  was  continued  as  chief  physician  to 
James  I.,  an  honour  which  he  only  enjoyed  for  seven  months,  as  he 
died  on  November  30th,  1603. 

The  partial  oblivion  into  which  Gilbert's  fame  has  been  allowed 
to  fall  is  due  probably  mainly  to  the  loss  of  all  personal  relics  of 
him.  With  the  exception  of  a  single  doubtful  inscription,  "  ^.v  dono 
auctoris,''  in  a  single  copy  of  "  De  Magnete,"  not  a  line  of  his  hand- 
writing is  known  to  exist,-  unless  his  hand  wrote  the  signature  "  Yc 
President  and  Societie  "  at  the  end  of  a  petition,  preserved  amongst 
the  manuscripts  in  the  British  Museum,  addressed  by  the  Royal 
College  of  Physicians  in  1596  to  the  Lords  of  the  Privy  Council, 
complaining  of  the  exactions  of  the  Lord  Mayor  and  Aldermen  of 
London.  It  is  pretty  certain  that  the  MS.  copy  of  "  De  Mundo 
Nostro,"  in  Latin,  in  the  British  Museum,  is  not  in  the  author's  hand 
writing  ;  for  in  the  Elzevir  print  there  is  a  note  which  states  that  the 
author's  original  manuscript  was  partly  in  English.  It  is  sad  to 
relate  that  the  manuscripts,   maps,   letters,   magnets  and   minerals, 

2  Two  other  specimens,  believed  to  Ue  in  Gilbert's  handwriting,  have  Ijeen  recently  unenrthed. 
S.P.T.,  April,  1891. 


64         NOTES  ON  THE  PROLONGED  FROST,  189O-91. 

which  he  bequeathed  to  the  Royal  College  of  Physicians,  all  perished 
in  the  Great  Fire  in  1666.  Almost  equally  sad  is  it  that  his  portrait, 
painted  in  oils,  which  he  himself  presented  to  the  Schools'  Gallery 
of  Oxford,  has  disappeared.  It  is  believed  to  have  been  destroyed 
as  rubbish  forty  years  ago.  Only  a  steel  engraving,  made  in  1796, 
which  differs  from  the  original  picture  in  several  details,  remains  to 
witness  to  the  scholarly  features  of  the  great  doctor.  The  engraving 
in  reproduced  in  the  plate  (frontispiece  to  the  volume),  which 
accompanies  this  paper. 

His  residence  in  Colchester  still  stands,  and  his  tomb  in  the 
church  of  Holy  Trinity  still  proclaims  over  his  ashes  the  virtues 
which  he  practised  whilst  living."  But  his  memorial  remains  in  his 
magnetic  and  electrical  discoveries.  His  reputation  is  enshrined  in 
the  science  which  he  founded—"  shining  in  an  eternal  sepulchre." 


NOTES  ON  THE  RECENT  PROLONGED  FROST, 

1890-91. 

By  JOHN  C.  THRESH,  D.Sc,  M.B.,  F.R.,Met.Soc.,  etc. 
[Read  March  2ist,  iSgr.] 

'T^IIE  following  brief  notes  upon  the  recent  prolonged  frost  are  based  upon  the 
-*-  daily  observations  taken  at  the  Climatological  Station,  Chelmsford,  which 
is  in  my  charge. 

For  the  last  few  days  in  November  and  the  first  two  days  in  December  the  mean 
temperature  was  below  freezing  point  and  about  five  inches  of  snow  fell.  From 
the  3rd  to  the  gth  December  the  mean  daily  temperature  was  above  32°  F.  and  all 
the  snow  rapidly  disappeared.  The  prolonged  frost  set  in  on  the  loth,  when  the 
mean  temperature  fell  below  freezing  point  and  remained  constantly  below  until 
January  13th,  that  is,  for  a  period  of  thirty-three  days.  On  the  latter  date  the 
temperature  rose  to  33^9  and  remained  over  32°  until  the  i6th.  It  then  fell 
and  remained  low  until  the  20th,  when  it  again  rose  and  the  thaw  set  in.  With 
this  slight  intermission,  therefore,  the  frost  lasted  forty-one  days,  or  one  day  only 
short  of  six  weeks. 

The  coldest  day  was  December  22nd.  On  this  day  the  minimum  temperature 
was  4-3,  the  maximum  30-5.  At  9  a.m.  the  thermometer  stood  at  T9-  The  mean 
temperature  for  the  day  was  only  17-4.  The  subjoined  chart  is  interesting  as 
showing  at  a  glance  the  minimum  temperature  and  the  mean  dail}'  temperature 
throughout  the  whole  period  of  frost. 

Snow  fell  on  eleven  days.  The  heaviest  fall  was  on  December  i8th,  when  a 
depth  of  three  inches  was  registered.  The  snow  attained  its  greatest  depth  on 
the  30th,  where  there  was  between  five  and  six  inches  on  the  ground.  On  January 
20th  rain  fell  ("27  in.)  the  temperature  rose  and  the  snow  disappeared.     The  total 

3  The  best  drawing  and  description  of  the  tomb,  with  its  numerous  coats  of  arms,  and  some 
account  of  Gilbert's  family,  will  lie  found  in  Chancellors  "Ancient  Sepulchral  Monuments  of 
Essex,     pp.  202-6,  pi.  Ixvii.— Kd. 


i 


NOTES    ON    THE    PROLONGED    FROST,     1890-gi. 


65 


fall  of  snow  from  Deoembev  lOth  to  Januaiy  Kjlh  inclusive  correspondecl  to  -81  in. 
of  rain. 

During  the  whole  period  there  was  fortunately  but  little  wind.  A  force  of '3" 
was  the  maximum  registered,  and  that  on  one  occasion  only,  and  most  of  the  time 
easterly  winds  ])revailed. 


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JANUARY 

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ClI.\RT     SHOWING    MkaX    TeMTERATURF.    AND     MiXI.MUM     TEMPERATURE   EACH     DaY     DURING 

Prolonged  Frost  of  Winter  of  1890-91. 

Tkici  (upper)  line  Mean  Temperature  for  day  :  thin  (lower)  line  Minimum  Temperature 

for  day. 

As  for  some  weeks  there  was  only  a  thin  covering  of  snow  on  the  ground,  the 
effect  of  the  continued  cold  will  probably  have  proved  very  disastrotis  to  vegetation 
Some  of  our  members  who  are  interested  in  agriculture  will  probably  have  some- 
thing to  say  on  this  point. 

The  effect  of  the  prolonged  frost  on  water  mains : — No  observations  were  taken 
of  the  earth  temperature  at  varying  depths,  though  such  a  series  would  be  very 
interesting.  What  that  temperature  was,  however,  can  be  judged  from  its  effect 
upon  the  Chelmsford  water  mains. 

The  water  in  the  more  superficial  mains  was  frozen  before  Christmas,  and 
before  the  break  up  of  the  frost  the  mains  at  a  depth  of  two  feet  had  become 
affected.  This  of  course  caused  great  inconvenience  in  many  parts  of  the  town, 
and  it  was  sometime  after  the  thaw  had  set  in  that  the  ice  in  such  mains  melt:d. 
When  this  occurred  the  havoc  wrought  by  the  expansion  of  the  water  in  the 
art  of  freezing  became  apparent.  The  mains  had  been  fractured  in  most  diverse 
ways  and  to  varying  extents  and  water  w'as  rushing  to  waste  at  numbers  of 
places. 

The  moral  of  this  experience  is  that  water  mains  should  be  laid  at  a  greater 
depth  than  is  frequently  the  case.  The  slight  additional  first  cost  of  adopting 
such  a  course  is  as  nothing  compared  with  the  great  inconvenience,  annoyance 
and  damage  wrought  by  a  single  severe  frost  when  the  pipes  are  too  superficially 
bedded. 

F 


66 


NOTES  ON  THE  PROLONGED  FROST,  1890-91. 

By    J.    FRENCH    (Felstead). 

{Read  February  2Sth,  iSgi.^ 

A  FROST  of  eight  weeks'  duration  is  a  novelty  with  the  present  generation  and 
-^^     gi\es  rise  to  phenomena  correspondingly  unusual  and  worthy  of  remark. 

It  affects  more  or  less  (by  deprivation  of  food)  the  balance  of  animal  life,  and 
its  effect  on  the  disintegration  of  soils  and  rocks  invites  observation,  inasmuch  as 
the  ordinary  work  of  several  winters  seems  to  have  been  carried  out  in  as  many 
•weeks. 

We  have  no  means  of  judging  the  extent  to  which  animal  life  is  affected,  but 
provided  observations  were  reasonably  multiplied  we  might  infer  the  directions  in 
which  changes  would  take  place.  In  the  case  of  birds,  especially,  the  disturbing 
influence  of  man  becomes  apparent,  and  this  to  an  extent  proportionate  with  his 
civilization.  Thus  it  cannot  be  doubted  that  in  England  the  kindly  feeling 
towards  the  feathered  race  compares  favourably  with  that  obtaining  in  1814,  the 
year  of  the  last  prolonged  frost.  Man  has  distributed  immense  quantities  of  food 
to  the  birds  during  the  last  two  months  and  herein  lies  one  disturbing  element. 
Those  birds  which  are  shy  get  little  or  none  of  this  bounty  :  those,  on  the  other 
hand,  usually  frequenting  the  haunts  of  m.en  have  been  fed,  perhaps  sufficientl}', 
and  may  suffer  no  diminution  of  numbers.  Sparrows  and  starlings  are  notable 
instances.  All  attempts  that  I  have  seen  made  to  feed  the  shyer  members,  of 
which  rooks,  thrushes,  blackbirds  and  finches  may  be  taken  as  examples,  have  met 
with  indifferent  success.  Although  these,  with  me,  have  all  put  in  an  appearance 
daily,  I  cannot  but  think  that  very  few  of  the  early  comers  have  survived.  Many 
thrushes  dead  of  starvation  have  been  picked  up  on  the  very  ground  where  the 
starling  has  flourished,  and  it  must  be  noted  that  suitable  food  has  been  supplied. 
I  am  also  credibly  informed  that  after  the  frost  of  1814  many  hundreds  of  starved 
rooks  were  removed  from  Sheepcotes  Wood  at  Little  Waltham,  which  was  then, 
as  it  is  now,  the  winter  home  of  all  the  rooks  of  the  district.  We  should  have, 
therefore,  as  an  ultimate  result  of  this  eight  weeks'  frost  an  excess  of  starlings  and 
sparrows  and  a  diminution  in  the  numbers  of  many  other  species. 

Connected  with  that  observation  of  the  dead  rooks  in  1814,  I  was  informed  that 
that  winter  told  heavily  on  hares  and  rabbits,  many  of  the  trees  in  that  wood  being 
denuded  of  bark  to  the  height  at  which  these  animals  could  graze.  Certain  it  is 
also  that  rats  and  weasels  had  vacated  the  wood  at  the  time  or  the  dead  rooks 
would  not  have  remained  unmolested.  I  cannot  hear,  however,  upon  enquiry, 
that  hares  or  rabbits  have  suffered  very  much  this  winter. 

A  curious  phenomenon  in  relation  to  some  pond  fish  has  been  here  observed. 
It  was  noticed  that  upon  breaking  the  ice  in  certain  ponds  the  fish  came  to  the 
hole  and  remained  there  with  their  mouths  protruding,  giving  the  idea  of  vitiated 
water  under  the  ice.  The  explanation  seems  to  be  that  at  the  outset,  in  consequence 
of  the  state  of  the  springs,  the  ponds  were  low.  The  increase  of  the  ice  also 
further  diminished  the  quantity  of  available  w'ater  and  thus  the  water  remaining 
really  became  vitiated.  It  would  be  curious  to  follow  up  the  possible  result  to 
the  pond  fauna  of  a  frost  sufficient  to  congeal  all  the  water.  Death,  almost  cer- 
tainly, and  the  first  stage  of  fossilisation,  probably,  would  ensue,  and  this  brings 
us  to  notice  the  geological  effects  of  a  prolonged  frost. 


i 


NOTES    ON    THK    PkOI.ONM  ;i:i)    KROSI',     189O-9I.  67 

In  the  case  of  the  dead  fish,  when  the  tliaw  set  in  the  surface  o(  the  ground 
would  be  the  first  disturbed  and  that  possibly  to  such  an  extent  as  to  bring  a  laj-er 
of  eai  th  over  the  pond  ice,  which  would  eventually  sink  and  entomb  the  dead 
organisms.  Similar  denudation  attending  the  break  up  of  the  frost  can  now  lie 
observed  at  the  bottoms  of  fields  which  have  a  slight  inclination.  The  result  is  a 
layer  of  brick-earth  deposited,  similar  to  that  following  a  heavy  rain,  only  ^ery 
much  greater  in  quantity  ;  as  we  have  before  observed,  the  work  of  seasons  is  here 
done  in  a  few  weeks. 

One  other  possible  case  of  fossilisation  is  presented  by  the  dead  rooks  in  tlie 
wood.  Suppose,  instead  of  carting  away  those  looks  to  manure  the  field,  as  w.is 
actually  done,  they  had  been  allowed  to  remain.  Their  desiccated  carcases  would 
have  held  out  but  little  temptation  to  the  returning  rodents  and  carnivores  of  the 
summer.  When  the  autumn  arrived  they  would  have  received  a  coveting  of 
leaves  and  so  easily  have  passed  to  the  first  stage  of  preservation.  The  present 
speculative  position  of  the  conditions  under  which  organisms  are  entombed  is  my 
apology  for  venturing  upon  these  suppositions. 

The  rapid  work  of  the  frost  in  disintegration  has  been  forcibly  brought  to 
notice  in  the  following  instance.  Some  Boulder-clay  of  a  very  chalky  character 
had  been  thrown  out  last  autumn.  Ordinarily  the  lumps  of  chalk  would  have 
wasted  ver^^  slowly  under  exposure  from  year  to  year.  Now,  the  appearance  of 
the  heaps  is  that  of  a  mass  of  white  slimy  clay,  the  lumps  of  chalk  having  quite 
disappeared.  As  bearing  upon  the  work  of  decalcification  the  instance  is 
instructive.  That  work  must  now  proceed  there  with  greatly  accelerated  velocity. 
Of  the  effect  of  the  frost  in  splitting  rocks  we  have  also  one  instance.  A  pa\  e- 
ment  in  this  village  (Felstead)  is  laid  with  flags  of  an  indurated  sandstone.-  Some 
two  or  three  of  these  flags  are  broken  by  the  frost,  not  into  laminae,  but  quite 
through  the  substance  splitting  the  flag.  The  whole  pavement,  too,  is  disturbed. 
As  to  the  penetrating  character  of  the  frost  in  different  soils  accounts  vary 
greatly.  Some  pipes  were  found  choked  with  ice  at  a  distance  of  more  than  two 
feet  under  ground.  Yet  there  was  no  good  evidence  of  the  frost  having  penetrated 
the  soil  to  that  depth.  In  compact  soil  and  closely  pressed  gravel  there  is  good 
evidence  of  a  penetration  of  frost  of  one  foot  and  some  cases  are  quoted  much  in 
excess. 

In  passing  over  some  stubble  fields  a  few  days  after  the  thaw,  I  found  many 
small  weeds,  notably  Cudweed  and  Pimpernel,  looking  green  and  vigorous. 
Beneath  their  roots  there  was  still  a  frozen  pan  of  ice  and  this  proves  that  at  one 
time  the  plants  were  completely  frozen.  It  is  not  easy  to  see  how  they  emerged 
from  that  state  unharmed.  Problems  affecting  the  natural  transport  of  plants,  not 
well  understood,  might  perhaps  be  helped  to  a  solution  by  noticing  their  behaviour 
under  prolonged  frosts. 

The  varied  phenomena  attending  this  great  frost  serve  as  an  object-lesson  to 
illustrate  the  ciianges  brought  about  by  the  severity  of  early  post-Glacial  times. 
Assuming  the  frosts  more  severe  and  prolonged,  and  the  thaws  to  be  of  rare  occur- 
rence, our  deaths  and  migrations  of  plants  and  animals  would  be  proportionate!}- 
increased,  and  the  erosion  accompanying  one  of  those  rare  thaws  would  be  so 
tremendous  as  to  seem  perfectly'  incredible  to  ordinary  readers  ;  nevertheless  tract  s 
of  all  such  changes  are  legacies  remaining  with  Essex  folk  to  this  da}:. 

P.S. — Since  writing  the  above  I  observe  a  letter  in  "Nature,"  of  January  29th, 
by  Professor  T.  G.  Bonney,  referring  to  the  destruction  of  fish  by  the  frost  in 
Regent's  Park  Canal.  He  also  asks  whether  "  such  a  cause  may  have  acted  in 
the  geological  history  of  the  globe."     I  n  Nordjenskiold's  "  Arctic  \'oyage  "  there  is 

K    2 


68  NOTES. 

an  account  of  finding  dead  fish  under  some  such  circumstance  but  not  having  the 
volume  at  hand  I  can  only  quote  from  memory.  Another  writer  also  suggests 
polluted  water  as  giving  rise  to  a  phenomenon  which  he  observed  similar  to  that 
I  have  noted. 

Prof.  Bonney  has  contributed  an  article  in  "  Nature  "  on  "  Temperature  in  the 
Glacial  Epoch."  His  concluding  words  are  :  "  We  seem,  however,  fairly  warranted 
in  concluding  that,  whatever  may  have  been  the  cause,  a  lowering  of  [mean]  tem- 
perature amounting  to  i8°,  if  only  the  other  conditions  either  remained  constant  or 
became  more  favourable  to  the  accumulation  of  snow  and  ice,  would  suffice  to  give 
us  back  the  Glacial  Epoch."  Taking  two-thirds  of  those  eighteen  degrees  as 
representing  a  Post-Glacial  condition  of  mean  temperature  we  should  probably 
arrive  at  the  stage  where  only  one  summer  in  a  number  of  years  was  sufficient  to 
effectual  1}'  break  up  the  frost.  This  would  bring  us  to  a  time  of  greatest  erosion 
of  which  vestiges  are  left  as  above  stated.  It  does  not  seem  much  to  ask  a  decrease 
of  twelve  degrees  only,  yet  on  the  other  hand  we  must  not  forget  that  no  amount 
of  occasional  cold  snaps  could  materially  alter  the  mean  temperature.  Physical 
changes  of  some  permanency  are  required.  We  should  rather  lean  on  such  a 
theory  as  that  of  Dr.  Croll,  in  which  he  treats  primarily  of  astronomical  changes 
which,  ^though  small,  are  known  to  have  actually  occurred,  and  secondarily, 
adducing  other  agencies  which  might  reasonably  be  thought  to  have  operated, 
produces  in  the  aggregate  a  result  more  than  required  by  Prof.  Bonney's  figures. 


Wildfowl  in  Essex — I  saw  to-day,  at  Mr.  Pettitt's,  the  following  birds  in  the 
flesh,  all  captured  in  the  neighbourliood  :  One  Whooper  (^Cygnus  musicus),  one 
Mute  Swan  (C  c/w),  partly  in  immature  plumage,  and  possibly  an  escape  ;  one 
Canada  Goose,  this  also  may  be  an  escape  ;  one  Pink-footed  Goose  QAnser  bracliy- 
rhynchus)  ;  one  Bean  Goose  (jinser  segetum),  the  second  example  Mr.  Pettitt  has 
had  this  year  ;  one  Common  Bittern  QBoiauris  stellaris'),  being  the  third  specimen 
this  winter,  including  the  two  previously  recorded  ;  and  several  female  Smews 
i^Mergus  albellus).  The  almost  Arctic  season  is  doubtless  the  cause  of  the  appear- 
ance of  these  interesting  visitors,  which  we  rarely  see  in  ordinary  winters.  (See 
also  E.  N.,  vol.  iv.,  p.  211). — Henry  Layer,  F.L.S.,  Colchester,  January  loth, 
1891. 

Aceras  anthropophora,  Br  (Green  Man  Orchis). — A  specimen  of  this  plant 
was  sent  to  me  last  June  by  Mr.  Edwin  E.  Turner  ;  he  found  it  near  Lord  Ray- 
leigh's  park,  at  Terling.  This  is  an  interesting  "  find,"  as  the  plant  has  been 
recorded  only  three  times  in  Essex  :  once  at  Belchamp  St.  Paul,  by  Ray  ;  once  at 
Ballingdon  in  1715,  by  Dale,  and  lastly  in  1835  at  Shoebury  Common,  by  Edward 
Foster.  We  may  congratulate  ourselves  in  learning  that  this  scarce  orchis  still 
occurs  in  our  county.— J.  C.  Shenstone,  Colchester,  February  20th,  1891. 

Pied  Flycatcher  near  Harwich. — Mr.  F.  Kerry  writes  thus  to  the  '■  Zoolo- 
gist "  for  March  :  "  On  12th  May,  1890,  two  Pied  Flycatchers  {^Miisicapa  atricapilla) 
were  seen  in  a  garden  at  Dovercourt ;  and  the  male  was  shot  by  a  boy  scaring 
birds.  This  is  the  first  instance  that  I  know  of  its  having  occurred  in  this  neigh- 
bourhood. I  have  only  once  before  seen  this  species  in  the  eastern  counties  ;  this 
was  a  solitary  bird,  some  years  since,  at  Northrepps,  near  Cromer,  in  Norfolk." 
In  the  same  number  of  the  "  Zoologist  "  (vol.  xv.,  3rd  sen,  p.  115)  Mr.  Kerry  has 
some  interesting  ornithological  notes  from  Harwich. 


69 


THE  LOCAL  (ESSEX)  MUSEUM,  LABORATORY, 
AND  LIBRARY. 

Wednesday,  Marc/i   iH/Zi,   1891. 

A  PUBLIC  Meeting,  convened  on  behalf  of  their  respective  Societies  by  Mr. 
■^^  W.  Cole,  //on.  Sec.  to  the  Essex  Field  Club,  and  Mr.  Edmund  Durrant, 
//on.  Sec.  to  the  Essex  and  Chelmsford  Museum,  was  held  in  the  Grand  Jury 
Room  of  the  Shire  Hall,  Chelmsford,  on  Wednesday  evening,  March  i8th, 
1891,  at  seven  o'clock,  Mr.  W.  J.  Beadel,  M.P.,  in  the  chair.  There  was  a  large 
and  representative  attendance,  not  only  from  Chelmsford  and  its  neighbourhood, 
but  also  from  other  parts  of  the  county  and  from  London  ;  the  attendance 
would  have  been  larger,  had  not  a  Town  Council  and  other  meetings,  and  the 
lamented  sudden  death  of  Mr.  Alderman  Grey,  prevented  many  from  being 
present. 

The  Chairman,  in  opening  the  proceedings,  said  that  they  had  met  to  lay  the 
foundation  of  something  which  he  trusted  would  be  highly  beneficial,  not  only  to 
themselves,  but  moreparticularlj-to  those  who  succeeded  them.  The  Essex  Field 
Club  and  the  Chelmsford  Museum  had  arranged  a  scheme  which,  no  doubt, 
would  result  in  great  good  to  the  county  at  large.  (Applause).  No  man  was 
more  proud  of  his  county  than  he  was  of  his.  (Applause).  He  frequently  had 
the  opportunity  of  hearing  Essex  abused,  but  he  had  the  satisfaction  of  telling 
those  who  abused  it  that  the  abuse  was  simply  the  result  of  absolute  ignorance. 
(Laughter).  The  step  they  were  about  to  take  would,  he  believed,  dispel  many 
of  the  illusions  which  had  existed  with  regard  to  the  county.  Those  who  had 
prepared  the  scheme  before  them  had  taken  very  considerable  pains  to  arrive  at 
something  which  would  be  for  the  benefit  of  the  community  at  large,  and  it 
would  be  a  satisfaction  to  them  to  feel  that  the  inauguration  had  taken  place  that 
night,  and  that  the}'  had  been  sowing  seed  on  good  ground,  where  it  would  fruc- 
tify and  would  bring  forth  great  benefit  to  the  people  of  the  county.    (Applause). 

Mr.  W.  Cole  (//ow.  Sec),  announced  that  the  following  had  agreed  to  act  as 
Trustees  of  the  proposed  Museum,  under  the  conditions  imposed  by  the  scheme  : 
Lord  Brooke,  M.P.,  Sir  T.  Powell  Buxton,  Bart.,  Mr.  G.  P.  Hope,  the  Arch- 
deacon of  Essex,  Professor  Meldola,  F.R.S.,  Lord  Rayleigh,  F.R.S.,  and  Mr. 
W.  .\L  Tufnell.  The  bankers  would  be  Messrs.  Sparrow,  Tufnell,  and  Co., 
Chelmsford,  and  the  National  Bank,  London. 

The  Secretary  also  read  a  number  ofletters  from  prominent  men  who  had  taken 
an  interest  in  the  scheme,  but  who,  from  various  causes,  were  unable  to  be  present  at 
the  meeting,  including:  Prof.  G.  S.  Boulger,  Mr.  James  Britten,  F.L.S., Sir  T.  Fowell 
Buxton,  Bart.,  Mr.  Horace  Fulton,  M.P.,  Mr.  E.  B.  Knobel  (^Secretary  to  the  Royal 
Astronomical  Society),  S)T  John  Lubbock,  Bart.,  M. P.,  P'.R.S.,  Colonel  Makins,M.P., 
Mr.  R.  McLachlan,  F.R.S.,  Prof.  Meldola,  F.R.S.,  Mr.  H.  B.  Monckton,  F.G.S., 
Mr.  Hildebrand  Ramsden,  F.L.S.,  Right  Hon.  Lord  Rayleigh,  F.R.S.,  Righ' 
Hon.  Lord  Reay,  Sir  Henry  Roscoe,  M.P.,  F.R.S.,  Mr.  J.  Round,  M.P.,  Sir  H 
Selwin-Ibbetson,  Bart.,  .\LP.,  Dr.  Henry  Woodward,  F  R.S.,  &c.,  &c.  Sir  John 
Lubbock  wrote:  "  I  sincerely  trust  that  the  Essex  County  Council  will  devote  the 
sum  receivable  from  the  Wine  and  Spirit  Duties  to  Technical  Instruction  in 
accordance  with  the  .Act  of  Parliament,  for  it  seems  clear  that  we  must  improve 
our  system  of  education  in  this  respect  if  we  are  to  hold  our  own   in  the  future. 


70  THt;    LOCAL    MUSEUM,    LABORATORY,    ANJ)    LIBRARY. 

This  is  quite  as  true  (if  not  more  so)  in  agriculture  as  in  manufactures."  Lord 
Reay  (late  Governor  of  Bombaj')  wrote  :  "  To  my  great  regret  I  cannot  be  present 
on  Wednesday,  as  I  have  promised  to  attend  another  meeting  at  that  hour.  The 
scheme  for  technical  instruction  has  evidently  been  drawn  up  with  great  knowledge 
and  care.  I  should  have  been  prepared  to  support,  warmly,  its  main  features.  It 
will  fructif)'  elementar}'  education,  and  enhance  its  value  and  apprec  ation  in  rural 
districts,  which  stand  more  in  need  of  technical  instruction  than  the  manufacturing 
districts,  because  agricultural  pursuits  open  a  wider  field  of  observation  than  the 
supervision  of  even  the  most  intricate  machinery.  I  wish  all  success  to  your 
undertaking." 

Mr.  Ed.  Fitch  (^President  of  the  Essex  Field  CltiU),  read  the  scheme  for  the 
amalgamation  of  the  Essex  and  Chelmsford  Museum  with  the  Essex  Field  Club, 
and  for  the  establishment  of  a  Local  (Essex)  Museum  Laboratory  and  Library, 
which  had  been  agreed  to  by  the  two  bodies  (the  scheme  is  fully  set  out  in  the 
last  volume  of  the  Essex  Naturalist,  vol.  iv.,  pp.  236-241). 

[In  the  circular  calling  the  meeiing  the  fjUowing  summary  was  given  of  the  scheme,  and  of  the 
advantages  to  be  derived  from  such  an  institution  as  that  proposed  to  be  founded  :  "  It  is  pro- 
posed, under  an  agreement  for  the  amalgamation  of  the  two  above-named  Societies,  to  establish 
in  Chelmsford  (chosen  not  only  as  the  County  Town,  but  also  as  being  a  central  position  in  Essex) 
a  Public  ( F'ree)  Museum,  to  illustrate  the  natural  productions,  the  geology  and  physiography, 
and  the  industries  and  manufactures  of  Essex,  together  with  an  Educational  Series  of  specimens 
and  preparations,  which  may  be  employed  for  teaching  purposes.  The  Museum  will  also  contain 
a  Library  of  books,  maps,  Parliamentary-  papers,  pictures,  &c.,  treating  of  the  natural  history, 
geology,  topography,  history,  and  industries  of  Essex,  as  well  as  a  general  library  of  books,  neces- 
sary for  the  study  of  the  before-mentioned  subjects. 

"  It  is  submitted  that  the  Museum,  Laboratories,  and  Library  at  Chelmsford  will  be  of  great 
utility,  not  only  to  Naturalists  and  .Students  of  Science,  but  also  to  the  inhabitants  of  the  county 
at  large,  to  Farmers,  Gardeners,  Fishermen,  &c.,  and  to  Members  of  the  County  Council,  County 
Officers  and  others,  desirous  of  obtaining  accurate  information  about  Essex,  its  natural  produc- 
tions and  industries,  and  also  as  affording  facilities  for  any  special  technical  investigations  in 
the  subjects  above-mentioned. 

"  The  benefit  to  be  derived  from  the  establishment  of  local  museums  as  educational  agencies  is 
being  very  widely  recognised  ",  the  British  Association  for  the  Advancement  of  Science  appointed 
a  committee  to  consider  the  subject,  valuable  reports  being  issued  in  1887  and  1888.  In  1889 
Prof.  Flower  chose  Museums  as  a  principal  theme  of  his  Presidential  Address  to  the  Association, 
and  in  speaking  of  the  value  of  Local  ^iuseumE  referred  especially  to  that  '  numerous  class,  and 
one  which  it  may  be  hoped  will  year  by  year  bear  a  greater  relative  proportion  to  the  general 
population  of  the  country,  who,  without  having  the  lime,  the  opportunities,  or  the  abilities  to 
make  a  profound  study  of  any  branch  of  science,  yet  take  a  general  interest  in  its  progress,  and 
wish  to  possess  some  knowledge  of  the  world  around  them.  .  .  .  For  such  persons  museums  may 
be,  when  well  organised  and  arranged,  0/  benefit  to  a  degree  that  at  present  catt  scarcely  be 
realised. ' 

"  Of  the  scientific  Taluc  of  local  museums  nothing  need  be  said — their  importance  is  fully  recog- 
nised by  all  competent  to  judge.  Mr.  F.  T.  Mott,  Secretary  of  the  British  Association  Com- 
mittee on  Provincial  Museums,  has  well  said  :  '  Every  provincial  museum  which  undertakes  to  do 
its  proper  work  for  the  nation  at  large  must  set  itself  to  collect  and  record  every  natural  fact  in  every 
branch  of  science  wiihin  the  area  of  its  own  special  district.  It  must  waste  no  energy  upon  any- 
thing outside  of  this  district,  but  within  it  everything  must  be  done  as  completely  and  rapidly  as 
possible.      7'he  museum  must  be  a  scintific  monograf>h  of  the  district,  illustrated  by  actual 

sf-ecimens  0/  the  natural  and  artificial p'oducts  of  that  district If  every  district  in  the 

kingdom  were  thus  worked  up,  many  scientific  problems  which  are  now  insoluble  would  become 
plain,  and  the  /<;fa/  museums  are  the  institutions  most  capable  of  accomplishing  this  object.' 
The  Essex  Field  Club,  with  its  large  body  of  expert  naturalists  and  its  serial  publications,  is 
quite  capable  on  carrying  on  such  a  work."] 

Mr.  F.  Chancellor,  J. P.,  moved  the  first  resolution,  as  follows  : — 

"That,  in  the  opinion  of  this  meeting,  the  proposals  put  forward  b}'  the  Joint 
Committee  of  the  Essex  Field  Club  and  the  Essex  and  Chelmsford  Museum  for  the 
establishment  of  a  Local  Museum,  Laboratory,  and  Library,  is  worthy  of  the 
support  of  the  county,  and  this  meeting  pledges  itself  to  do  all  in  its  power  to 
pro  note  the  same." 

In  the  course  of  his  remarks  Mr.  Chancellor  mentioned  that  the  present 
Chelmsford  Museum  iwas  founded  more  than  fifty  years  ago,  and  although,  like 
most  local  museums  belonging  to  a  former  age,  it  contained  a  good  deal  of  what 
scientific  men  would  call  rubbish,  it  also  contained  many  things  of  value  and 


THE    LOCAL    MUSEUM,    LARORATORY,    AND    LIBRARY.  7 1 

interest  to  the  town  and  county  at  large.  The  object  of  the  scheme  was  to  increase 
the  usefulness  of  the  Museum  by  making  it  truly  representative  of  the  county,  and 
to  enlarge  it  so  as  to  become  of  educational  value.  The  middle  classes  must 
ssriousl}'  take  up  the  question  of  technical  education,  if  they  wished  to  hold  their 
own.  The  establishment  of  the  Museum  on  right  lines  would  confer  a  very  great 
benefit  upon  Chelmsford,  as  well  as  upon  the  county  generally  ;  and  he  should  be 
mistaken  in,  and  ashamed  of  his  brother  townsmen  if  they  allowed  this  scheme  to 
slip  tlirough  their  hands,  and  the  Institution  to  be  located  somewhere  else.  It  was 
simply  a  question  as  to  whether  they  would  raise  sufificient  money  for  the  building, 
and  if  they  did  not  raise  it,  some  other  district  would  get  the  Institution.  If  they 
established  the  Institution  it  was  almost  impossible  that  the  County  Council  could 
allow  it  to  exist  without  providing  money  for  its  maintenance.  (Applause.)  Mr. 
Chancellor  proceeded  to  mention  the  names  of  a  number  of  gentlemen  who  had 
apologised  to  him  for  their  absence,  and  said  that  Admiral  Luard  had  promised  a 
donation  of  £•,   5s.     (Hear,  hear.) 

The  Ven.  Archdeacon  of  Essex  seconded  the  resolution,  and  commended  the 
scheme  to  the  approval  of  the  meeting,  because  it  had  been  thoroughly  worked 
out  by  men  who  well  understood  what  they  were  doing.     (Hear,  hear  ) 

Prof.  W.  H.  Flower,  C.B.,  F.R.S.  (Director  of  the  British  Museum  of  Natural 
History),  then  gave  an  able  address  on  the  "Educational  Value  of  Museums,"  a 
subject  which,  as  above  mentioned,  formed  the  principal  theme  of  his  Presidential 
Address  to  the  British  Association  in  1889.     Alluding  to  the  scheme  before  the 
meeting,  he  spoke  highly  of  the  claims  and  capabilities  of  the  Essex  Field  Club 
to  undertake  such  a  task  ;  he  had  followed  the  operations  of  the  Club  almost  from 
the  beginning,  and  the  energy  and  persistence  in  one  line  of  work  and  observation^ 
as  evidenced  in  the  publications  of  the  Club,  placed  it,  in  his  opinion,  in  the  very 
front  ranks  of  similar  institutions.     He  had  had  an  opportunity  of  reading  and 
considering  the  scheme  before  it  was  adopted,  and  now  that  it  was  in  print  he 
might  say  that  he  considered  it  was  as  good  a  scheme  as  could  be  devised  to  me^t 
the  special  circumstances  of  the  case.     It  was  well  abreast  of  the  modern  views  of 
the  objects  and  functions  of  local   museums,  and  contained  all  the  elements  of 
success,  having  been  drawn  up  by  a  body  of  men  who  were  very  much  in  earnest, 
and  he  did  not  think  that  any  fault  could  be  honestly  found  with   the  plans  th:it 
had  been  put  before  the  inhabitants  of  Essex.      If  they  succeeded  in  establishing 
this  Institution  it  would  certainly  soon  become  the  centre  of  great  educational 
advantages,  and  they  would  be  setting  an  example  for  other  counties  in  England 
to  follow.     (Applause.)      Under  Mr.  Chancellor's  guidance  he  had  been  enabled 
to    pa}'  a  hasty    visit  to  the    old    museum   in   Chelmsford  that  afternoon,  and 
it  seemed  to   contain  many  things  that  would  form  a  nucleus  of  a  collection, 
more  especially  in  the  way  of  Roman  and  Saxon  remains.     These  remains  should 
always  be  carefully  and  jealously  guarded.     Prof.  Flowers  insisted  most  strongly 
on  the  necessity  of  a  museu.-n  being  well  arranged,  and  said  that  an  ill-arranged 
museum    was   like  the   letters  of  the  alphabet   thrown    about   indiscriminately, 
meaning  nothing  at  all.     A  well-arranged  museum,  on  the  other  hand,  was  like 
those  same  letters  properly  arranged  in   words  of  counsel  and  instruction.     But 
almost  everything  depended  upon  the  curator — but  in  most  museums  he  was  the 
last  thought  of.  The  Professor  was  almost  inclined  to  advise,  "  Get  your  curator  and 
build  the  museum  around  him."  Unpaid  labour  of  the  kind  could  never  be  depended 
upon  ;  voluntary  aid  would  be  most  useful  in  particular  departments,  but  the  con- 
trolling hand  of  a  permanent  curator  was  in  his  opinion  an  absolute  necessity  if 
the   plans  set   before  them   were  to  be  usefully  and  efficiently  carried  out.     A 


72  THE    LOCAL    MUSEUM,    LABORATORY,    AND    LIF.RARV, 

museum  was  like  a  living  organism,  it  required  continued  and  constant  care, 
but  this  fact  was  not  sufficiently  appreciated  by  those  having  the  charge  of  such 
institutions. 

Mr.  F.  W.  Rudler,  F.G.S.  [Curator  of  the  Geological  Museum,  Jerm}-n  Street) 
and  author  of  the  paper  on  Natural  History  Museums  printed  in  the  last  volume 
of  the  E.  N.  vol.  iv.  pp.  242-251],  in  the  course  of  a  telling  speech,  said  that  the 
scheme  was  well  worthy  of  support  by  reason  of  its  comprehensive  character. 
They  must  not  suppose  that  the  Museum,  and  its  attached  educational  depart- 
ments, would  benefit  only  a  few  with  scientific  or  antiquarian  tastes.  Some  people 
would  say  that  agriculture  and  other  Essex  industries  being  at  such  a  low  ebb 
rendered  the  formation  of  such  an  institution  difficult  from  a  financial  point  of 
view,  but  he  would  reply  that  a  time  of  depression  (from  which  he  was  glad  to 
fancy  we  were  now  emerging)  was  the  time  above  all  others  when  it  was  worth 
while,  when  indeed  it  was  absolutely  necessary,  to  see  what  aid  science,  as  applied 
to  human  industries,  could  give  to  agriculture  and  other  employments.  Such  an 
institution  as  that  they  were  advocating  would  benefit  not  the  few  only,  but  the 
whole  county,  and  would  in  time  to  come  be  looked  upon  as  of  great  public  utility. 
He  was  almost  ashamed  to  say  that  this  was  his  first  visit  to  Chelmsford,  but 
directly  he  got  into  the  town  he  was  very  much  struck  with  the  light  of  modern 
days  which  it  possessed.  He  hoped  that  the  townsfolk's  adoption  of  the  beautiful 
and  useful  electric  lighting  might  be  taken  as  an  earnest  of  their  wish  to  keep 
abreast  of  the  latest  scientific  applications.     (Applause.) 

Mr.  T.  V.  Holmes,  F.G.S.  {President  of  the  Geologists"  Association)  strongly 
supported  the  resolution,  and  spoke  of  the  practical  value  of  a  knowledge  of 
geology  in  many  branches  of  industry. 

Dr.  J.  C.  Thresh,  D.Sc,  F.R.Met.S.,  &c.,  said  the  scheme  for  carrying 
technical  education  into  the  rural  districts  was  a  bold  one,  and  a  very  good  one. 
Essex  should  be  proud  of  having  an  opportunity  of  being  the  pioneer  county  in 
taking  technical  education  into  the  country  districts.  Although  he  had  not  been 
long  in  the  county  he  had  learned  something  of  the  demand  which  existed  for 
technical  education. 

Dr.  H.  Laver,  F.L.S.,  F.S.A.,  of  Colchester,  said  it  had  often  been  his  pleasure 
t  o  try  to  upset  the  stupid  notion  that  Essex  was  the  marshy  and  unhealthy  county 
it  was  sometimes  represented  to  be.  (Applause.)  He  should  ver}-  much  like  to 
have  seen  the  proposed  Museum  established  at  Colchester,  but  as  that  could  not 
be  he  would  do  his  best  to  help  it  forward  at  Chelmsford.  (Hear,  hear.)  The 
county  had  in  the  past  done  as  much  towards  making  the  history  of  England  as 
any  other  count}',  and  it  was  now  going  to  be  the  pioneer  in  another  movement 
which  would  spread  light  throughout  the  kingdom.  (Hear,  hear.)  Other  counties 
were  bound  to  follow  the  example  of  Essex. 

Mr.  F.  W.  Rogers  (Head-master  of  the  Chelmsford  Grammar  School)  said  he 
cordially  su]iported  the  scheme.  He  was  sure  that,  if  properly  managed,  the  local 
Museum  would  be  a  very  great  help  to  education.     (Hear,  hear.) 

Mr.  J.  C.  Shenstone,  F.R.M.S.,  of  Colchester,  also  supported  the  resolution, 
remarking  that,  although  he  should  have  liked  the  Museum  in  his  own  town,  it 
could  not  be  denied  that  Chelmsford  was  the  centre  of  the  count}',  and  therefore 
had  superior  claims  to  Colchester  as  being  the  home  of  the  Museum. 

The  resolution  was  carried  unanimously. 

.Mr.  Walter  Crouch,  F.Z.S.,  moved — 

"  That  a  Subscription  List  be  at  once  opened  for  raising  a  Fund  for  the 
Iniilding  and  fitting  of  the  Museum,  &c.,  and  for  the  endowment  of  the  same." 


NOTES.  73 

He  said  that  a  veiy  considerable  sum  of  money  would  be  required  to  place  the 
Institution  on  a  firm  footing,  and  to  keep  it  going,  but  with  the  energy  of  the 
Club,  and  the  generous  appreciation  of  the  inhabiuiuts  of  the  county  and  of 
Chelmsford,  he  had  everj-  hope  of  success. 

Mr.  F.  Marria,'e,  in  seconding  the  resolution,  said  that  if  technical  education 
could  be  taken  into  the  villages  it  would  be  worth  all  the  money  they  could  raise. 
Subscriptions  to  such  an  institution  as  that  proposed  should  be  regarded  as 
investments,  and  a  well-to  do  man  who  invested  ^50,  or  a  comparalivel}'  poor 
man  who  invested  ;^I0,  would,  through  the  work  of  such  an  institution,  reap 
advantages  for  himself  or  confer  them  upon  others,  which  might  fairly  be  looked 
upon  as  worth  far  more  than  merely  getting  a  miserable  five  per  cent,  for  the  money 

Mr.  A.  C.  Freeman,  of  M.ildon,  supported  the  motion,  and  said  he  had  been 
requested  by  the  Mayor  of  that  "  plucky  and  fightable  little  town  "  to  state  that 
he  would  be  glad  to  help  the  movement  in  every  way  he  could,  not  only  because 
he  believed  in  it,  but  because  the  president  of  the  Field  Club,  Mr.  Fitch,  was  one 
of  the  most  respected  and  beloved  inhabitants  of  the  borough.     (Applause.) 

This  motion  was  also  unanimously  carried. 

On  the  motion  of  Mr.  F'itch,  seconded  by  Professor  Flower,  a  vote  of  thanks 
was  passed  to  Mr.  Beadel  for  presiding,  and  with  a  few  words  from  that 
gentleman  a  very  successful  and  enthusiastic  meeting  came  to  an  end. 

[The  members  and  friends  of  the  two  Institutions  took  tea  together  at  the 
"Saracen's  Head  "  before  the  meeting,  and  several  of  the  members  and  visitors 
were  most  hospitably  received  by  local  members.] 


Sea-gulls  in  London. —During  the  past  Arctic  winter  one  of  the  sights  of 
London  was  the  large  number  of  gulls  flying  over  the  Thames  and  settling  on  the 
blocks  of  ice.  Near  Battersea  some  iiundreds  were  seen,  and  Mr.  F.  J.  Chopin, 
the  Superintendent  of  Battersea  Park,  wrote  as  follows  to  the  "  Standard,"  under 
date  December  8th  :  "  It  has  occurred  to  me  that  it  might  be  interesting  to  some 
of  the  readers  of  your  paper  to  mention  the  unusual  arrival  of  a  large  number  of 
sea-gulls  during  the  last  few  days  to  the  lake  in  this  park.  It  has  been  usual  in 
past  winters  for  one  or  two  to  visit  the  lake,  but  this  morning  I  myself  counted 
one  hundred  and  fifty  swimming  in  one  drove,  and  quite  another  fifty  were 
flying  round.  I  am  inclined  to  think  that  their  appearance  in  such  numbers  is 
a  sign  tliat  more  severe  weather  is  not  far  distant." 

Otters  and  Kingfishers  in  the  Chelmer.— On  February  28th  a  female  Otter 
with  two  young  ones  was  taken  alive  in  the  Chelmer  at  Camsi.x  Farm,  Felstead. 
The  mother  has  since  escaped,  and  the  young  ones  have  been  returned  to  the  hole 
in  the  tree  from  which  they  were  taken,  in  the  hope  that  she  may  find  and  feed 
them.  The  reaches  of  the  Chelmer  are  here  exceedingly  secluded,  and  it  is  not 
improbable  that  others  may  remain  long  unobserved  in  the  neighbourhood.  As  an 
instance  of  the  seclusion  I  may  mention  that  last  summer  my  boys  found  a  King- 
fisher's nest  with  five  young  birds.  These  young  birds  were  very  handsome  and 
perfectly  clean  in  their  plumage,  in  a  nest  and  surroundings  very  disgusting. 
Their  great  beauty,  apart  from  any  considerations  of  humanity,  was  a  sufficient 
appeal  to  us  to  allow  them  to  retain  their  liberty,  although,  I  may  add,  they  were 
ail  caught  and  handled,  and  much  resented  that  treatment.— J.  FkencH,  Felstead, 
March,  i8qi. 


74 


THE    LEPIDOPTERA    OF    ESSEX. 
PART   I.— BUTTERFLIES. 

By  EDWARD  A.   FITCH,  F.L.S.,   F.E.S.,  etc. 
[Read  December  2nd,  i8go.'\ 

OF  the  sixty-five  British  butterflies,  fifty-five  have  been  known  to 
occur  within  our  borders — a  larger  number  than  I  can  find 
recorded  for  any  other  county.  Mr.  Porritt's  Yorkshire  Hst  of 
Lepidoptera  includes  forty-eight  species  of  Diurni,  and  the  Rev.  E.  N. 
Bloomfield  is  now  able  to  catalogue  fifty-four  species,  and  three 
doubtful  records,  for  Suffolk.  Mr.  Cockerell  gives  forty-one  species 
for  Middlesex,  several  of  which  are  certainly  doubtful  records. 
Hence  our  district  may  be  looked  upon  as  rich  in  species,  and  the 
individuals  in  many  cases  are  fairly  numerous.  With  regard  to  the 
completeness  of  this  catalogue  it  is  only  necessary  to  observe  that  it 
contains  notes  of  all  the  species  that  have  been  recorded,  as  far  as 
a  tolerably  exhaustive  survey  of  our  general  entomological  literature 
enables  me  to  judge.  No  MSS.  or  "  Marked  Lists  "  have  been  asked 
for,  or  used  in  its  compilation  ;  there  is  always  so  much  difficulty  in 
authenticating  captures,  and  in  getting  notes  of  precise  localities. 
With  the  aid  of  our  Club  and  the  Essex  Naturalist,  it  is  to  be 
hoped  that  many  local  lists  may  yet  be  forthcoming,  similar  to  those 
we  have  already  published  by  the  Rev.  G.  H.  Raynor  {Trans. 
E.F.C.  iii.  30-47)  and  Mr.  Howard  Vaughan  {E.N.  iii.  123-140.). 
These  local  lists  are  interesting  and  helpful,  and  act  as  a  stimulus  to 
others  to  endeavour  to  make  additions  to  the  records  in  their  own 
immediate  localities.  Several  such  lists  are  already  promised,  and 
the  publication  of  the  present  general  list  for  the  whole  county  will 
in  no  way  make  them  less  useful. 

My  catalogue  cannot  be  considered  as  complete ;  we  know  there 
arc  yet  many  unexplored  spots  in  Essex,  and  there  are  few  localities 
that  have  been  at  all  exhaustively  worked  (cf.  my  remarks,  E.N.  iii. 
98-99.)  Only  this  year  a  new  butterfly  has  been  added  to  the  British 
list,  and  it  was  first  found  in  Essex  (F.  W.  Hawes,  Ent.  xxiii.  3). 
Hesperia  lineola  has  been  an  overlooked  species,  and  thought  to  be 
only  a  variety  of  the  common  H.  thaiimas.  Mr.  Hawes  took  his 
specimens  in  what  is  now  but  the  remnant  of  an  old  locality.  Hartley 
Wood,  a  spot  t'lat  lias  been  well  worked  for  at  least  a  century  {see  Miss 


THE    LEPIDOPTKRA    OF    ESSEX.  75 

Jermyn's  "  Vade  Mecum  ").  The  new  butterfly  is  fairly  common  and 
generally  distributed  ih  our  county,  and  is  a  startling  instance  of 
what  may  still  remain  to  be  done  even  among  our  scanty,  much 
studied,  and  much  collected  butterflies.  I  have  but  little  information 
from  the  characteristic  country  to  the  north  and  west  of  Saffron 
^Valden— the  north-west  corner  of  our  county — which  Mr.  Christy 
has  aptly  termed  "the  chalky  uplands."  It  is  a  district  in  which 
many  local  species,  peculiar  to  chalk  soil,  may  be  expected  to  occur. 

I  have  to  thank  Mr.  W.  H.  Harwood,  Rev.  G.  H.  Raynor,  and 
Mr.  B.  G.  Cole,  for  some  help  with  regard  to  the  respective  localities 
in  which  they  have  collected. 

The  plan  of  the  paper  is  self-evident ;  it  is  simply  intended  to 
gather  together  the  published  records  of  the  Essex  Lepidoptera  ;  a  few 
uri[iublished  records  are  occasionally  added,  but  exceptionally,  and  for 
a  special  purpose.  Now  that  a  summary  of  the  printed  records  is 
furnished,  it  should  be  easy  for  our  lepidopterists  to  add  to 
thera  from  their  own  observations,  and  the  Editor  of  the  Essex 
Natur.vlist  will  be  very  glad  to  have  local  lists,  or  observations  on 
single  species,  for  publication,  so  that  we  may  get  to  know  the  extent 
of  our  native  riches.  Upon  the  completion  of  the  Catalogue  of  the 
Lepidoptera  of  Essex  I  shall  hope  to  say  something  about  the  com- 
parative distribution  of  the  species,  noting  those  believed  to  have 
become  extinct,  and  the  relative  richness  of  our  lepidopterous  fauna  as 
compared  with  that  of  other  counties. 

I  ought,  i)erhaps,  to  say  that  the  nomenclature  and  arrangement 
followed  is  that  of  Mr.  R.  South's  "  Entomologist  "  List,  being  a 
recent  (1884)  adaptation  of  Standinger  and  Wocke's  valuable  Cata- 
logue. The  headings  of  families,  etc.,  are  omitted.  The  abbrevia- 
tions used  in  making  the  references  will  be  readily  understood  by 
most  entomologists,  but  for  the  benefit  of  those  taking  up  the  study, 
a  full  list  is  appended. 

RHOPALOCERA— BUTTERFLIES. 
Papilio  machaon,  L.     Swallow-tail. 

Geographical  distrihution — Europe,  North  Africa,  Asia  to  Himalaya, and  perhaps 
Japan,  Western  North  -America.  Generally  distributed  and  frequenting  woods, 
open  fields  and  gardens  ;  but  in  Britain  now  supposed  to  be  confined  to  fens  of 
Cambridgeshire,  Hunts,  and  Norfolk,  where  it  is  rapidly  disappearing. 

Larva — Bright  green,  with  deep  black  rings,  which  are  spotted  with  red.  Food 
— Common  and  hogs  fennel,  wild  c.irrot,  and  other  umbelliferse.  Imago — May  to 
August — hibernates  as  pupa. 


76  THK    LKPlDOPTEkA    OF    ESSEX. 

ICarly  in  the  century,  doubtless,  fairly  common  in  several  localities 
in  the  county,  and  it  has  lingered  until  quite  recently,  even  if  it  be 
now  extinct  in  Essex.  Ray,  who  gives  a  good  description  of  the 
larva  found  near  Montpellier  on  fennel,  and  in  Sussex  on  Piinpinella 
sagifraga,  says,  "and  I  have  observed  this  in  Sussex  and  Essex, 
counties  of  England  "  {H.I.  i  lo).  Stephens  says,  "  It  has  sometimes 
been  captured  close  to  London,  in  Epping  Forest,  at  Stepney,  and 
near  Peckham  ;  and  it  was  formerly  abundant  at  Westerham,  in  Kent " 
{I.B.E.  Haust.  i.  8).  Newman  says,  "  When  at  school  at  Totten- 
ham I  have  found  these  beautiful  caterpillars  feeding  on  rue  "  (  Y.E. 
4),  and  again,  "  I  have  repeatedly  found  the  caterpillar  feeding  on 
rue  in  a  garden  in  the  occupation  of  some  friends  of  the  name  of 
Forster,  on  Tottenham  Green;  this  was  probably  fifty  years  ago" 
{B.B.,  153V 

In  C.  Parsons'  MS.  entomological  journal  I  find,  "  1826,  July 
31,  Papilio  machaon,  11,  at  Trotter's."  At  first  I  thought  this  referred 
to  eleven  specimens,  but  in  a  MS.  list  of  insects  left  by  Parsons  I 
find  "11  F.  utachaofi"  so  it  is  probably  only  a  reference  number. 
In  a  box  of  Parsons'  insects  now  in  the  Southend  Institute,  there  are 
four  F.  machaon,  one  only  with  a  label  "  Sutton  Broad,  Norfolk,  3rd 
June,  1841  ";  the  other  three  are  most  probably  Essex  specimens. 
"  Trotters  "  is  in  North  Shoebury  parish,  less  than  three  miles  from 
Shoeburyness  or  Southend.  C.  O.  Rogers  captured  one,  and  pursued 
another,  in  a  marshy  place  near  Southend,  on  August  24th,  1858 
{E.  JV.I.  iv.  179).  Our  member,  Mr.  F.  H.  Varley,  found  five 
pupse  between  Southend  and  Shoebury  (not  Tilbury,  as  printed 
in  Froc  E.F.C.  ii.  Ixxix.)  in  October,  1868.  Two  of  the 
three  specimens  bred  from  these  pupee  are  in  the  Club  collection. 
Fennel  (with  many  other  Umbellifer^)  is  still  very  common  on  the 
cliffs  between  Southend  and  Shoebury,  and  the  locality  seems  a 
natural  one  for  this  interesting  butterfly.  W.  S.  Coleman,  in  his 
"  British  Butterflies  "  (p.  66)  says  that  it  has  occurred  singly  at 
Southend,  doubless  referring  to  Mr.  Rogers'  capture. 

One  of  Rev.  J.  \\\  Mills'  pupils  took  one  specimen  at  Tillingham 
in  1877  {Ent.  x.  191),  and  Mr.  Mills  was  quite  of  opinion  that 
machaon  used  to  occur  in  his  neighbourhood,  as  an  old  parishioner 

1  [I  believe  that  we  found  a  Inrva  of  P.  moKh-ron  in  our  then  favourite  collecting  ground,  the 
lane  near  Temple  Mills,  Leyton,  in  1859  ;  but  being  then  ignorant  of  the  distinguished  character 
of  our  be.-iuliful  caterpillar,  and  not  knowing  the  food,  we  failed  to  rear  it.  The  once  rural  lane, 
along  which  the  "  Wood-lady  "  {fi.  caniamints)  used  to  flit  in  early  summer,  and  where  a  morn- 
ing s  walk  would  furnish  forth  abundance  of  the  beautiful  common  objects  of  the  country,  is 
now,  alas,  the  blackened  track  to  the  necessary,  but  ghastly  and  stinking,  parish  dust-yard.'  — 
vV.  CoLH.J 


THE    LEPIDOPTF.RA    OF    ESSEX.  77 

of  his  (a  female  who  was  considerably  interested  in  entomology), 
who  saw  the  specimen  after  capture,  was  certain  she  had  seen  others 
many  years  ago,  but  not  lately.  Since  Mr.  Mills  has  left  this  neigh- 
bourhood I  have  come  into  possession  of  two  specimens,  also  taken 
at  Tillingham  by  Miss  Hance,  at  least  fifty  years  ago  (referred  to, 
E.N.  ii.  242).  Mr.  Raynor  records  a  specimen  caught  at  Maldon 
by  Mr.  Gutteridge,  in  August,  1872  {Ent.  vi.  223).  Dr.  Gutteridge 
has  conrirmed_this  to  me,  and  there  is  no  evidence  of  its  introduction 
artificially. 

Cornelius  Walford,  then  of  Witham,  saw  a  specimen  on  Tiptree 
Heath  in  183S  {E.L.J.  27). 

Mr.  Harwood  has  known  it  to  occur  several  times  at  Walton-on- 
Naze,  on  the  authority  of  Thomas  Catchpole,  and  1).  B.  Brightwell 
(caught  by  one  of  his  pupils).  A  very  likely  locality,  as  it  is  the  only 
station  for  Peitcedanuin  officinale  in  Essex,  which  has  been  known 
there  t'rom  Ray's  time  to  the  present ;  it  is  also  curious  that  P.  palustre, 
still  the  favourite  food-plant  of  this  species  in  the  Fens,  was 
recorded  as  an  Essex  plant  in  the  "  Flora  "  only  from  Epping  Forest, 
by  John  Ray  formerly  of  Epping.  Between  the  years  1848  and  1850 
Mr.  H.  Doubleday  turned  out  a  number  of  E.  machaon  in  parts  of 
Epping  Forest,  apparently  an  old  locality  for  this  butterfly,  but  it  did 
not  again  establish  itself  (iV^^.  E.E.C.  ii.  Ixxx).- 

TheRev.  H.  H.  Crewe  says,  "The  family  of  a  clergyman  residing 
near  Ipswich  told  me  they  had  taken  machaoti  on  the  banks  of  the 
[Essex  and  Suffolk]  Stour  "  {B.B.  153).  W.  Gaze  records  three  speci- 
mens taken  near  Haverhill,  by  different  collectors  in  1841  {Ent.  i, 
307),  and  writes  later:  "  On  enquiry  I  found  it  has  several  times 
been  taken  in  that  place  "  {E^it.  i.  340).  In  1867,  '68  or  '69,  my 
cousins,  Herbert  and  Arthur  Fitch,  caught  three  specimens  for  me  at 
Clare  Priory,  where  they  were  at  school ;  two  in  one  year,  and  one  in 
another,  and  I  have  no  doubt  whatever  but  that  they  were  residents, 
and  should  not  be  at  all  surprised  to  learn  that  machaoti  still  lingers 
around  the  sources  of  the  Stour  on  the  Essex  and  Suffolk  border. 

Mr.  W .    R.  Jeffrey  records  it  from  Saffron  Walden,  but  adds, 
'  Supposed   to  have    been   brought    to  the    neighbourhood    in   the 

2  Mr.  Maynard,  Curator  of  the  Saffron  Walden  Museuin,  writes:  "Some  years  since  an  un- 
successful attempt  was  male  to  naturalise  P.  viachaon  in  this  neighbourhood  by  the  late  Mr. 
O.  S.  Gibson  and  Mr.  W.  M.  Tuke,  who  procured  a  large  quantity  of  caterpillars  from  Wicken 
P'en,  Cambridgeshire.  These  were  placed  in  a  field  of  carrots,  upon  the  tops  of  which  they  fed 
and  seemed  at  first  likely  to  do  well,  until  they  were  found  out  by  the  birds,  who  soon  made 
short  work  of  the  colony,  and  not  one  specimen  was  ever  seen  in  the  imago  state."  It  is  interest- 
ing to  note  that  many  of  the  old  records  indicate  that  P.  machaon  was  formerly  a  garden  insect 
in  England  (as  it  is  still  on  the  Continent)  although  now  confined  with  us  to  the  Ken  districts, 
—  Ko. 


■JQ  THK    LKPIDOPTKRA    OF    ESSEX. 

chrysalis  State  "  (/).^.  152).  In  the  abridged  "Catalogue  of  the 
Saffron  Walden  Museum  "  (1845),  ^^'*2  read,  "This  species  has  occa- 
sionally been  seen  near  Walden,  having  probably  been  brought  on 
sedges  in  the  chrysalis  state  "  {/.c.  49). 

[^Paniassius  apol/o,  L. — a  reputed  British  butterfly — is  said  to  have  been  taken 
at  Epping,  about  1847  or  1848,  by  a  son  of  Geo.  Bax  Holmes,  a  schoolfellow  of 
H.  and  E.  Doubleday  QEnt.  vi.  39).     This  must  be  an  error.] 

\_Aporia  cratcrgi,  L.  Black-veined  White.  This  species,  now  verging  on 
extinction  in  Britain,  used  to  be  common  near  London  ;  Samouelle  says  "  Woods 
near  London"  (^Useful  Compendium^  216').  Stephens  took  it  at  Coombe  Wood, 
and  Haworth  at  Little  Chelsea  (Z.  v.  1616).  The  only  Essex  record  I  find  is  one 
at  Wanstead  (^Ent.  xii.  163).     This  is  very  doubtful.] 

Pieris  rapse,  L.     Small  White. 

Geographical  Distribution — Europe,  Asia,  Africa  north.  Introduced  into 
Canada  and  rapidly  spreading  in  North  America.  Throughout  Britain — our 
commonest  butterfly. 

Larva — Dull  green,  thin  dorsal  and  lateral  yellow  lines,  yellow  dots  on  sides. 
Food — Cabbages,  horse-radish,  mignonette,  &c.  ;  often  destructive  in  gardens. 
Imago — April  to  October,  especially  abundant  in  May  and  August  ;  hibernates  as 
pupa. 

Common  in  every  garden  throughout  the  county. 
Pieris  braSsicae,  L.     Large  White. 

Geographical  Distribution — Europe  (except  polar  regions),  Asia  to  Himalaya, 
North  Africa.     Throughout  Britain. 

Larva — Bluish-green  with  j-ellovv  stripes.  Food — Various  cruciferoe,  especiall}' 
cabbages,  turnips  and  other  garden  produce  ;  often  very  destructive.  Imago  — 
April  to  September  ;  hibernates  as  pupa. 

Too  common  everywhere. 

Pieris  napi,  L.     Green-veined  White. 

Geographical  Distribution— Europe,  Asia,  North  America.    Throughout  Britain. 

Larva— DnW  green,  paler  on  sides,  spiracles  black  in  yellow  ring.  /^oo(/— Various 
cruciferoe,  as  horse-radish,  watercress,  wintercress,  hesperis,  &c.  Mr.  Harwood 
has  found  it  on  sea-rocket.     Imago— A-prW  to  August  ;  hibernates  as  pupa. 

Very  common,  but  not  so  exclusively  a  garden  or  town  insect  as 
the  two  preceding  species. 

Pieris  daplidice,  L.     Bath  White  or  Green  Chequered  ^^'hite. 

Geographical  Distributwn—¥.\iro}^Q  (except  polar  regions),  Asia  to  Himalaya 
and  China,  North  Africa.  In  Britain  confined  to  South  and  East  England,  where 
it  is  very  rare  and  uncertain. 


I 


THK    LKI'IUOPIKRA    OK    KSSKX.  79 

Larva — Greyish-green  with  yellow  stripes  on  back  and  sides.  Food — \'arious 
crucifcr:r  and  resedacea;,  espiecially  wild  mignonette.  Imago — May  and  August, 
but  the  May  brood  almost,  if  not  entirely,  absent  in  England  ;  hibernates  as  j)upa. 

Very  rare,  always  occurring  singly ;  partial  to  lucerne  fields. 
Probably  an  immigrant  from  the  Continent. 

One  by  Mr.  Norman  Halls,  near  Dilbridge  Hall,  Colchester, 
on  Aug.  i2th,  1S57  {\V.  H.  Hanvood ;  E.W.I,  ii.  182,  B.B.  159). 
One  by  Dr.  Maclean,  near  Berechurch,  many  years  ago  {Harwood). 
One  male,  Epping  Forest,  by  Mr.  Walter  Nash,  1866  {A.  Cottam  ; 
E.M.M.  vii.  109).  One  female,  near  Southend,  Aug.,  1870  {D.  T. 
Button;  Ent.  v.  221).  One  female,  Southend,  Aug.  nth,  1876 
{V.E.L.  Young;  E.M.M.  xiii.  108). 

Colias  edusa,  F.     Clouded  Yellow. 

Geop-aphical  Disti  ilmtion — Throughout  palaearctic  region,  except  extreme  north 
reaching  Azores  and  Syria.  Uncertain  in  its  appearance  in  Britain.  North 
American  species  scarcely  distinguishable. 

Larva — Deep  green,  narrow  white  stripe  on  sides  with  pink  spots,  /bor/-— Various 
species  of  Tri/oltum,  Medicago,  and  Lolus^  especially  white  clover  and  lucerne. 
Imago — June  to  October;  hibernates  as  imago  or  larva  {see  Entom.xi.  60,  139). 

Notwithstanding  some  uncertainty  I  believe  that  this  errant  species  hibernates 
as  a  larva.  Although  Mr.  Buckler  knew  that  its  congener  C.  /ajyz/^  hibernated  as  a 
larva,  he  wrote  in  1877,  "  I  strongly  incline  to  the  belief  that  by  far  the  greater 
number  of  those  I  saw  on  the  wing  at  this  time  (June  I2th)  must  have  passed  the 
exceptionally  mild  winter  in  the  pupa  state  "  (^Larvce,  p.  12).  In  the  latter  half  of 
October  of  that — the  Edusa — year,  Mr.  Buckler  had  eggs,  larvae  just  hatched, 
full-fed  larvtc,  pupae  and  imagos. 

Common  in  some  seasons,  in  others  not  seen  ;  generally  dis- 
tributed.    Abundant  in  1877  {see  Ent.  xi.  49-61),  rare  since. 

"  In  a  field  sown  with  flax  not  far  from  the  town  of  Booking,  in 
Essex  "  (if^Ty ;  H.I.  113).  Epping  (6".  J/,  i.  17).  A  few  specimens, 
Sept.,  1839,  Epping  {^H.  Doubleday ;  ifi  litt).  One,  Epping,  1885 
{G.  V.  Elstoive ;  Ent.  xviii.  204).  Common,  Walthamstow,  1877, 
last  noticed  Oct.  5th  (i>.  Cooper ;  Ent.  xi.  55).  Common  in  Maldon 
district,  1875  {Fitch;  Ent.  viii.  221).  Not  common,  Hazeleigh, 
1875  {G.  H.  Ray  nor ;  Ent.  viii.  300).  Abundant  and  bred  at 
Maldon,  June  6th  to  Dec.  12th,  1877  {Fitch;  Ent.  x.  189,  210; 
xi.  58).  One,  Maldon,  Sept.  26th,  1879  {Fitch;  Ent.  xii.  283). 
One,  Maldon,  Sept.  26th,  1881  {Fitch;  Ent.  xiv.  296).  One, 
Maldon,  Sept.,  1883  {Fitch;  Ent.  wi  259).  Hazeleigh,  Maldon, 
Sept.,  1884  {Ray nor ;  Ent.  xvii.  251).  Hazeleigh,  Warley,  Sept., 
1885    {Ray nor :    Ent.    xviii.    315).     One,   Maldon,    Oct.  4th,   1886 


8o  THE    LKIMDOPTERA    OF    ESSEX. 

{Filch ;  E/if.  xix.  278).  One,  Maldon,  Sept.  loth,  1889  {Fitch; 
E.N.  iii.  122).  One,  Little  Cornard,  autumn,  1836  {W.  D.  King; 
F.S./.,  Dec,  1838).  One,  male,  Kedington,  1835  {W.  Gaze  ;  Ent.  i. 
278;  Z.  iii.  803).  Three  near  Sudbury,  Aug.  20th-Sept.  7th,  1843 
{Gaze;  Z.ii.485).  Two,  Sudbury  and  Foxearth;  three.  Great  Cornard ; 
eight,  near  Sudbury,  1844  {Gaze ;  Z.  iii.  803).  Several  near  Chelms- 
ford, 1844  {A.  Greemvood  ;  Z.  iii.  803).  Two,  Walton-on-Naze,  1844 
{/.  Taylor;  Z.  iii.  1198).  Walton-on-Naze,  1875  {Harwood ;  Ent. 
viii.  198).  One,  Walton-on-Naze,  Aug.  29th,  1889  {B.  G.  Cole  ;  E.N. 
iii.  93).  Common  at  Clacton  to  Sept.  28th,  1877  {H.  Miller,  jiin.  ; 
Ent.  xi.  56).  One  female,  Clacton,  Sept.  9th,  1881  {Harwood ;  Ent. 
xiv.  232).  Wrabness,  Oct.  24th,  1877  ;  abundant  near  Harwich,  1877 
{F.  Kerry  ;  Ent.  x.  286;  xi.  55).  One  male,  Harwich,  Aug.  i8th, 
1878  {Kerry  ;  Ent.\\.  269).  Six,  Colchester,  1857  {Harwood ;  E.  IV.I. 
ii.  195).  Colchester,  June,  iS^S  {Harwood;  E.lV.I.'w.  107).  Ching- 
ford,  June  6th,  1877  {R.  L.  Rolph ;  Ent.  x.  189).  Loughton  and 
Chingford,  upwards  of  forty  seen  on  one  day  ;  Hackney  Marshes, 
several,  xZ']']  {T.  Eedle ;  Ent.x.  189).  Lea  Bridge,  June  17th,  1877 
{G.  Fearsofi ;  Ent.  x.  189).  Abundant,  Woodford  Bridge,  1877 
{W.  Cole;  E.N.  ii.  170).  Two  males,  Wanstead  Flats,  Sept.,  1884 
{J.  A.  Cooper ;  Ent.  xvii.  251).  One,  Chingford,  Aug.,  1886  {]V. 
Cole;  E.N.  ii.  170).  One  male,  Woodford  Green,  Sept.  7th,  1888 
( IV.  S.  Argent ;  E.N.  ii.  170).  One  male,  Chalk  End,  Roxwell, 
Sept.  22nd,  1882  ;  a  pair  near  Writtle,  Oct.  ist,  1882  {K.  W.  Christy  ; 
T.E.F.C.  iii.  Ixxxvi ;  Ent.  xvi.  41).  Grays,  1858  {Button  ;  E.  IV.I. 
iv.  183).  Clamp  Field,  Little  Wakering,  Sept.  ist,  1826  ;  Little 
Thorpe  [South  Shoebury],  Oct.  13th,  1826  {C.  Parsons,  MS.  Journal). 
Five, Southend,  Sept.,  1861  {H.  Vaughan :  E.  W.I.  x.  202).  '•'Common 
in  some  seasons,"  Leigh  {Vaughan;  E.N.  iii.  125).  Four,  Rainham, 
Aug.  20th,  1886  {G.  A.  lewcock  ;Ent.  xx.  40).  Several,  south-east 
Essex,  Aug.  and  Sept.,  1889  {/.  T.  Carrington  ;  Ent.  xx.  256).  One, 
Hole  Haven,  Canvey,  Sept.  4th,  1889  {B.  G.  Cole;  E.N.  iii.  93). 
Saffron  Waldcn  {Cat.  S.  W.M.  49).  Two,  Newport,  Oct.  6th,  1886 
(  Waldcgrave;  Ent.  xx.  64).     Felsted  {Rep.  FS.NH.S.  ii.  44). 

The  white  variety  of  female  {Helice,  Haw.)  was  taken  in  many 
localities  in  the  county  in  1877  ;  it  was  so  common  that  Mr.  H.  A. 
Cole  took  sixteen  in  one  day  at  Woodford  Bridge.  It  has  been 
recorded  from  : — 

One,  Colchester,  Aug.  24th,  1858  {Harivood :  E.JV.I  iv.  194). 
One,    Walthamstow,    Sept.    15th,    i8r7    (B.    Cooper;  Ent.    xi.    55). 


THE    LF.I'lDOl'TrCRA    OV    E.SSKX.  8l 

One,  Hackney  Marshes,  1877  (7!  Eedle ;  Ent.  \.  189).  Twenty, 
Woodford  Bridge,  1877  {W.  Cole ;  E.N.  ii.  170).  One,  Lea  Bridge, 
Sept.  17th,  1883  (6".  F.  Bralwn ;  Ent.  xvi.  259).  One,  Haze- 
leigh,  1877  {Raynor;  T.E.F.C.  iii.  37).  One,  by  Mr.  Hewlett,  at 
Shenfieid,  in  1878  {Ray/ior). 

Stepliens  figured  Colias  c/irysothenie,  Esp.  {LJy.E.  Haiist.  i.  12, 
pi.  ii.  fig.  i)  and  writes:  "The  male  from  which  the  accompanying 
figure  was  taken  was  captured  in  company  with  several  other  speci- 
mens by  H.  Sims,  Esq.,  in  September,  181 1,  either  in  the  county  of 
Norfolk,  or  near  Epping,  in  Essex  "  (see  also  Westivood  and  Hum- 
phreys, B.B.  17,  pi.  iii.  figs.  1-3).  Cf.  my  remarks  about  the  small 
males  of  the  third  brood  obtained  in  1877  iyEnt.  xi.  52,  53),and  see 
woodcut.  C.  chrysotheme  is  a  South-east  European  species  and 
occurs  throughout  North  America  from  California  and  Texas  to  the 
northern  and  mountainous  districts.  Mr.  H.  J.  JClwes  says  that  its 
distriljution  "  is  quite  unparalleled  by  that  of  any  other  species." 
{T.E.S.L.  1884,  16.) 

See  figure  of  a  curious  and  interesting  aberration  of  C.  edusa 
taken  near  Colchester  in  August,  1877  {Ent.  \\.  pi.  and/.  52). 

Colias  hyale,  L.      Pale  Clouded  Yellow. 

Geographical Disinl)ufio7t — Throughout  palasarctic  region,  except  extreme  north, 
to  Japan,  and  South  Africa.  Extending  its  range  northwards  in  Britain,  fitful  in 
appearance. 

Larva — Darit  green  with  narrow  yellowish-white  lateral  stripe.  Food — Various 
species  of  trifolium.     Imago — -July  to  September  ;  hibernates  as  larva. 

In  some  years  not  rare,  but  more  often  (juite  absent ;  generally 
distributed. 

"  Of  this  rare  British  species  1  have  seen  very  few  specimens,  and 
until  the  last  season,  only  three  recent  captures  had  come  to  my 
knowledge.  The  first  of  these  was  found  in  August,  181 1,  at 
Wrentham,  in  Suffolk,  by  the  very  ingenious  and  able  artist  to  whose 
accurate  pencil  I  am  indebted  for  the  figures  with  which  this  work  is 
embellished[C.  M.Curtis], and  is  in  his  brother's  collection  ;  the  second 
specimen  was  taken  about  eight  years  ago  in  Epping  Forest,  in  June, 
and  the  third  subsequently,  near  Brighton  ;  but  last  season  many  speci- 
mens were  captured  near  the  last-named  place  by  a  person  residing  in 
that  town,  tVc."  {Stephens;  I.B.E.  Haust  i.  14).  Epping  Forest  (  West- 
wood  and  Humphreys,  B.B.  16).  Epping,  occasionally  {S.M.  i.  17). 
Forty-three,  Epiping,  Aug.,  1842;  twenty-one  in  one  day:  "I  have  never 


<S2  IHK    l.i:i'II)C)l'I  KRA    Ol-'    KSSEX. 

seen  it  in  this  ncighl)ourh()od  before"  {H.  Doul'Ieday ;  Ent.  i.  389). 
Numerous  in  1842,  common  in  1843,  Epping  {H.  Doubleday  ;  Z.  ii. 
398).  Occurred  in  numl)ers  in  Aug.,  1844  [?  should  be  1842], 
E])ping,  Loughton  (y.  English;  E.N.  i.  iii).  Three,  Snaresbrook, 
Aug.  2ist,  1842  {IV.  Courtney;  Ent.  i.  388).  One,  near  "Wake 
Arms,"  Epping  Forest,  1868  {W.  J.  Argent).  Forty-one,  St.  Osyth, 
Aug.,  1842  {A.  Lambert ;  Ent.  i.  389).  Colchester,  but  rare  (^Har- 
wood ;  B.B.  142).  Thirty-six,  Aug.,  1857,  Colchester  {Hanvood ; 
E.W.I,  ii.  195).  Twelve,  Aug.  15th,  1868,  Colchester  {Harivood ; 
Ent.  iv.  146  ;  E.M.M.  iii.  106).  Six  eggs  sent  by  Mr.  Harwood,  of 
Colchester,  Sept.  i6th,  1875  {^Buckler,  Larvce  16).  Two,  Great 
Veldham,  Aug.  1842  {W.  D.  King;  Ent.  i.  416).  Five,  Lower 
Southend,  Aug.  12th  and  13th,  1842  {A.  Greemvood ;  Ent.  i.  416). 
One,  Springfield,  Sept.  7th,  1842  {Greemvood ;  Ent.  i.  416).  Fifty, 
Southend,  1868  {/.  Russell;  Ent.  iv.  160).  Common  in  some 
seasons,  Leigh  {Vaughan  ;  E.N.  iii.  125).  One,  Leigh,  Sept.  nth, 
1889  {B.  G.  Cole  :  E.N.  iii.  93).  Felsted  {Rep.  RS.N.H.S.  ii.  44)- 
One,  Witham,  Sept.  24th,  1868  ( [F.  D.  Cansdale ;  Ent.  iv.  160). 
Several,  Witham,  1875  {Cansdale ;  Etit.  viii.  221).  St.  Lawrence, 
'^75  (/■  ^^^-  Mills;  Ent.  viii.  276).  Seventy  in  1875,  Woodham 
Mortimer,  Hazeleigh  {Raynor ;  Ent.  viii.  300).  Common,  Maldon, 
&c.,  1875  {Fitch;  Ent.  viii.  221).  Five  or  six,  Maldon,  June  loth, 
1876  {Fitch;  Ent.  ix.  202).  A  few,  St.  Lawrence,  Maldon  {Mills; 
Fitch;  Ent.  x.  191).  One,  Maldon;  one,  Hazeleigh,  Aug.  29th, 
1889  {Fitch;  E.N.  iii.  122).  One,  Warley,  Sept.,  1885  {Raynor; 
Ent.  xviii.  315).     Saffron  Walden  {IV.  R.Jeffrey;  B.B.  142). 

Euchloe  cardamines,  L.     Orange  Tip. 

(ieog}af>hical  Distribution — Europe  (except  polar  regions),  Asia,  North  and 
West.     Throughout  Britain. 

Larva — Dull  green,  white  stripe  at  sides.  Food — Pods  and  flower-stems  of  vari- 
ous Cruciferw,  especially  charlock,  bittercress  or  cuckoo-flower,  garden  rocket  and 
Alharia.  Imago — April  to  June  ;  hibernates  as  pupa.  A  second  autumnal  brood 
is  very  rare,  hut  not  unknown  (see  Evt.  ii.  293  ;  xix.  247  ;  xx.  63,  135). 

Plentiful  throughout  the  county. 

Dr.  C.  de  (iavere  {Tijdschrift  x.  185)  says  of  this  species,  "It  is, 
perhap.s,  from  an  agricultural  point  of  view,  the  only  truly  useful 
lepidopterous  insect.  I  always  find  the  larva  upon  charlock  or  wild 
radish,  eating  especially  the  flowers,  and  so  preventing  the  dissemi- 
n.iiiop  of  these  troublesome  plants."      Its  larva   is  certainly  useful  in 


TIIK    I.Kl'IDOI'TKKA    OF    ESSEX.  83 

liiniiing  the  spread  of  charlock,  our  great  pest  on  the  Essex  clays,  as 
it  is  particularly  partial  to  the  seed-pods  of  this  plant,  and  more 
especially  so  when  growing  by  the  roadside.  Mr.  I  )oubleday  writes, 
"  I  believe  that  the  cuckoo-flower  (^Cardamine pratensis)  is  the  one 
on  which  the  eggs  are  most  frequently  deposited,  but  the  greater 
part  of  the  larw-e  must  perish  in  this  neighl)ourhood,  because  the 
fields  are  mowed  before  the  larvaj  are  full-grown.  I  have  very  often 
seen  the  larvie  on  the  seed-pods  of  Erysimum  alliaria  and  have 
several  times  found  the  pupae  on  the  dead  stems  of  this  plant  in 
winter.  I  think  it  is  the  principal  food  oi  E.cardamines  at  Epping." 
(Z.  xiv.  5146.) 

Leucophasia  sinapis,  L.     Wood  White. 

Geographical  Distribution — Europe,  North  and  East  Asia  (except  polar  regions). 
Local  in  England  and  Ireland,  absent  from  Scotland. 

Larva — Green,  with  darker  stripe  on  back  and  yellow  stripe  on  sides.  Food — 
\'arious  vetches  and  trefoils.     Imago — May  and  August  ;  hibernates  as  pupa. 

Much  rarer  now  than  formerly  in  woods  ;  of  weak  flight. 

Stour  and  Hartley  Woods  [Wrabness  and  St.  Osyth]  and  Bromley 
Thickets  {L./ermyn  ;  V.M.  65).  One,  Donyland  Heath,  by  William 
Tillaney  ;  one,  Markshall  Woods,  near  Coggeshall,  by  Henry  Law- 
rence {Hanvood).  Kedington  and  Haverhill,  1833-5  0^^-  G<^^^  >  E?it. 
i.  278).  Litley  Wood,  Debden  {Joseph  Clarke),  Saffron  Walden 
{Cat.  S.lV.Af.  49).  One  in  1835,  Epping;  not  seen  previously  lor 
five  years  (E.  Doiibleday ;  Etit.  Mag.  iii.  284).  Plentiful  near 
Epping  in  1839  {J.  English;  E.N.  \.  no).  Epping,  common 
(S.A/.  i.  20).  Probably  now  gone  from  the  Eorest  district,  although 
it  is  said  that  Mr.  P.  E.  Copland  saw  it  in  Ongar  Park  Woods  in 
1888.  Hainault  Forest  ("  Lover  of  Nature'' ;  K.O.J,  ii.  1 10).  Rare, 
Sudbury,  two  specimens  taken  (  ^.  Z>.  A'//;^'-?;  F.S.J.  Dec,  1838). 
Eelsted  {Rep.  F.S.N^.H.S.  ii.  44).  Rather  scarce,  Witham  {E.  H. 
Burnell ;  M.N.H.  (2)  i.  601).  Trotters  [North  Shoebury],  "my 
father,"  May  20th,  1827  {C.  Parsons  ;  MS.  Journal). 

Gonopteryx  rhamni,  L.     Prinistone. 

Geographical  Distribution — Europe,  Asia  (e.xcept  polar  regions)  and  North 
.Africa.     \'ery  rare  and  local  in  Scotland  and  Ireland. 

Larva — Dull  apple-green,  covered  with  minute  black  papillsp,  each  carrying  a 
short,  pale  bristle,  white  stripe  at  sides.  Food — Fiucktl.orn.  f7nngo — juiv  litl 
.May  ;  hibernating. 


^4  nil,   i.Ki'iDOi'TKRA  OF  essf:x. 

Common  throughout  the  county,  but  more  so  where  its  normal 
food-plant  (buckthorn)  grows.  The  bright  male  is  especially  notice- 
able, and  welcome  in  early  spring,  generally  the  first  species  seen. 
1  )r.  Maclean  found  eggs  deposited  on  the  buds  and  terminal  shoots 
of  Rhavmus  frangula,  in  the  woods  near  Colchester,  end  of  Ai)ril, 
nSsf)  (/.  Curtis  :  Proc.  E.S.L.  May  ^th,  1856). 

Argynnis  selene,  Schiff.     Small  Pearl-bordered  Fritillary. 

Geographical  Distrihulum — Hurope,  except  extreme  south  ;  Asia,  north  and 
west.     Absent  from  Ireland. 

Larva — Smoky  pink,  dark-brown  line  and  double  row  of  black  and  orange  spots 
on  back,  pale  pinkish-red  stripe  at  sides  ;  short  ochreous  spines,  anterior  pair 
reminding  one  of  snail's  horns.  Food — Dog  violet.  Imago — June  [?  .August]  ; 
hibernate?;  as  larva. 

In  open  places  in  woods.  Common  in  Epping  Forest  and  in 
many  other  restricted  localities  throughout  the  county. 

Argynnis  euphrosyne,  L.      Pearl-bordered  Fritillary. 

Geographical  Distri/niiion — Kiirope,  North  and  West  Asia.  Absent  from 
Ireland. 

Larva — Black,  greyish-white  stripe  on  sides  ;  spines  short,  on  back  yellow  with 
black  tips,  rest  black.  Food — Dog  violet.  Mr.  Harwood  found  one  on  j>rimrose. 
Imago — May  and  June  [?  August]  ;  hibernates  as  larva. 

Common  in  open  places  in  woods,  more  so  than  the  last  species 
{A.  selene)  and  earlier  in  appearance  ;  generally  distributed.  Abounds 
in  Epping  Forest  and  in  most  large  woods  in  the  county.  Interest- 
ing aberrations  both  of  this  and  the  last  species  sometimes  occur. 

Argynnis  latona,  E.     Queen  of  Spain  Fritillary. 

Geographical  ZJM/r?(5a//o«— Throughout  paloearctic  region,  except  extreme 
north.  Confined  to  south  and  east  in  England  and  Ireland,  always  uncertain  and 
rare. 

Larva — Blackish-gre}-,  whitish  stripe  on  back,  brownish-fellow  lines  on  sides  ; 
sjjines  short,  brick-red.  Food — Heartsease,  violet,  sainfoin,  and  alkanet.  Imago 
— May  to  October,  mostly  in  the  autumn   in  Britain  ;  hibernates  as  larva. 

Very  rare  and  uncertain.  Probably  an  immigrant  from  the  Con- 
tinent. Six  liritish  specimens  only  known  previous  to  181 8,  com- 
mon in  that  year,  according  to  Haworth  ;  August  and  September, 
18  iS,  near  Colchester  (67<'///d';/i- ;  J.B.E.  Hatist).  Colchester  (O/r- 
tis  :   HE.  :  S.Af.  i.  43).   Five,  Colchester,  1857  l^Harwood ;  E.U'.I. 


TWh.    l.i;i'll)01'TKK.\    OF    IvSSlCX.  85 

ii.  1S2).  One,  Colchester,  Aui;.,  1858  (//<7/-7fvv;</;  E.IP\L  iv.  194). 
One,  Colchester,  end  of  Sept.,  1865  {/lanvood ;  P.E.S.L.  2nd 
Oct.,  1865).  One,  Colchester  Aug.  15th,  1868  {^Harwood ; 
E.M.M.  V.  106;  Efit.  iv.  146).  Another,  Colchester,  Sept.,  1868  {J/ar- 
wood  ;  E.M.M.  v.  131  ;  E/ii.  iv.  161).  "I  have  taken  four  in  different 
years  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Colchester,  and  have  seen  three  others 
taken,  two  of  them  by  one  of  my  brothers  ;  Mr.  W.  Harrington  and 
Mr.  Robert  Halls  have  each  taken  single  specimens  ;  others  have 
been  taken  at  Berechurch  by  the  late  Dr.  Maclean  and  Mr.  Law- 
rence lilack  "  [should  be  Brock]  I^Hartvood ;  B.B.  34).  One,  St. 
O.syth,  Sept.  14th,  1881  {Hanvood ;  Ent.  xiv.  232).  One,  Brain- 
tree,  Sept.  19th,  1865  {B.  Holland ;  Ent.  ii.  31 1»).  Three,  South- 
end, 1868  (y.  Russell ;  Ent.  iv.  160).  One,  Rainham,  Oct.,  1870 
(/'  Venablcs ;  Ent.  v.  212).  Near  Sudbury  {Gaze ;  Z.  xx.  7971). 
"  Said  to  have  been  once  taken  on  the  Newton  Road,  Sudbury  " 
(  IK  D.  King?;  E.S.J.  Dec,  1838). 

This  rare  species  has  also  been  taken  at  Stoke-by-Nayland 
{Jerinyn ;  V.M.  67)  and  Felixstowe  (^«/.  vi.  192),  just  over  the 
Suffolk  border. 

Argynnis  aglaia,  L.      Dark-green  Fritillary. 

Geographical  Distribution — Europe, 1  North,  West,  and  East  Asia.  Common  on 
the  Continent,  but  local  in  Britain. 

Larva — Grej'ish-back,  double  yelK)w  line  on  back,  orange-red  spots  on  sides  ; 
spines  black.     Food — Dog  violet.     Imago — June  to  August  ;    hibernates  as  lar\a. 

Rare  ;  on  commons,  heaths,  and  rough  hill-sides.  Local  and 
apparently  disappearing  from  the  county. 

Lexden  Heath,  Birch  Wood,  near  Dedham,  Bromley  Thickets, 
\\'rabness  Cliff  {Jermyn  ;  V.M.  67).  Southend  {Harwood ;  B.B. 
28)  [doubtful?].  Sudbury  (/.  Grubb ;  B.B.  29).  I  once  saw  a 
large  Fritillary  at  Colne  Point,  St.  Osyth,  which  I  beheve  was  this 
species  ;  it  might  have  been  A.  lathonia  {Fitch).  Woods  ne-^r  Bergholt, 
over  fifty  years  ago  {H.  Dcmbleday,  in  letter  to  IV.  H.  Hanvood). 

Argynnis  adippe,  L.      High-brown  Fritillary. 

Geographical  Distribution — F!urope  (except  polar  regions),  Asia  (probabl)-  to 
China  and  Japan).     Absent  from  Scotland  and  Ireland. 

Larva — Reddish-ochreous,  interrupted  whitish  lines  on  back,  \elvet)-black 
transverse  streaks  along  sides  ;  spines  rusty  brown.  Food — \^iolet  and  heartsease. 
/mag} — July  ;  hibernates  as  larva.  From  Buckler's  "  Larvae  "  this  seems  doubtful  ; 
he  had  eggs  laid  Aug.  25th,  1S77  ;  hatched,  March,  1S78  ;  and  again  eggs  laid 
.\ug.  7lh,  1882  ;  hatched  Feb.  I4ih,  iXSv 


86  IHK    l.KPIDOl'TKRA    OF    ESSEX. 

Not  common,  Ijut  probal:)ly  generally  distriljuted  in  our  larger 
woods.     Apparently  rarer  now  than  formerly. 

Hartley  and  Hamlet's  Wood  and  Bromley  Thickets  (y^'rw  17/ ; 
V.M.  67).  (ireat  Bromley  {£.  Alston;  E.  W.I.  ii.  143,  151).  Col- 
chester, St.  Osyth,  has  been  more  scarce  during  the  last  two  or  three 
years  than  formerly  {^Harwood ;  B.B.  32).  Still  common  in  Col- 
chester district  {Hanvood).  Rare,  Epping  {E.  Doubkday ;  E?it. 
Mag.  iii.  285).  Used  to  occur  in  quantity,  Hainhault  Forest  (Eng/is/i; 
Proc.  E.F.C.  iv.  xxxiii.)  Common,  Epping,  in  1844,  "but  I  have 
not  seen  one  now  for  many  years  "  {Etig/ish  ;  E.N.  i.  1 10).  Epping 
{S.M.  \.  42).  Near  "  Waice  Arms,"  Epping  Forest  {A.  J.  Rose  ;  Ent. 
xvi.  151).  Not  uncommon,  Brentwood  {Ray nor).  Felstead  {Rep. 
F.S.N. H.S.  ii.  44).  Eastwood,  not  common.  "  I  have  often  seen 
A.  adippe  in  the  cottage  gardens  near  the  wood  at  Hadleigh " 
{Vaughan ;  E.N.  iii.  126).  Sparingly  in  Parson's  Wood,  near 
Woodham  Mortimer  Church  (Raynor,  T. E.F.C.  iii.  37).  Hazeleigh 
Hall  Wood,  in  August,  on  thistles,  not  common  {Fitch).  Not  com- 
mon, \\\\.\\?Lm  {E.  H.  Burjiell,  M.N.H{2).  i.  601).  Sudbury  (  TF. 
D.  King ;  B.B.  2,Z)-  Abundant  in  large  wood,  Essex,  and  one  var., 
cleodoxa  {Button;  Ent.  v.  221).      "Essex"  {Stephens). 

Argynnis  paphia,   L.     Silver-washed  Fritillary. 

Geographical  Distribution — Europe,  Asia,  except  extreme  north.  Throughout 
Britain. 

Larva — Blackish-brown,  broad  yellow  streak  on  back,  bordered  with  black 
spots  ;  spines  longf,  reddish-ochreous,  with  black  tips.  Food — Violet,  wild  rasp- 
berry.    Imago — July  and  August ;    hibernates  as  larva. 

Formerly  abundant  in  most  of  our  larger  woods,  now  rare  and 
local. 

"  Whether  seen  on  the  wing  and  shooting  through  a  gleam  of 
sunshine  in  the  recesses  of  a  wood,  or  settled  upon  a  lofty  purple- 
headed  thistle  [or  bramble  spray],  and  alternately  erecting  and  ex- 
])anding  its  silvered  wings,  this  is  certainly  one  of  our  finest  and 
most  attractive  butterflies"  (//'.  D.  Kingl ;  F.S.J.,  Dec,  1838). 
Eexden  and  Stour  Woods,  Bromley  Thickets,  Hamlets  "W^ood,  Hut- 
ton's  Grove,  Beaumont  (/fz-wj'/i ;  V.M.  67).  Great  Bromley  {Al- 
ston; E.  W.I.  ii.  143).  Formerly  common  in  Highwoods,  Colchester, 
now  very  scarce;  still  common  at  Donyland  and  St.  0?,yih{Harwood). 
"  Usually  one  of  our  commonest  species  "  (/f.  Doubleday ;  Ent.  i. 
374).      1-arva;  first  met  with  in  1838  (//.  Doubleday,  in  litt.).     Epping 


THE    I.KIMliOI'lKRA    OF    RSSKX.  87 

{E.  Doiibleday  :  Ent.  J/d^.  iii.  157).  It  has  almost,  if  not  (|uitc, 
disappeared  from  Eppin>;  Forest  now  ;  the  only  specimen  Mr.  B.  ('•. 
("ole  has  seen  there  was  a  worn  male  in  Bury  Wood,  Sewardstone, 
in  1874.  Garden  at  Park  Place,  Leyton,  in  1868  (J^.  Meldola). 
Hazeleigh  Wood,  rare  {Rayttor ;  T.E.F.C.  iii.  37).  Mr.  E.  Stuart 
and  Rev.  J.  W.  Mills'  pupils  used  to  take  it  sparingly  in  Mundon 
Furze,  doubtless  it  still  occurs  there  {Fitch).  Woods  at  Warley,  not 
common  {Rayfior).  Very  common  in  some  seasons,  as  1837,  near 
Witham  {E.  H.  Burnell ;  M.N.H.  (2)  i.  601).  Very  rare  at  Messing 
{Hanvofld;  Proc.  E.F.C.  iii.  xxvii).  F^elsted  {Rep.  F.S.N.H.S.  ii. 
44)-  Sudbury  {W.  D.  King?  F.S.J.  Dec.  1838).  Eastwood,  not 
common  {Vaughan  ;  E.N.  iii.  126). 

[The  dark  variety  of  the  female  ( Valezina,  Esp.),  now  almost 
confined  to  New  Forest,  Hampshire,  is  traditionally  said  to  have 
been  found  many  years  ago  in  Lark's  Wood,  Chingford,  a  likely 
locality  enough. —  W.  Co/e.] 

Melitaea  aurinia,   Rott.     Oreasy   Fritillary. 

Geographical  Distribution — Europe  (except  polar  regions),  North  aiul  West 
Asia,  North  Africa.     Throughout  Britain. 

Larva — X'elvety  black,  white  specks  on  back  and  sides  ;  spines  black.  Food — 
Blue  scabious,  also  plantain,  speedwell,  foxglove,  and  honeysuckle.  Imago — May 
and  June  [August  ?]  ;  hibernates  as  larva. 

Rare  and  very  local,  in  damp  meadows. 

Ongar  woods,  High  Beach  {H.  Doiibleday  ;  Ent.  i.  356).  Ongar 
Park  and  High  Beach  in  1839,  "but  never  seen  in  after  years" 
{English;  E.N.  i.  no).  Four,  Epping  Forest,  1857  (i"?.  Tyssen  ; 
E.H'.I.  ii.  115).  Epping,  has  occurred  commonly  {S.M.  i.  48). 
Near  Epping  {E.  Doubleday  ;  B.B.  42).  Used  to  occur  at  \\'anstead 
l'"lats,  but  has  latterly  disappeared  {Carrington ;  Ent.  xii.  163). 
Kedington  and  Haverhill,  1833-35  {Gaze;  Ent.  i.  278).  About 
Colchester,  but  not  nearly  so  common  as  formerly  {Harwood ;  B.B. 
42).  [This  record  is  an  error,  as  Mr.  Harwood  assures  me  he  has 
never  seen  it  in  the  county].  Saffron  Walden  {Jeffrey;  B.B.  42; 
Cat.  S.U:.]/.  49). 

Melitaea  athalia,    Rott.      Heath  Fritillary. 

Gfographtcai  Distribution — Kumpe,  Norlh  and  West  .Asia,  possibly  to  Corea 
and  Japan.     In  Britain  confined  to  South  England  and  Ireland,  local. 


88  THK    LEI'irJOPTEKA    OF    ESSEX. 

Larva — Blaik  dotted  with  white  ;  spines  ochreous,  white  on  sides.  Food — r  Ian- 
tain,  wood  sage  and  speedwell.  Mr.  Harwood  found  it  on  cow-wheat  {Melampyrum), 
probably  its  general  food-plant,  and  foxglove.  Imago — May  to  August  ;  hibernates 
as  larva. 

Rare  and  very  local,  frecjuenting  heathy  spots  in  woods. 
Henjamin  Wilkes  found  the  larvae  "  feeding  on  common  heath  " 
in  Tottenham  Wood,  about  the  middle  of  May,  1745  {E?ig.  M.  and 
B.  p.  58  pi.  cxii.)  Hartley  Wood  [St.  Osyth],  {Jermyn  ;  V.M.  65). 
Near  St.  Osyth,  July  1845  (/.  W.  Douglas ;  Z.  iii.  1089).  "Woods 
bordering  road  from  Colchester  to  Ipswich  "  (A  {E.  Doiibkday)  ; 
Ent.  Mag.  iv.  231).  Colchester  {E.  Douhkday ;  B.B.  48).  Common 
but  very  local,  Colchester,  1867  {Harwood;  E.M.M.  iv.  162). 
"  Now  restricted  to  one  wood  "  [Uedham  Birch  Wood]  {Harivood  ; 
B.B.  ^^).  Dark  \?^nt\^es  irom.Co\c\\e?,iex  {Harwood ;  Froc.  E.S.L., 
7th  March,  1870).  Formerly  Highwoods,  Colchester,  very  rare,  and 
twice  in  field  close  to  town  {Harivood).  "  I  may  here  mention 
that  an  attempt  was  made  by  Mr.  Harwood  to  establish  a  colony  of 
M.  athalia  in  a  wood  about  fifteen  miles  from  one  of  its  haunts 
in  Essex,  where  its  food  plant  {Melampyrum  praiense)  abounded  : 
but  though  the  insect  fairly  established  itself  for  a  few  seasons,  from 
some  cause  or  other,  after  changing  its  habitat  from  one  clearing  to 
another  in  the  wood,  it  disappeared,  and  has  not  since  been  seen  in 
that  locality  as  far  as  I  am  aware "  (6^.  _/.  Grapes;  Ent.  xix.  177). 
Ongar  Park  and  High  Beach  in  1839,  "but  never  seen  in  after 
years"  {English;  E.N.  i.  no).  Epping,  has  occurred  {S.M.  i.  47). 
One,  Epping  Forest  {R.  Tyssen ;  E.  JF.I.  ii.  115).  Series  from  Essex 
exhibited  (/l^  Souf/i ;  F.S.L.E.S.  1885,  34).  Two,  Witham,  June, 
1837  {E.  H  Bitrnc//,  M.N.H.  (2)  i.  601). 

Vanessa    c-album,   L.      Comma. 

Geographical  Distrihutmi — Europe,  Asia  (e.xcept  polar  regions).  Local  in 
England  and  Ireland,  rare  in  South  and  East  England,  absent  from  Scotland. 
Close  ally  in  North  .America. 

Larva — Grey-brown,  red  patch  on  back  of  anterior  segments,  broad  white  stripe 
on  back  of  posterior  ;  spines  brown  and  white,  red  on  sides.  Food — Hop,  current, 
elm,  sloe,  and  nettle.     Imago — September  to  June — hibernating. 

\'ery  rare,  if  not  now  extinct  in  the  county,  like  the  hop 
industry. 

"  .Many  years  since  it  used  to  occur  in  profusion  at  Epping ;  I 
cannot  give  any  date,  but  it  was  when  I  was  a  mere  child  —I  should 
judge  about  181 7  or  iSiS.     'l"wo  or  three  of  the   specimens   taken 


THE    LKinnOl'TKRA    OF    ESSEX.  89 

then  were  in  existence  not  many  years  back.  Since  those  times  1 
have  never  met  with  the  insect  here  "  {£.  Doubkday ;  Ent.  Mag.  iii. 
285  ;  B.B.  51).  This  species  has  disappeared  from  many  places 
where  it  was  formerly  common.  All  the  old  writers  record  it  as 
being  •'  abundant  near  London,"  and  many  entomologists  now  living 
can  remember,  when  they  were  young,  such  was  the  case  {S.Af.  i. 
40).  One,  Eastlands  Wood,  near  Maldon  {E.  H.  Biirnell ;  M.N.H. 
(2)i.  602).  One,  Mundon,  near  Maldon,  by  R.  E.  Stuart,  in  1871 
{Ray nor ;  Ent.  vi.  264).  I  have  seen  this  specimen  this  year. 
Colchester,  two  or  three,  but  it  is  a  great  rarity  {Harivood ;  B.B.  51). 
Dr.  Laver  has  one  taken  by  \\\  Tillaney,  at  Colchester.  Saffron 
Walden  {Jeffrey;  B.B.  51).  Mr.  H.  A.  Cole  and  myself  believe 
that  we  saw  a  specimen  in  Takeley  Forest  on  October  loth,  1890. 


Vanessa  polychloros,   L.      Large  Tortoiseshell. 

Geographical  Distribution — Europe.  North  and  West  Asia  (except  far  north). 
Doubtful  native  of  Scotland,  absent  from  Ireland. 

Larva — Brown,  yellow  stripe  on  back,  divided  by  black  line,  and  sides  ;  spines 
ochreous.  Food — Kim,  cherry,  sallow,  osier,  willow,  aspen.  /»z«^o— July  to  June  : 
hibernating. 

Fairly  common,  and  generally  distributed  throughout  the  county. 

See  Mr.  White's  paper  on  a  specimen  of  V.  polychloros,  bred  with 
a  brood  of  V.  urticce,  feeding  upon  nettle  {T.E.F.C.  ii.  1-7).  [This 
was  probably  an  error  of  observation,  the  larva  being  really  V.  poly- 
chloros.— Ed.].  Mr.  J.  A.  Tawell,  of  Earl's  Colne,  bred  V.  poly- 
chloros irom  nQiiXc-ictiWng  larv?e  in  187 1  [Ent.  vi.  88).  Some  of 
these  specimens  are  still  in  the  Entomological  Club  Collection.  Mr. 
Ray  nor  found  V.  iirtiae,  in.  cop.  with  V.  polychloros  at  Hazeleigh  in 
the  beginning  of  August,  1872  {Ent.  vi.  221). 

Common  in  the  Maldon  district,  but  I  have  never  found  the  larv^ 
feeding  on  anything  but  elm,  generally  on  stubs.  "  A  brood  of  the 
caterpillars  fed  upon  a  cherry-tree  this  year  in  a  garden  in  this  town 
[Sudbury]  ;  after  stripping  the  end  of  one  branch,  they  were  observed 
to  migrate  in  a  body  to  the  extremity  of  another,  preferring  the  young 
leaves  to  those  which  had  been  longer  expanded"  {]V.  D.  King? ; 
F.S.J. ,  Dec,  1838).  Larvae  feeding  on  a  low  branch  of  a  cherry-tree 
in  a  garden  at  Brentwood,  July  10th,  1888  {Raytwr ;  Ent.  xxi.  255). 
^'ery  common  round  Colchester  in  i860,  the  caterpillars  feeding 
on  elm,   sallow,  and  osier,  now  rare   {/Janvood ;  B.B.   57).      Thi.-. 


90  THK    I.EIMDOI'TKRA    OF    ESSEX. 

year  [1695],  I  found  several  larvae  eating  the   leaves  of  the  common 
hroad  and  round-leaved  sallow  (AVr  ;  H.I.  118). 

Vanessa  urticae,  L.     Small  Tortoiseshell. 

Geographical  Distri'mtion — Europe,  North  and  West  Afia,  local  forms  in  East 
Asia.  Througiioul  Britain.  One  of  the  most  widely  distributed  and  commonest 
species. 

Larva — Variable  yellowish-g^rey,  black  line  on  back,  broad  brown  stripe  and 
yellow  line  on  sides  ;  spines  black  or  yellow,  with  black  tips.  Food — Nettie. 
Jmago — June  t )  June  ;  hibernating. 

Particularly  abundant  throughout  the  county.  In  June  bright, 
newly  emerged,  and  tattered,  hibernated  individuals  are  frequently  to 
be  seen  together — a  great  contrast. 

Westwood  figures  a  specimen  with  a  supplemental  hind  wing, 
abnormally  small,  but  with  the  usual  markings  and  coloration,  fixed 
to  the  base  of  the  hind  wing  {Butterflies  of  Great  Britain.,  pi.  vii.  fig. 
I,  and  T.E.S.L.  1879,  pi.  vi.  figs.  2,  2a).  This  monstrous  .specimen 
was  caught  flying  near  Epping  by  Mr.  H.  Doubleday  {Stephens ; 
I.B.E.  Haust  i.  148),  and  was  sent  to  Stephens  by  Mr.  Samuel 
Hanson,  on  March  3rd,  1828.  It  is  now  in  the  Stephensian  Collec- 
tion in  the  National  Museum  at  South  Kensington. 

Vanessa  io,   L.     Peacock. 

Geographical  Disiributioti — Throughout  palaearctic  region,  except  extreme  north 
and  south.     Throughout  Britain. 

Larva — Black,  with  minute  white  dots  ;  spines,  black.  Fcod — Nettle  ;  feeds 
exposed,  generally  gregarious.     Imago — August  to  June  :  hibernating. 

Common  everywhere,  but  apparently  less  so  in  Essex  now  than 
formerly. 

Vanessa  antiopa,  L.     Camberwell  Beauty. 

Geographical  Distribution — Palocarctic  region.  North  and  Central  America. 
'I  hroughout  Britain,  but  rare  and  uncertain. 

Larva — Black,  with  grey  pubescence,  row  of  light-red  spots  on  back  through 
which  passes  thin  black  line  ;  spines  black.  Food — Willow,  birch,  nettle.  Imago 
— August  to  June  ;  hibernating. 

Rare  and  uncertain.  Comparatively  common  in  1872,  fairly  so  in 
1880,  very  rare  since. 

"  The  fine  species  figured  ...  is  rendered  rare  and  remark- 
al)lc  in  this  country  by  its  periodical  appearance,  the  cause  of  which 
has  hitherto  never  been   ascertained  :  the  most  probable  conjcctin-e 


THK    I.EI'IDOI'TERA    OK    KSSKX.  9I 

is  (as  Mr.  Haworth  has  observed)  that  'their  eggs  in  this  chmate, 
hke  the  seeds  of  some  vegetables,  may  occasionally  lie  dormant  for 
several  seasons,  and  not  hatch,  until  some  extraordinary  but  undis- 
covered coincidences  awaken  them  into  active  life.'  Until  four  or 
five  years  since  V.  antiopa  had  not  been  seen  for  nearly  forty  years, 
when  it  was  exceedingly  abundant  in  different  parts  of  the  kingdom. 
In  the  year  1819  a  few  were  taken  in  Suffolk,  and  Mr.  Samouelle  cap- 
tured one  the  following  spring  that  had  lived  through  the  winter, 
since  which  period  it  has  not  been  seen.  It  has  received  its  Eng- 
lish name  from  having  been  first  observed  at  Camberwell,  whither 
it  might  have  been  attracted  by  willows,  upon  which  the  larvae  feed, 
and  are  full  grown  the  beginning  of  July,"  &c.  {Curtis ;  B.E.  96). 
Insect  migration  was  then  but  imperfectly  understood  (see  my  last 
presidential  address,  E.N.  iv.  7).  Lewin  says,  "In  March,  1790,  a 
number  of  these  insects  were  flying  and  soaring  about  for  the  space 
of  twelve  or  fourteen  days  ;  and  then,  as  if  with  one  consent,  they 
migrated  from  us  and  were  no  more  seen." 

Little  Oakley  {Jermyn ;  V.M.  69).  One,  Little  Oakley  Rectory, 
Aug.  1 8th,  1857  {H.  T.Stainton;  E.  W.I.  iii.  13).  Twelve,  Colchester, 
1872  {Hanvood ;  E.M.M.  ix.  137).  Two,  Roman  Hill,  Colchester, 
Sept.  2nd,  1872  {H.  Aggio ;  F.  xl.  249).  Dr.  Laver  has  a  specimen 
taken  at  Middlewick,  Colchester,  by  William  Tillaney,  Aug.  29th, 
1880.  Two,  Halstead,  Sept.  2nd,  1872  (,5'.  R.  Bentall ;  Ent.  vi. 
216).  One,  Clavering,  Aug.  31st,  1880  {W.  G.Nash;  Ent.\\\\. 
239).  One,  Saffron  Walden,  Sept.,  1846  {G.  S.  Gibson;  Z.  iv. 
1507).  Three,  Witham,  Aug.  23rd-Sept.  5th,  1872  {Cansdak : 
Ent.  vi.  215  ;  F.  xl.  214V  One,  Great  Braxted,  1837  {C.  Walford : 
E.L.J.  27),  One,  Maldon,  Sept.  13th,  1872  [Raynor ;  Ent.  vi. 
216).  I  have  one  from  Maldon,  taken  many  years  ago  by  Miss 
Hance  (see  E.N.  ii.  242).  Several,  Mundon,  1872  {Rayiwr ;  Ent. 
vi.  216,264).  Two,  Latchingdon,  1872  {Chelmsford  Chronicle; 
Ent.  vi.  216).  One,  Cold  Norton,  1879  {Raynor ;  T.E.F.C.  iii. 
38).  Several,  Burnham,  1872  {Raynor ;  Ent.  vi.  216).  One, 
Hurnham,  iZ-ji  {Fitch  :  E.N.  ii.  83).  One,  Bradwell-on-Sea,  vSept. 
2nd,  1872  {/.  W.  Mills ;  Ent.  vi.  215).  One,  Canewdon,  July, 
25th,  1873  {Fitch ;  Ent.  vi.  457).  One,  Hockley,  Aug  24th,  1872 
{Fitch  ;  Ent.  vi.  193).  One,  Southend,  Aug.  28th,  1872  {E.J.  Hig- 
gins ;  E.M.M.  \x.  109).  One,  Southend,  1872  {C.  S.  Barnes;  F 
xl.  249).  One,  Chelmsford,  Aug.  26th,  1857  (/.  Flatnian,  E.IV.I. 
ii.  182).     One,  Brentwood,  Sept.  2nd,  1872  {E.  F.  Grozvse  ;  Ent.  vi. 


92  THK    I.KriDOI'TERA    OF    ESSEX. 

216).  One  seen  by  Mr.  R.  (i.  Willinieni  in  AVeald  Lane,  Brentwood, 
on  Aug.  19th,  1880  {Raynor).  One,  Havering-atte-Bower,  April 
14th,  1873  {E.  remberton-Barnes  ;  F.  xli.  378.  E.  Newman  :  Ent. 
vi.  410).  One,  Havering-atte-Bower,  Sept.  9th,  i%^6  { J V.  B.  Fem- 
berton-Barnes  ;  Ent.  xix.  248).  One,  Epping,  Sept.,  1835  {F. 
Lackey;  Ent.  Mag.  iii.  415).  Common,  Epping,  1836  (A  E. 
Doubleday ;  Ent.  Mag.  iv.  231).  Two,  Epping,  Sept.  12th,  1846 
(ZT.  Doubleday ;  Z.  iv.  1504).  Epping,  occasionally  {S.M.  i.  39). 
One,  Epping  Lower  ¥ ore?,i  {Engtish  ;  Buxton  s  E.F.  100).  Three, 
Chingford,  Sept.  6th,  1877  {W.  Doivning ;  Ent.  x.  252).  One, 
Ilford,  Aug.  27th,  1880  {G.  Watkins  :  Ent.  xiii.  277;  exhibited, 
T.E.FC.  i.  Ixi).  One,  Woodford  Bridge,  1877  {W.J.  Argent). 
One,  ^Valthamstow,  Sept.  2nd,  1872  {W.'^  Downing ;  Ent.  vi.  216). 
One,  Walthamstow,  May  24th,  1888  {W.  Doivning:  Ent.  xxi.  155; 
J.  A.  Cooper;  Ent.  xxi.  184;  W.J.  Argent,  E.N.  ii.  72).  One, 
Leytonstone,  Sept.  4th,  1889  {G.  C.  Frindell :  Ent.  xxii.  257).  One, 
Lea  Bridge  Marshes,  Aug.  27th,  1876  (//.  Ashpole  ;  Ent.  ix.  229). 

Vanessa  atalanta,  L.     Red  Admiral. 

Geographical  Distribution — Europe,  Asia  Minor,  North  Africa,  North  America. 
Throughout  Britain. 

Larva — Greenish-gre}',  and  yellow  to  black  (variable)  often  with  pale  freckles, 
pale  yellow  stripe  on  sides  ;  spines  )-ellow,  reddish-brown,  or  black.  Food — 
Nettle,  spinning  lea\es  together,     hnago — August  to  June  ;  hibernating. 

Apparently  by  no  means  so  common  in  the  county  now  as  for- 
merly, though  generally  distriljuted.  This  butterfly  has  been  taken 
by  night  at  "  light  "  and  at  "  sugar,"  and  I  have  several  times  noticed 
it  flying  round  trees  in  my  wood  (Hazeleigh)  at  dusk  together  with 
the  red-underwing  moth  (C  ni/pta),  which  it  then  much  resembles. 
Particularly  partial  to  fallen  fruit,  especially  plums. 

Vanessa  cardui,  L.     Painted  Lady. 

Geographical  Dixtrihution — Cusmopolitan.  except,  perhaps,  polar  regions  and 
South  America.  Throughout  Britain  to  Orkney  and  Shetland,  but  somewhat 
uncertain. 

Larva — Dark  gre}'  with  yellow  spots,  yellow  stripes  on  back  and  sides  ;  spines 
yellow  or  grey.  Mallow-feeding  specimens  hairy.  Food — Thistle,  especially 
C.  arvensis,  nettle,  and  common  mallow  ;  spinning  leaves  together  or  under  a  web. 
Imago — July  to  July;  hibernating.  One  of  Buckler's  hairy  mallow-feeders 
pupated  13th  Oct.,  1868;  emerged  February  7th,  1869  (Larva-,  j).  53).  Appar- 
ently a  conspicuous  exception  to  the  constancy  of  hibernation,  but  doubtless 
induced  by  the  unnatural  conditions  of  a  warm  room. 


Till';    I.l.l'IDOI'i  KKA    OF    ESSEX.  93 

Uiu'crtain  and  irregular  in  appearance,  but  generally  distributed. 
S;)me  years,  as  1879,  abundant,  in  others  quite  absent.  [Very  common 
at  Woodford  Bridge  in  1877,  and  occurs  in  most  years,  more  or  less 
abundantly,  in  the  Forest  districts. —  JF.  Co/e.]  Ray  says,  "Occurs 
with  us  frequently  enough  round  braintree  and  elsewhere  "  {H./. 
422  nrfe  122).  Mr.  Cole  has  in  his  cabinet  a  very  beautiful  aber- 
ration of  this  butterfly,  taken  in  his  garden  at  Huckhurst  Hill,  on 
|unc  iith,  1879.  A  similar  specimen  is  figured  by  Newman 
(/y./y.  64)  from  Mr.  Ingall's  Collection. 

Limenitis  sibylla,  L.     White  Admiral. 

Geographical  Distribution — Central  Europe,  Spain,  and  South  Russia,  Ens;land. 

Larva — Green,  with  3ellowish  blotches,  two  rows  of  spines  on  back — reddish 
at  tips  with  black  branches,  brown  at  base — white  streak  on  side  ;  head,  red- 
brown.  Food — Honeysuckle  ;  preferably  those  plants  climbing  oak-trunks. 
Imago — June  and  July  ;   hibernates  as  larva. 

Rare,  every  year  becoming  more  so  ;  in  woods. 

"  The  graceful  elegance  displayed  by  this  charming  species  when 
sailing  on  the  wing  is  greater  perhaps  than  can  be  found  in  any 
other  we  have  in  Britain.  There  was  an  old  Aurelian  of  London,  so 
highly  delighted  at  the  inimitable  flight  of  Camilla,  that,  long  after 
he  was  unable  to  pursue  her,  he  used  to  go  to  the  woods,  and  sit 
down  on  a  stile,  for  the  sole  purpose  of  feasting  his  eyes  with  her 
fascinating  evolutions"  {Haworth  ;  Lep.  I  rit.  i.  30). 

"  In  its  beautiful  flight,  when  it  skims  aloft,  it  rivals  the  Purple 
I'Lmperor,  which  it  strongly  resembles  in  appearance.  It  seems, 
however  (unlike  the  latter),  to  avoid  the  sunbeams,  for  it  fre- 
quents the  glades  of  woods,  where  it  rapidly  insinuates  itself  by 
the  most  beautiful  evolutions  and  placid  flight  through  the  tall 
underwood  on  each  side  the  glades,  ap[)earing  and  disappearing  like 
so  many  little  fairies  "  {Rev.  Revett  Sheppard,  of  Wrabness,  V.M. 
.21). 

"  For  the  first  time  in  my  life  I  saw  this  beautiful  butterfly  near 
Colchester  last  July  [1836],  and  its  elegant  appearance  when  on  the 
wing  will  not  soon  be  effaced  from  my  mind.  It  is  vain  to  try  to 
describe  it"  i^Edivard  Doubleday  ;  Ent.  Mag.  iv.  231). 

"Z.  sibylla  is  only  found  when  the  'slop,'  or  underwood  is  high, 
and  a  considerable  clearance  in  a  small  wood  means  sometimes  the 
all  but  total  extermination  of  the  species  in  that  particular  wood  ; 
but  colonists  from  neighbouring  woods  soon   restore   the  balance,  so 


94  THK    LEl'IDOPTRRA    OF    ESSEX. 

soon  as  favourable  conditions  again  obtain,  but  when  there  is  no 
neighbouring  wood,  the  balance  may  never  be  restored.  In  very 
hot  seasons  local  butterflies  become  to  some  extent  migratory  ;  such 
was  the  case  with  L.  sihylla  last  July,  and  I  should  not  be  surprised 
if,  this  year,  specimens  are  met  with  in  woods  where  none  have  been 
previously  seen.  Mr.  Laver  saw  a  specimen  in  the  town  here  [Col- 
chester] last  year  [1881]  two  miles  from  any  known  locality  "  {Har- 
wood ;  Proc.  E.F.C.  iii.  xxvii). 

Captured  by  Mr.  Morton,  in  Essex,  not  far  from  the  town  of 
Tollesbury,  and  brought  to  me  on  July  nth,  1695  {Ray  ;  H.I.  127). 
Hartley  Wood  [St.  Osyth]  {/er/iiyn ;  V.Af.  69).  Woods  between 
Walton-on-Naze  and  Brightlingsea,  "  but  seems  to  be  gradually  dis- 
a[)pearing "  {A.  Lambert  and  J.  W.  Douglas ;  Ent.  i.  384).  St. 
Osyth,  July,  \2,^c^  [Douglas ;  Z.  iii.  1089).  St.  O^yih  {Hanvood : 
B.B.  70).  Common,  woods  bordering  road  from  Colchester  to 
Ipswich,  July,  1836  (A  E.  Doubleday ;  Ent.  Mag.  iv.  231).  Not 
rare,  Colchester,  1867  {ffarwood ;  E.M.Af.  iv.  162).  Colchester 
[S.M.  i.  34).  History  of  hil)ernation  discovered  by  Dr.  Maclean  of 
Co\c\\esiex  {Netv man  ;  Z.  xix.  7565).  Great  Bromley  (^.  A/sion  ; 
E.  JJ'.I.  ii.  143).  One,  near  Park  Hall,  Epping,  1836  (A  E.  Double- 
day  :  Ent.  Mag.  iv.  231).  Epping  {S.M.'i.  34).  Saffron  Walden 
{Jeffrey ;  B.B.  70).  One,  Debden  How  Wood  {Joseph  Clarke). 
The  dark  variety  figured  in  Newman's  B.B.  67  has  occurred  in 
Essex  {S.  Stevetts  ;  Proc.  E.S.L.  Sept.  c^th,  1853,  127)  at  Colchester 
{IV.  T.  Bree  ;  M.N.H.  v.  667).  Mr.  Ingall  also  possesses  a  similar 
specimen  from  the  ^^i\^VL&w(::A^Jy^^o\\x\\ooA{Westwood  and  Humphreys  ; 
B.B.  61.) 

Apatura  iris,  L.     Purple  Emperor. 

Geographical  Distribution — Central  and  South-west  Europe,  rare  in  .-Xsia  Minor, 
China  (doubtful),  England,  south  of  Humber. 

Larva — Green  with  yellowish  spots,  yellow  or  pinkish  stripes  at  sides  in  front 
and  oblique  yellow  stripes  in  middle  ;  horns  bluish-green  in  front  with  brownish- 
red  lips.  Food — Sallow,  aspen,  poplar.  //y/r/po  — June  and  July  ;  hibernates  as 
larva. 

Rare  and  local ;  restricted  to  oak  woods  ;  of  lofty  and  noble  flight. 
More  often  seen  than  caught.  Like  V.  Atalanta  this  fine  butterfly 
has  been  taken  both  at  light  and  sugar. 

The  larva  appears  to  have  been  first  discovered  in  Essex  (and  in 
England)  by  Mr.  Drury.  Moses  Harris,  in  his  "  Aurelian  :  or  Natural 
History  of  English  Insects,  namely,  Moths  and  Butterflies"  (1766), 
gives  in  plate    iii.  two    figures  of   the   caterpillar,    and   remarks    upon 


THl'.    l.Kl'inOl'lKRA    OF    KS^KX.  95 

them  as  follows  :  "  On  the  26th  of  May,  in  the  year  175S,  Mr.  Drury, 
an  ingenious  Aurelian,  in  searching  for  caterpillars,  beat  four  off 
sallow,  near  Brentwood,  in  Essex,  which  in  their  shape  and  motion 
differed  from  any  hitherto  discovered,  being  furnished  with  two 
horns  of  the  same  hard  substance  as  their  heads,  resembling  the 
telescopes  of  a  snail,  and  in  their  progressive  motion  seemed  rather 
to  glide  along,  like  that  animal,  than  crawl,  as  most  caterpillars  do." 
-After  carefully  describing  the  larvae,  he  expresses  his  gratitude  to  his 
"  generous  and  worthy  friend,  Mr.  Drury,  for  the  discovery  of  the 
caterpillar  of  one  of  the  most  beautiful  flies  in  the  universe,  and 
which  had  hitherto  eluded  the  search  of  the  most  skilful  and  indus- 
trious aurelians." 

"  The  Purple  Emperor  of  the  British  oaks  is  not  undeservedly 
the  greatest  favourite  of  our  English  aurelians."  {Haivortk ;  Lep. 
Brit.  i.  19  [1803]).  He  gives  an  entertaining  description  of  its 
habits  (reprinted:  V.  M.  11 7-1 19;  B.B.  74-5).  Haworth  says: 
"  In  three  days  I  took  myself  twenty-three  (nine  of  them  in  one  day), 
but  never  took  a  female  at  all  "  {Lep.  Brit.  i.  20). 

"  Apatura  iris  was  common  in  Hartley  Wood  and  Riddles  Wood  ; 
between  eighty  and  one  hundred  were  seen  performing  their  graceful 
and  rapid  evolutions  about  the  tops  of  the  oaks  and  aspens,  gliding 
among  the  foliage,  and  not  returning  to  any  particular  tree,  as 
Haworth  has  stated  to  be  its  habit.  From  the  frequency  with  which 
they  visited  the  aspens,  and  their  greater  inclination  to  settle  on  them, 
we  are  inclined  to  think  that  the  larvae  feed  on  those  trees  as  well  as 
on  the  broad-leaved  sallows.  There  was  not  a  wet  spot  to  be  found 
in  the  woods,  or  we  should  have  tried  the  method  of  capture  mentioned 
by  Mr.  Hewitson  {E7it.  324)  :  only  four  were  taken  "  (J.  W.  Douglas, 
Ent.  i.  384). 

Caught  in  July,  1695,  near  Heveningham  [Hedingham]  Castle,  in 
Essex,  by  Mr.  Courtman  (A'<?v  ;  H.I.  127).  Hedingham  and  Black- 
more  End  (/>>///'.  .'jf/.'V// ;  M.S.).  Larva  on  sallow,  Brentwood,  May 
26th,  I  758  {D.  Drury).  Great  and  Little  Stour  Woods,  \\'rabness  and 
Ramsey  {Jerniyn  ;  V.M.  69).  Woods  bordering  road  from  Col- 
chester to  Ipswich  (A  E.  Dfluhleday  ;  Ent.  Mag.  iv.  231).  Hartley 
UOod,  St.  Osylh  ;  Riddles  Wood,  between  Walton-on-Naze  and 
Brightlingsea,  July  1842  (A.  Lambert  and  J.  W.  Douglas ;  Ent.  i. 
384).  Woods  round  Colchester  and  wood  on  Mersea  Island  (//". 
Doiibleday;  Z.  iv.  1399).  Eggs  from  Dr.  Maclean,  Colchester,  July 
i6th,  1861  (Xewman:  '/..\\\.  7820).    Egg  from  Harwood,  Colchester, 


g6  THE    I.RPinOPTERA    OF    ESSEX. 

July  31st,  1S75  (  II'.  Buckler;  E.M.M.  xiii.  3  ;  Larva  45).  "  Formerly 
common  in  the  High  AV'oods,  Colchester,  but  I  have  not  seen  a 
specimen  since  i860,  and  it  has  disappeared  from  all  the  other  woods 
where  it  formerly  occurred  in  the  vicinity  of  Colchester.  The  last 
specimen  taken  here  was  flying  round  a  moderator  lamp  in 
the  evening  in  the  town  itself.  \%  in  Dr.  Laver's  Collection.] 
It  still  occurs  at  Coggeshall  and  in  Stour  Wood,  near  Ramsey." 
i^Harwood B.B.  76).  Has  re-appeared  in  most  of  the  larger  woods  in 
the  Colchester  district,  but  is  scarce  i^Harivood).  Some  seasons 
not  very  scarce,  Witham  {E.  H.  Burnell ;  M.A^.H.  (2)  i.  602). 
Tsvo,  Sudbury,  1838  {W.  D.  King?;  F.SJ.,  Dec,  1838). 
Occasionally,  near  Halstead,  larva  on  sallow,  pupated  June  15th, 
1875  {S.  R.  Bentall ;  Ent.  viii.  182.)  Kedington  and  Haverhill, 
1833-5  (^^  Gaze;  Ent.  i.  278).  Very  rare.  Old  Hall  Wood 
[Steeple  Bumpstead]  {W.  Gaze  ;  B.B.  77).  Saffron  Walden 
{Jeffrey  ;  B.B.  76).  Occasionally,  Saffron  Walden  {Cat.  S.  W.M.  49), 
Twice  seen  near  Walden  {J.  Clarke).  "The  late  Mr.  Joshua 
Clarke  has  told  me  that  he  formerly  took  this  beautiful  butterfly  in 
the  woods  near  Debden,  Essex.  We  have  four  English  caught  ones 
in  our  '  Old  Collection  '  ^  that  I  believe  he  presented  to  the  Museum, 
and  if  so,  they  may  be  from  the  above-named  locality."  {G.  N. 
Maviia?-d,  in  Hit.).  Rickling,  near  Stanstead,  Aug.  nth,  1879 
(/.  Carter;  F.  liv.  287).  Two,  Brentwood,  July  ist,  1882  {W.J.  V. 
Vande7ibergh  ;  Ent.  xv.  187).  Two,  captured  five  or  six  years  ago  in 
woods  around  Thoby  Priory  by  the  sons  of  Major  Arkwright;  also  two 
in    1890    {Ray nor).       It   was    formerly    not   uncommon   in   Epping 

Forest,  though  it  is  evidently  very  local It  is  also  found  in 

several  parts  of  Essex  and  Suffolk  {Stephens:  I.B.E.  Haust  i.  51). 
Very  rare,  Epping,  1835  {E.  Donbleday  ;  Ent.  Mag.,  iii.  285). 
I'^Dping,  has  occurred  commonly  {S.M.  i.  35).  Now  rare  in  Epping 
I'orest,  Mr.  B.  O.  Cole  has  seen  two  of  late  years,  one  in  Bury 
^Vood,  Sewardstone,  the  other  towards  Epping.  [I  have  several 
times  seen  the  butterfly  in  the  forest. —  W.  Cole.] 

3  In  explanation  of  the  words  "  Old  Collection  "  which  occur  in  connection  with  records  from 
Saffron  Walden,  Mr.  Maynnrd,  the  Curator  of  the  Museum,  writes  as  follows:  "The  words 
'  OU  Co/Uction'  you  cL^k  me  ahout,  allude  to  the  collection  of  Lepidoptera  that  I  found  in  the 
Museum  here  ten  years  ago,  when  I  first  took  charge  of  it  ;  how  long  they  had  previously 
been  there  1  cannot  say;  but  probably  many  of  them  from  the  commencement  of  the  collection 
(1834),  over  fifty  years.  At  the  time  I  allude  to  1  found  none  of  them  labelled  as  to  locality  of 
capture,  &c.  ;  but  for  my  own  convenience,  to  distinguish  them  when  they  came  into  the  general 
collection,  since  got  together  (from  various  parts  of  the  country,  many  from  Mr.  James  Back- 
house, of  York),  1  had  them  labelled  '  CVn?  Collection.'  Mr.  Joseph  Clarke,  our  oldest  Trustee, 
and  the  only  person  now  living  who  can  give  any  positive  information  about  their  locality  of 
capture,  &c.,  him  I  have  interrogated,  and  he  says,  '  Many  of  them  were  taken  in  the  neighbotir- 
hood  of  .Saffron  Walden,  or  this  part  of  the  county  of  Essex,'  some  of  which  he  speaks  more 
positively  about  in  this  respect  than  others." — En. 


I 


LIST    OF    PUBLICATIONS— r^;/A>/;W. 

ESSEX    FIELD    CLUB,    SPECIAL    MEMOIRS,    VOL.    I. 

"REPORT    ON    THE    EAST    ANGLIAN    EARTHQUAKE, 

OF    APRIL  22N1),   1884." 

By  Prof.  Raphael   Meldola,   F.R.S.,   F.C.S.,  F.R.A.S.,  M.A.I.,  &c.  ;   an  J 
William  White,  F.E.S.,  Member  of  Geologists'  Association. 

Price,  neatly  bound  in  cloth,  is.  G(/. 

"  Fortunately  for  this  country,  we  have  not  been  called  upon  to  notice  a  report  of  such  an 
Earthquake  as  that  which  is  chronicletl  in  the  volume  before  us  since  this  journal  came  into 
existence.  Indeed,  the  authors  state  that  no  shock  approaching  it  in  intensity  has  been  experi- 
enced in  the  British  Islands  for  at  least  four  centuries.  A  brief  notice  of  the  occurrence  was 
given  in  our  columns  (vol.  xxx.,  pp.  17  and  60)  by  Mr.  Topley,  and  we  now  have  a  complete 
scientific  account  drawn  up  by  Prof.  R.  Meldola,  and  presented  to  the  Essex  Field  Club  as  a 
special  memoir,  embodying  the  results  of  his  investigation  in  conjunction  with  his  colleague,  Mr, 
William  White.  The  book  consists  of  aliout  225  pages  of  readable  matter,  with  four  maps  and 
numerous  illustrations,  aud  the  Essex  Field  Club  has  certainly  earned  the  gratitude  of  scientific 

men  in  enabling  the  authors  to  give  publicity  to  this  final  result  of  their  labour 

Many  illustrations  of  peculiar  forms  of  damage  are  given,  and  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  the 
observations  recorded  in  this  section  will  be  not  only  of  local  interest,  but  also  of  use  to 
engineers  and  others  who  occupy  themselves  with  the  important  question  of  Construction  in 
Earthquake  countries " — Xature,  January  21st,  t?86. 


ESSEX   FIELD    CLUB,    SPECIAL    MEMOIRS,    I'OL,    II, 

"THE   BIRDS   OF   ESSEX: 

A    CONTRIBUTION     OF     THE     NATURAL     HISTORY     OF     THE 

COUNTRY." 

By  Miller   Christv,  F.L.S.   (.Author  of  "The  Handbook  of  Essex,"   "The 
Trade  Signs  of  Esse.x,"  &c.,  &c. 

Demy  8vo.     Price  I5f.     To  members  of  the  E.F.C.,   lo.f.  (id. 

The  book  is  printed  in  the  best  style  on  superior  toned  antique  paper,  and 
handsomely  bound  in  scarlet  cloth.  It  extends  to  300  pages,  and  more  than 
160  illustrations  of  birds  are  inserted,  together  with  two  plans  and  a 
frontispiece. 

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.  .  .  The  work  is  thoroughly  well  done,  and  is  a  valuable  addition  to  our  local  lists." — 
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The 


Essex  Naturalist: 


HKING    THE 


J  O  IT  R  N  A  L 

OF    THE 

ESSEX    FIELD    CLUB. 


EDITED    r.Y 

WILLIAM     COLE, 

Honorary  Secretary . 


(T  0 11 1  c  n  t  s  : 

The  Lepidoptera  of  Essex,     Part  I.     Butterflies.  — By  Enw.-VRn  .\.  Fitch,  F.I-.S.,  S:c. 

{CoHcluticci) 97 

Correspondence.  — Boulder    Clay    in     Essex.— \V.    H     Dalton,     F.O.S.,    and    H.    W. 

MoNCKION,   F.G.S log 

Notes,  Original  and  Selected. — Wild  Swans  in  Esse.x,  no;  Immigration  of  Bustards 
during  past  Winter,  iii  ;  Orey  Phalarope  at  Stratford,  in  ;  Supposed  occurrence  of  .Sand 
Lizard  at  Woodford:  a  Correction,  in;  Land  and  Fresh-water  Shells  of  the  Roding 
Valley,  nz;  Priiiiul    elatior,  112;  E.xceptionally  small  Rainfall  of  the  last  Eight  Months     113 

The    Undulations   of  the    Chalk   in    Essex.- By  W.   H.   Dalton,   F.G.S.  (7vitk  Maf>, 

PlaUin.)     113 

The  Great  Frost  of  iSgo-gt      117 

On  the  Range  of  the  Primrose  and  the  Bardfield  Oxlip  (Primula  elatior)  in  North- 
western Essex.— By  J.  Fkench  ;  with  remarks  by  Miller  Chkisty,  V.h.S.  (To  he 
continued)      _ 120 


The  aiil/iors  alone  are  responsible  for  the  statements  and  opinions  contained  in  their 

respective  papers. 


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THI-:     l.KIMUOl'TKKA    0¥    KSSKX.  97 

Melanargia  galatea,  L.      Marbled  White. 

Geographical  Distribution — Central  and  South  Eurooe  (except  Spain),  Armenia. 
\'ery  local  in  England,  absent  from  Scotland  and  Ireland. 

Lartia, — Green  or  buff  (variable),  darker  stripes  on  back  and  sides,  faint 
reddish  line  along  black  spiracles  ;  head  pinkish-brown.  Food — X'arious  grasses, 
especially  cocksfoot.     Imago — July  ;  hibernates  as  larva. 

Yexy  local ;  it  has  disappeared  from  many  of  its  old  localities  and 
is  rapidly  becoming  rare  in  others  ;  flight  feeble  and  short.  Said  to 
be  extinct  in  Suffolk  and  Yorkshire. 

"  It  is  most  frequent  with  us  round  Braintree  in  Essex  ;  I  first 
observed  it  flying  this  year  [1690]  in  the  month  of  June,  about  the 
feast  of  St.  John  Baptist,  particularly  in  marshy  and  wet  places  "  {Ray, 
H.I.  116).  This  species  is  figured  twice  in  Benj.  Allen's  MS.  book. 
Felstead  {Rep.  F.S.N. H.S.,  ii.  44).  Mersey  Island,  Stour  and  Hart- 
ley Woods  { Jenny n ;  V.M.  71).  In  great  plenty,  Hartley  ^^'ood,  St. 
Osyth  {^'J/ac" ;  F.  xii  430).  Three  or  four  on  the  railway  banks  near 
Lexden  ;  it  has  disappeared  from  Hartley  Wood,  St.  Osyth,  where  it 
was  formerly  common  {Hanvood ;  B.B.  79)  One,  Colchester,  1859 
{Hanvood ;  E.  W.I.  vii.  28).  One,  Hazeleigh,  some  years  since 
{Ray nor  ;  T.E.F.C.  iii.  38).  Common  along  the  coast  and  on  the 
slopes  near  Hadleigh  Castle  {Vaughan  ;  E.N.  iii.  126).  I  captured 
one  on  Hadleigh  Castle  slopes  at  our  field  meeting,  July  13th,  1889 
{Fitch  :  E.N.  iii.  284).  I  have  found  it  fairly  common  in  Canvey 
and  at  South  Benfleet  and  Thundersley,  1872-4.  In  profusion 
on  Laindon  Hills  (//  Corder,  N.H.J.  ii.  132.)  Epping  {E. 
Doubleday  :  B.B.  79)  Epping,  common  {S.M.  i.  26).  High  Beach, 
nearly  disappeared  from  woods  east  of  Epping,  1835  {E.  Doubleday  ; 
Enf.  Alag.  iii.  150).  Hog  Hill,  Hainhault  Forest,  much  scarcer  now 
than  formerly,  July,  1857  {W.  Gates;  E.W.I,  ii.  71).  Used  to 
occur,  Hainhault  Forest  {English  ;  Proc.  E.F.C.  iv.  xxxiii.). 

Pararge  egeria,  L.     Speckled  Wood. 

Geographical  Distribution— (l,QX\\.xd\,'Sov^.\\ -i-Viil  South-west  Europe,  X.  Africa, 
Syria.     Throughout  Britain. 

Larva — Dull  green  with  greenish-yellow  stripes,  head  green.  Food — Grasses, 
especially  cocksfoot.  Imago — April,  Jul)'  and  August,  hibernates  as  larva  ?  or 
pupa?  (see  Entom.  .\ii.  3,  57).  On  April  23rd,  1873,  Mr.  Buckler  received  from 
Rev.  John  Hellins  three  larvae  that  he  had  brought  through  hibernation,  having 
reared  them  from  the  eggs,  one  pupated  on  Ma}-  2nd  and  emerged  on  June  4th 
(Zrtrz/<r,  p.  27)  Snellen  says  "  Some  examples  hibernated  as  pupcc,  others  as 
larvx'."  Rev.  I.  Greene  several  times  met  with  the  pupa  in  winter  wlien  pupa- 
digging. 


98  THE    LEPIDOPTERA    OF    ESSEX. 

Common  in  most  woods  in  the  county  and  in  shady  lanes  and 
about  hedgerows  on  their  outskirts ;  generally  distributed,  but  not 
everywhere,  mostly  local.  Quite  absent  now  in  Colchester  district 
where  it  was  formerly  common.  Mr.  Harwood  has  not  seen  one  for 
about  ten  years.  [Still  very  common  in  Monks  Wood,  Epping 
Forest,  B.  G.  Cole.'] 

Pararge  megaera,  L.     Wall. 

Geographical  Distribution — Europe  (except  polar  regions),  North  Africa,  Asia 
Minor,  Armenia.     Throughout  Britain. 

Larva — Apple-green,  darii-green  stripe  on  back,  two  paler  green  stripes  on 
sides  ;  head  bright  green.  Food — Grasses.  Imago — May  and  June,  August  and 
September  ;  hibernates  as  larva  ?  or  pupa  ?  (see  Entom.  xii.  3,  57  ;  Larvce,  p.  165.) 

Abundant ;  flying  along  every  hedge  in  the  county  in  the 
summer. 

Satyrus  semele,   L.      Grayling. 

Geographical  Distribution — Europe  (except  polar  regions),  North  Africa  and 
West  Asia.     Throughout  Britain,  but  local. 

Larva — Light  brown  or  drab,  dark  olive-brown  stripe  on  back,  three  brown 
stripes  on  side  edged  with  white  ;  head  brown.  Food — Grasses,  especially 
Triticum  and  Aira.     Imago — Jul}'  ;  hibernates  as  larva. 

Very  rare  and  local ;  on  dry  hill-sides,  but  generally  confined  to 
chalk  or  limestone  soils. 

Lexden  Heath  {Jer?fiyn,  V.M.  71),  probably  now  extinct  in  this 
locality  as  Mr.  Harwood  has  only  taken  two  or  three  stragglers  near 
Colchester ;  he  has  taken  several  at  Birch  Wood,  Dedham.  Common 
on  Tophill  Heath  {E.  H.  Burnell ;  M.N.H.  [2]  i.  602).  [This  is 
probably  a  misprint  for  Tiptree  Heath,  where  it  is  now  extinct.] 
Felsted  {Rep.  F.S.N. H.S.  ii.  44).  It  should,  and  probably  does, 
occur  in  the  extreme  north-western  corner  of  the  county,  on  the 
chalky  uplands  of  the  Saffron  Walden  district,  but  I  find  no  records. 
Mr.  G.  N.  Maynard  writes,  "There  are  several  S.  seviele  in  the  'old 
collection,'  Saffron  Walden  Museum,  which  I  believe  were  taken  in 
this  neighbourhood." 

Epinephele  janira,  L.     Meadow  Brown. 

Geographical  Distribution — Europe  (except  polar  regions),  North  Africa,  West 
Asia.     Throughout  Britain,  our  commonest  butterfly  next  to  P.  rapcc. 

Larva — Green,  darker  line  on  back,  pale  yellowish  stripe  along  spiracles; 
head  green,  anal  points  pink.  Food — Grasses.  Imago — June  and  July;  hibernates 
as  larva. 

Very  abundant  in  all  meadows,  as  everywhere. 


THE    I.KI'IDOPTI'.RA    OF    KSSEX.  99 

Epinephele  tithonus,  L.     Large  Heath. 

Geographical  Distribution — Europe,  except  North-east,  Asia  Minor,  Armeni:i. 
Throughout  Britain. 

Larva — Greenish-grey  or  ochreous  freckled  brown  (variable),  darker  line  on 
back,  light  grey  lines  on  sides  ;  head  pale  brown.  Food — Grasses,  especially 
couch  or  twitch  (JTriticuni).     Imago — July  to  September  ;  hibernates  as  larva. 

Abundant  everywhere  in  the  county. 

Epinephele  hyperanthus,   L.     Ringlet. 

Geographical  Distribution — North  and  Central  Europe,  North  and  \Vest  Asia, 
probably  to  Japan  (except  polar  regions).     Throughout  Britain. 

Larva — Reddish-  or  greenish-grey,  darker  line  on  back,  two  jeliowish-white 
lines  on  sides  ;  head  pale  brown.  Food — Grasses.  Imago — June  and  Jul}-  ; 
hibernates  as  larva. 

This  very  lazy-flying  woodland  butterfly  is  common  but  local 
throughout  the  county.  [Extremely  abundant  in  the  Forest,  near 
Walthamstow,  in  the  wet  summer  of  i860;  if  I  recollect  rightly, 
many  of  the  specimens  were  without  the  eye-like  spots  on  the  under- 
side of  the  wings. —  W.  Co/e.] 

Ccenonympha  pamphilus,  L.     Small  Heath. 

Geographical  Distribution — Palaearctic  region,  except  extreme  north. 
Throughout  Britain. 

Larva — Bright  green,  darker  line  edged  with  paler  on  back  and  sides  ;  head 
green,  anal  points  pink.  Food — Grasses,  especially  matgrass  (^Xardus  sii-icta^. 
Imago — May  to  October  ;  hibernates  as  larva. 

Very  common  everywhere  throughout  the  summer. 
Thecla  betulae,  L.     Brown  Hairstreak. 

Geographical  Distribution — Central  Europe  (extending  to  Scandinavia)  and 
Central  Asia  to  the  Amur.     In  Britain  absent  from  Scotland. 

Larva — Apple-green,  four  3'ellow  lines  on  back  and  sides,  two  rows  of  oblique 
yellow  streaks  ;  head  brown.  There  is  a  brown  varietj'.  Food — Blackthorn, 
rarely  plum.     Imago — July  to  September  ;  hibernates  as  ovum. 

Rare  in  woods,  generally  flying  high  among  trees,  but  sometimes 
settled  on  flowers  or  bramble  blossom. 

Larvaj  on  sloe,  Epping  Forest  ( JV.  H.  Tugwell ;  E.  W.I. 
iv.  125).  Larvae  swarming  at  Loughton  {Argeftt ;  Ent.  v. 
43).  Larvae  very  common,  Epping  {Eedle ;  Ent.  xiv.  181). 
Chingford  {\V.  H.  Wright;  Ent.  xviii.  88).  Epping  {S.M. 
i.  52).  Larvae  very  abundant  in  Epping  Forest,  especially  about 
Loughton  and  High  Beach  {Argent ;  B.B.  113),  [and  still  common, 
1890. — ^B.  Ci.  C.].  Larvae  on  blackthorn,  Fairmead  [Loughton] 
^English;  Buxton s  E.F.  100).       I  have  found  it  there  commonly. 

M  2 


lOO  THK    LKPIDOPTERA    OF    ESSEX. 

Four  females,  Withani,  Sept.,  1837,  for  the  first  time  {Biirnell ; 
M.N.H.  [2]  i.  602).  Rare,  generally  in  larval  state,  Hazeleigh, 
Mundon  {Ray nor ;  T.E.F.C.  iii.  38).  Mundon  Furze  {Ray nor ; 
Ent,  vi.  264).  Rev.  J.  W.  Mills,  E.  Stuart  and  myself  have  seen  it 
there  in  some  numbers.  Colchester  {Harwood ;  E.\\\I.  vii.  28). 
Formerly  in  Highwoods  and  fields  thereabouts,  and  Langham  Lodge 
Wood  ;  not  taken  recently  {Hartvood).  Kedington  and  Haverhill, 
1833-5  {Gaze  ;  Ent.  i.  278). 

Thecla  w-album,  Knoch.      Black  Hairstreak. 

Geographical  Distribution — Europe,  Central  and  South  (except  Spain  and  Por- 
tugal), extending  to  Scandinavia,  North,  West  and  Central  Asia.     EnelanJ. 

Larva — Light  green  or  reddish-brown  (variable),  yellowish  or  dingy  brown 
stripe  on  back,  two  oblique  ill-defined  yellow  lines  on  side  of  each  segment  ;  head 
black.  Food — Wych  elm  (^Ulmns  montana').  Imago — July  and  August  ;  hiber- 
nates as  ovum. 

Rare  and  very  local,  seems  to  occur  commonly  in  some  seasons. 

"  This  species  is  usually  esteemed  a  scarce  insect  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  London,  and  previously  to  the  last  season  I  never  saw 
it  alive  ;  but  the  boundless  profusion  with  which  the  hedges,  for 
miles,  in  the  vicinity  of  Ripley  were  enlivened  by  the  myriads  that 
hovered  over  every  flower  and  bramble-blossom  last  July  (1826) 
exceeded  anything  of  the  kind  I  have  ever  witnessed.  Some  notion 
of  their  numbers  may  be  formed,  when  I  mention  that  I  captured, 
without  moving  from  the  spot,  nearly  200  specimens  in  less  than 
half-an-hour,  as  they  successively  approached  the  bramble-bush 
where  I  had  taken  up  my  position"  {Stephens  ;  I.B.E.  Haust  i.  45 
note,  77).  "  For  eighteen  years  I  possessed  four  bleached  specimens 
only  of  T.  W-album.,  having  vainly  endeavoured  to  procure  others ; 
when  in  1827,  as  elsewhere  recorded,  I  saw  the  insect  at  Ripley  not 
by  dozens  only,  but  literally  by  scores  of  thousands  !  !  !  and,  although 
1  frequented  the  same  locality  for  thirteen  years  subsequently,  some- 
times in  the  season  for  a  month  together,  I  have  not  since  seen  a 
single  specimen  there"  {Stepheris ;  Z.  v.  1616).  Very  rare,  Epping 
{E.  Doiibleday  ;  Ent.  Mag.  iii.  285).  Epping  {S.M.  i.  53).  Very 
abundant  in  Maldon  district,  extending  from  Danbury  to  St. 
Lawrence.  Imago  on  bramble  flowers,  larvae  prefer  wych  elm 
{Raynor ;  T.E.F.C.  iii.  38).  I  have  seen  it  commonly  at  Hazeleigh 
and  North  Fambridge.  Several,  Fambridge  Hall  Wood,  14th  July, 
1887  {Fitch  ;  E.N.  i.  139).  Common  at  lime  flowers,  St.  Lawrence) 
July  14th  1874,  thirty  taken  in  one  day  {Mills ;  Ent.  vii.  174). 
Frequent   on   bramble   hedge,  Writtlc   (//.    Carder,  N.H.f.  iv.  102.) 


THK    I.I.PIDOPIKKA    OF    ESSEX.  lOl 

Rather  plentifully  this  year  [1837]  and  in  1832  at  Witham,  but  in 
none  of  the  intervening  seasons  [Bur/iell ;  AI.N.H.  [2]  i.  602). 
Childerditch  and  Thorndon  Park  ;  East  Horndon  {Raynor).  Ber- 
gholt  Woods,  near  Colchester  {ffanvood ;  B.B.  109).  Generally 
distributed  from  Colchester  to  Halstead,  but  not  in  Tendring 
WwwdiXQd.  {Ha fivood).  Ramsey  and  Wrabness  {/ennyn  ;  KJ/.  73). 
Xear  Sudbury  (A  [^E.  Doubleda\'\  Ent.  Mag.  iv.  233).  A  considerable 
number  in  a  wood  near  Sudbury,  in  1836,  hovering  amongst  the 
brambles,  not  seen  since  {W.  D.  King?;  F.S.J.,  Dec,  1838). 
Kedington  and  Haverhill,  1S33-5  {Gaze;  Ent.  \.  278).  Saffron 
Walden  {Cat.  S.U'.M.  49). 

Thecla  quercus,   L.      Purple  Hairstreak. 

Geographical  Dhtrihution — Europe,  except  extreme  north  and  south,  Asia 
Minor.     Throughout  Britain. 

Larva — Reddish-  or  greenish-brown,  dark  brown  line  edged  with  yellowish  on 
back,  iwo  rows  of  oblique  black  stripes  ;  head  brown.  Food — Oak,  rarely  sallow. 
Imago — July  and  August  ;  hibernates  as  ovum. 

Common  in  most  woods  ;  flying  about  oak-trees,  and  is  especially 
partial  to  ash  stubs,  frequently  settlmg  on  the  leaves  ;  in  dull  weather 
it  rests  under  the  leaves. 

[Larvae  frequently  beaten  in  great  numbers  from  oaks  in  the 
Forest  near  Chingford. —  W.  Co/e.] 

Thecla  rubi,   L.     Green  Hairstreak. 

Geographi.al  Distribution — Europe,  North  Africa,  North  and  West  Asia  to 
Persia.     Close  ally  in  North  America.     Throughout  Britain. 

Larva — Yellow-green,  pale  olive-green  stripe  edged  with  yellow  on  back, 
thick  3'ellow  oblique  streak  on  sides  edged  with  deep  green,  yellow  stripe  along 
sides;  head  brown.  Food — Broom,  furze  and  bramble.  Imago — May  and  June, 
rarely  August  ;  hibernates  as  pup^. 

Not  common,  but  generally  distributed. 

\^PohotnmatHS /lippotho'e,  L.  {=.  c/iryseis,  W.V.').  Scarce  Copper.  "  An  insect  of 
great  raritj*,  especially  the  female,  arising,  most  probably,  from  its  locality  being 
unknown  ;  notwithstanding  it  occurs  within  twenty-one  miles  of  the  metropolis,  I 
believe  in  the  vicinity  of  Epping,  whence  Dr.  Leach  received  fine  and  recent  speci- 
mens for  several  successive  seasons,  and  from  whom  I  obtained  those  which  are  con- 
tained in  my  cabinet.  The  insect  has  also  been  taken  in  Ashdown  Fore<t.  It  appears 
in  .August  and  September  "  (Stfph  ;  I.B.E.  Haust.  i.  80-81).  "  Mr.  Stephens  informs 
me  that  Dr.  Leach  received  fine  and  recent  specimens  from  the  vicinity  of  Epping 
for  several  successive  seasons  previous  to  the  termination  of  the  war  in  18 15.  I 
believe,  however,  they  were  obtained  from  a  dealer,  who  persisted  in  keeping  the 
precise  locality  ztcxti"  (^Westwood  and  Humphreys,  B.B.  <)•)').  '"Formerly  taken 
near  Epping"  (^S.M.  i.  56).  "I  was  positively  assured  that  L.  chryseis  and 
virgaureiv  were  taken  in  the  fens  of  the  Isle  of  Elv.     Had  I  not  believed  them  to 


I02  THE    LEPIDOPTEKA    OK    ESSEX. 

be  British  I  would  never  have  given  what  I  did  for  them.  I  got  all  I  could,  and  was 
much  pleased  with  the  opportunity  of  equally  dividing  them  with  you  "  (^H.  Double- 
day  in  lilt,  to  T.  C.  Heysham,  March  22nd,  1836).  This  is  all  the  information  I 
can  find  about  this  beautiful  species,  which  is  certainly  now  extinct,  if  ever  it  was 
an  inhabitant  of  our  county,  or  even  country]. 

{^Polyommatiis  dispar,  Haw.  Large  Copper.  This  equally  beautiful  species 
probably  never  occurred  in  a  state  of  nature  but  in  the  Cambridgeshire  and 
Huntingdonshire  fens  ;  it  has  long  been  extinct.  The  following  information  of 
its  introduction  into  Essex  is,  however,  interesting,  and  deserves  notice  here  : — 

"  Mr.  Doubleday  formerly  had  a  colony  of  these  beautiful  insects  in  his 
garden  at  Epping,  and  the  waver-dock  on  which  they  used  to  feed  is  still 
living  "  (£".  Xew>7ian ;  Y.E.  11  ;  B.B.lli^').  Edward  Newman  described  the  larva 
and  pupa  of  this  butterfly  (^Enl.  ii.  90),  and  says,  "  My  acquaintance  with  the  larva 
and  pupa  was  made,  very  many  years  ago,  in  Mr.  Doubleday 's  garden  at  Epping, 
where  the  very  plant  oi  Rttmex  liydrolapathiim  on  which  the  larvae  fed  is  still  in 
existence."  Erom  Sawtry,  on  June  6th,  1841,  H.  Doubleday  writes,  "  In  Holm 
Fen,  on  the  edge  of  Whittlesea  Mere,  I  got  about  eighty  caterpillars  of  the  lovely 
Lyctvna  dispart  In  his  next  he  says,  "  I  hope  to  have  some  good  specimens  of 
Z.  dispar,  as  I  sent  Edward  about  120  caterpillars."  On  Nov.  20th,  1841,  he 
writes,  "  Becker,  of  Wiesbaden,  is  now  in  London.  He  was  very  anxious  to  get  a 
number  of  dispar,  and  I  gave  him  sixty  specimens."  For  some  reminiscences  of 
this  butterfly  see  Entom.  xvi.  129.] 

Polyommatus  phlceas,   L.     Small  Copper. 

Geographical  Distribution — Europe,  Asia  to  Himalaya  and  Japan,  North  Africa, 
North  America.     Throughout  Britain. 

Larva — Apple-green,  with  a  rose-pink  stripe  on  back  and  sides  (sometimes 
indistinct),  spiracles  flesh-colour,  head  dingy -green  or  pale  brown.  Food — Dock, 
especially  sorrel-dock.     Image — April  to  October  ;  hibernates  as  larva. 

Generally  distributed  and  common  throughout  the  county,  but 
by  no  means  so  abundant  as  was  the  case  only  a  few  years  ago.  In 
Mr.  Cole's  cabinet  is  a  +  specimen  in  which  the  copper-coloured 
bands  on  the  hind  wings  are  reduced  to  a  few  dashes  ;  this  specimen 
was  taken  by  Mr.  H.  A.  Cole,  on  the  roadside  between  the  "  Wake 
Arms  "  and  Epping,  June  3rd,  1872.  Mr.  Dale  had  a  similar  speci- 
men.    {B.B.  115). 

Lycaena  aegon,  Schiff.     Silver-studded  Blue. 

Geographical  Distribution — Europe,  North  and  West  Asia  to  Persia,  and  perhaps 
Japan.     Throughout  Britain. 

Larva — Bright  yellow-green,  blackish-brown  stripe  edged  with  whitish  on 
back,  small  brown  plate  on  second  segment,  greenish-yellow  lines  at  sides,  whitish 
line  along  lateral  ridge  ;  head  black.  Food — Common  bird's-foot  {Oinithopus 
perpusillus).     Imago — July  ;  hibernates  as  ovum. 

Local,  and  in   this  county  apparently   almost    confined  to  one 
locality  in  F^pjiing  Forest. 


THE    LEPIDOPTERA    OF    ESSEX.  103 

Swarms  in  certain  spots  by  the  side  of  our  [Epping]  Forest 
{^H.  Doubleday ;  Ent.  iii.  36).  Epping,  abundant  (S.Af.  i.  61). 
\'ery  common  on  a  piece  of  dry  ground  along  the  side  of  the  road 
near  High  Beach  {Argent;  B.B.  121).  On  rushes  at  the  back  of 
the  ''  King's  Oak  "  {English  ;  Buxtofi^s  E.F.  100).  Still  very  common 
in  this  locality,  opposite  High  Beach  Church  {B.  G.  Cole).  Gynan- 
dromorphous  specimen  from  Loughton,  June,  1868  {W.  Cole;  Proc. 
E.F.C.  i.  xi.)     Sudbury  (  W.  D.  King;  B.B.  i2t). 

Lycaena  astrarche,  Bgstr.     Brown  Argus. 

Geographical  Distribution — Europe,  except  extreme  north,  Asia  to  Himalaya, 
North  Africa.     England  and  Scotland,  but  absent  from  Ireland. 

Larva — Pale  £;reen,  pink  stripe  on  back,  broad  purplish-pink  stripe  on  sides  ; 
head  black.  Food — Yioc^-rose  (^Helianthernum)'a.x\d  Erodium.  Imago — May,  June, 
and  .August ;  hibernates  as  larva. 

Not  rare,  but  local. 

High  Beach,  Epping  (^.  Doubleday ;  Ent.  Mag.  iii.  150).  In 
plenty  within  one  mile  of  Epping  {E.  Doubleday.,  Ent.  Mag.  iii.  285). 
Epping  {S.M.  i.  62).  Common  in  one  wood,  Great  Warley  {Raynor). 
Felsted  {Rep.  F.S.N.H.S.  ii.  44).  Scarce,  Witham  {Burnell ; 
M.N.H.  (2)  i.  602).  Sometimes  common,  but  local,  Hazeleigh 
{Raynor;  T. E.F.C.  iii.  38).  I  have  also  taken  it  commonly  at 
Purleigh,  and  on  Osey.  Very  scarce  in  Colchester  district, 
Mr.  Harwood  has  not  taken  twenty.  One,  Hadleigh  Castle,  i860 
{Vaughan ;  E.N.  iii.  126).  Southchurch  VVick,  July  28th,  1826 
{C.  Parsons ;  MS.  Journal).  Lawn  of  the  Parsonage  and  Cliffs, 
Wrabness  {/ermyn ;  V.M.  75).  One  near  Wood  Hall,  Sudbury 
{W.  D.  King?;  F.S./.,  Dec,  1838).  Haverhill  and  Kedington 
{Gaze  :  Ent.  i.  278). 

Lycaena  icarus,  Rott.     Common  Blue. 

Geographical  Distribution — Europe,  North  and  West  Asia  to  Himalaya,  North 
Africa.     Throughout  Britain. 

Larva — Green  or  olive,  darker  stripe  on  back  bordered  by  paler,  light  green 
stripe  on  sides,  three  pale  oblique  stripes  on  each  segment  ;  head  black.  Food — 
Restharrow,  bird's-foot  trefoil,  and  other  papilionaceac.  Imago — May  to  Septem- 
ber ;  hibernates  as  larva. 

Abundant  everywhere,  except  in  towns  [and  often  not  uncommon 
there,  being  brought  in  with  farm  produce.  I  have  seen  several 
specimens  in  Mark  Lane,  London,  and  it  is  often  almost  abundant 
in  Covent  Garden. —  IV.  Cole]. 


I04  THE    LEPIDOP'IERA    OF    ESSEX. 

Lycaena  bellargus,  Rott.     Clifden  Blue. 

Geographical  Distribution — Central  and  South  Europe,  extending  northward 
to  Scandinavia,  West  Asia,  North  Africa.  In  Britain  absent  from  Scotland  and 
Ireland. 

Larva — Deep  full  green  covered  with  black  specks  bearing  black  bristles,  two 
yellow  stripes  on  back  and  yellow  st.-ipe  at  sides  ;  head  dark  brown.  Food — 
Hippocrepis,  bird's-foot  trefoil  (Lotus J,  &c.  Imago — May  and  June  ;  hibernates  as 
larva. 

Mr.  Joseph  Clarke  informs  me  that  this  species  has  certainly 
been  caught  once  or  twice  in  the  Saffron  AValden  district.  I  can  find 
no  published  record. 

Lycaena  corydon,  F.     Chalk-hill  Blue. 

Geographical  Distribution— (ZQ.x\\.x-2i\  TiViA  South  Eu- ope,  West  Asia.  England, 
not  Scotland  or  Ireland. 

Larva — Light  bright  green  covered  with  black  specks  bearing  light  brown 
bristles,  two  yellow  stripes  on  back  and  yellow  stripe  at  sides  ;  head  dark  brown. 
Food — Various  papilionaceae,  especially  Hippocrepis^  bird's-foot  trefoil,  kidney 
vetch  and  trefoil.     Imago — June  to  August  ;    hibernates  as  larva. 

Almost  exclusively  confined  to  chalky  soils,  consequently  rare  and 
very  local  in  Essex. 

Also  recently  observed  by  Mr.  Dale  near  the  town  of  Newport  in 
Essex  {Ray  ;  H.I.  131).  Saffron  Walden  {Jeffrey  ;  B.B.  132  ;  Cat. 
S.  W.M.  50).  Six,  Saffron  Walden  {Clarke).  I  have  never  taken 
this  myself,  but  was  told  that  a  pair  had  been  caught  in  a  garden  at 
Sudbury  {W.  D.  King?;  F.S./.,  Dec,  1838).  Colchester,  1859 
{Harwood ;  E.  W.I.  vii.  28).  Very  rare,  Colchester,  one  or  two  on 
the  railway  banks  only.  About  a  dozen  in  High  Woods,  Colchester 
[1870];  not  seen  before  or  since  {Harwood;  B.B.  132).  Several, 
Epping  Forest,  1859  and  previously  {J.  W.  Downing :  E.W.I.  v'\\. 
51).  About  1859  it  appeared  in  an  open  part  of  Epping  Forest  and 
a  year  or  two  afterwards  was  common  in  several  localities  in  the 
neighbourhood — some  of  them  five  or  six  miles  apart.  It  was 
plentiful  near  Loughton  and  in  clover-fields  at  Epping  {H.  Douhleday  ; 
E.M.M.  iii.  91).  Observed  here  and  therethrough  the  Forest,  1866 
{E.  Newman  ;  B.B.  132).  One,  Loughton,  July  29th,  1885  {E.  B. 
Bishop  ;  Ent.  xviii.  242).  One  male,  between  Leigh  and  Southend  ; 
"  It  was  probably  a  railway  excursionist  from  Purfleet "  (  Vaughan  ; 
■  E.N.  iii.  126).  I  have  no  record  of  it  from  the  Grays  district,  but 
it  doubtless  occurs  there.  Rev.  G.  H.  Raynor  writes  :  "  Stray 
specimens  have  been  taken  at  Childerditch,  probably  stragglers  from 
Grays  where  the  species  occurs  regularly." 


THE    Ll'.riDOFIKRA    OF    ESSEX.  I05 

Lycaena  argiolus,   L.     Azure  Blue. 

Geographical  Diitnhiition — Europe  and  Asia  (except  polar  regions),  North 
Africa.  Closel}' allied  species  in  Himalaya  and  Xorth  America.  In  Britain  absent 
from  Scotland. 

Larva — Dark  greenish-grey  or  bright  yellowish-green  (variable),  dark  green 
dorsal  line  ;  head  purplish-brown.  Some  varieties  marked  with  crimson  on  back 
and  sides.  Food — Flowers  of  hoU}',  ivy  rarely,  buckthorn  or  dogwood.  Imago 
— .-Xpril  and  May,  July  and  August ;  hibernates  as  pupa. 

P'airly  common  and  generally  distributed  throughout  the  county, 

the  spring  brood  being  much  the  more  abundant.     [Very  common  in 

the  holly  thickets  in  Epping  Forest  and  in  the  neighbouring  gardens. 

The  first  time  I  saw  the  butterfly  was  on  May  ist,   1862,  flitting  in 

great  numbers  around  the  ivy-clad  tower  of  old  Chingford  Church.^ 

B.  G.  6Wd'.] 

Lycaena  semiargus,  Rott.     Mazarine  Blue. 

Geographical  Distribution — Europe,  North  and  West  Asia  to  Amur.  Local  and 
almost  extinct  in  England  ;  does  not  occur  in  Scotland  or  Ireland. 

Mr.  Joseph  Clarke  writes  me  that  this  rare,  if  not  now  extinct, 
species  in  Britain,  has  been  taken  in  the  Saffron  Walden  district— 
a  likely  locality.  In  a  further  communication  he  tells  me  there 
are  two  specimens  in  the  Museum  "  old  collection,"  [Mr.  Maynard 
says  five].  It  was  reported,  doubtless  erroneously,  from  Epping 
Forest,  August  31st,  i860  {W.  Banks  ;  Z.  xviii.  7249). 

Lycaena  minima,  Fues.     Small  Blue. 

Geographical  Distribution  —  Europe,  except  extreme  north  and  south  ;  North 
and  West  Asia  to  Amur.     Throughout  Britain. 

Larva — Pinkish-brown,  flesh-colour  or  chocolate,  darker  line  on  back,  dark 
brown  oblique  dash  on  each  segment,  whitish  stripe  at  side  ;  head  black.  Mr. 
Hellins'  description  differs  greatly  from  that  of  several  Continental  entomologists  ; 
probably  the  larva  is  very  variable.  Food — Flowers  and  seeds  of  vetches,  especi- 
ally kidney  vetch  (^Anthyllis  vubierurid).     Imago — June  ;  hibernates  as  larva. 

Newman  says  this  species  appears  in  his  Essex  list  {B.B.  135) 
but  does  not  give  locality.  Morris  says,  "  near  Amesbury  and 
Hainhault  Forest"  {Hist.  B.B.  138.)  Mr.  Joseph  Clarke  writes  me, 
"  I  caught  one  only  against  the  milestone  on  the  Debden  road,  a 
mile  south  of  Walden  ;  but  there  are  eight  others  in  the  Museum 
'  old  collection,'  all  caught,  I  believe,  in  this  district  of  Essex." 

Nemeobius  lucina,  E.     Duke  of  Burgundy. 

Geographical  Distribution — Central  and  West  Europe,  from  South  Sweden  to 
Balkans.     In  Britain,  England  and  South-west  Scotland,  not  Ireland. 

Larva — Reddish-brown,  row  of  black  triangular  marks  on  back,  two  blackish- 


To6  THE    LEPIDOPTERA    OF    ESSEX. 

brown  lines  on  side,  pule  cream-brown  line  below  spiracles  ;  head  brown.     Food — 
Primrose,  cowslip.     Imago — May  and  June  ;  hibernates  as  pupa. 

Rare  and  very  local,  especially  so  considering  how  common  is  its 
food-plant ;  always  in  or  on  the  borders  of  woods. 

Bromley  Thickets  and  Hartley  Wood  [St.  Osyth]  {Jermyn  ; 
V.M.  65).  Hartley  Wood,  St.  Osyth  {Hartvood ;  E.M.M.  iv.  162  ; 
B.B.  104).  Still  occurs  in  several  of  the  larger  woods  in  Tendring 
Hundred  {Ilanvood).  Gaynes  Park  and  Ongar  Park  Woods,  near 
Epping,  1839-41.  "It  held  its  own  fairly  well  for  three  years,  and 
then  suddenly  vanished,  never  to  appear  again  within  my  knowledge  " 
{EjigHsh ;  E-N".  i.  no).  Epping  {S.M.  i.  49).  Woodham  Ferris 
Hall  ^V'ood,  common  hut  \ocvl\  {Ray nor  ;  T.E.F.C.  iii.  38).  East- 
wood, not  common  ( Frt'/^^-^a-^^/  jS'.iV.  iii.  126).  Used  formerly  to 
be  taken  near  Saffron  Walden ;  there  are  fifteen  specimens  in  the 
"  old  collection  "  {G.  N.  Maynard). 

Syrichthus  malvae,   L.     Grizzled  Skipper. 

Geographical  Distrtbution — Europe,  North  and  West  Asia.  In  Britain  doubt- 
fully absent  from  Ireland. 

Larva — Ochreous-green,  pinkish  on  back  of  anterior  segments,  five  faint  lines  ; 
head  dark  purplish-brown.  Food — Barren  wild  strawberry,  wild  raspberry  and 
bramble.     Imago — May,  August  (rarely)  ;  hibernates  as  pupa. 

Common  throughout  the  county,  but  local,  and,  from  its  buzzing, 
Noctua-like  flight,  not  easily  seen  or  captured. 

Nisoniades  tages,  L.     Dingy  Skipper. 

Geographical  Distribution — Europe,  North  and  West  Asia  (except  polar  regions). 
Throughout  Britain. 

Larva — Yellowish-green,  darker  line  on  back,  pale  streak  below  small  red 
spiracles;  head  purplish-brown.  Food — Bird's-foot  trefoil.  Imago — May,  August  ; 
hibernates  as  larva. 

Not  common,  and  local.  It  is  very  inconspicuous,  and  difficult 
to  see  or  capture.  Only  a  single  specimen  from  Colchester  district, 
captured  near  Langham  Lodge  Wood  by  Tillaney,  thirty  years  ago  ; 
Mr.  Harwood  has  never  seen  this  species  alive. 

\N.  tages  is  not  uncommon  in  some  seasons  in  Epping  Forest ; 
Prof  Meldola  found  it  somewhat  abundantly  north  of  Monk's  ^^'ood 
in  June,  1889.  We  again  saw  it  in  some  numbers  in  1890. —  JV. 
Cole\ 

Hesperia  thaumas,  Hufn.     Small  Skipper. 

Geographical    Distribution — Central  and  South   Europe  to  Scandinavia,    West 
Asia,  North  Africa,  North  America.     In  Britain  absent  from  Scotland. 

Larva  — \J\n\\\.  green,  darker  stripe  on  back,  two  paler  stripes  on  side  ;  head, 


THE    LEPIDOPTKRA    OF    ESSEX.  I07 

deep  green.     Food — Nolens^  brume  and  other  grasses,  in   spun-logellier  leaves. 
Imago — July  ;  hibernates  as  larva. 

Common  throughout,  especially  in  the  marshes.  Newman  says 
{B.B.  175):  "In  Essex  it  occurs  in  open  swampy  places  that  are 
covered  with  rushes."  [Very  common  in  the  "  rushy  plains  "  in 
Monk's  AVood,  Epping  Forest. — B.  G.  Co/e.] 

Hesperia  lineola,  Ochs.     Narrow-lined  Skipper. 

Geographical  Distribution — Europe,  North  and  West  Asia  (except  polar  regions) 
North  Africa. 

Larva — Bright  green,  five  yellow  lines  on  back  and  sides  ;  head  reddibh. 
Fo:)d — Grasses.     Imago — July  ;  hibernates  as  larva. 

Mr.  Hawes  brought  this  forward  as  a  British  species  in  the 
"  Entomologist  "  for  January,  1890,  upon  the  strength  of  three  males 
taken  in  July,  1888,  "in  one  of  the  eastern  counties,"  really  in 
Hartley  Wood,  St.  Osyth.  It  has  since  occurred  in  several  counties 
and  commonly  in  Essex,  but  is  local,  though  widely  distributed ; 
hitherto  overlooked. 

South-east  Essex,  in  1889  {Carrington ;  E/it.\\m.^,  72).  Frequent 
in  Essex,  1885-8  {A./.  Spiller ;  Ent.  xxiii.  56).  On  marshes  near 
Benfleet  and  Shoeburyness  i^F.  G.  Whittle ;  Ent.  xxiii.  57,  99) 
Mr.  Bloomfield  exhibited  two  specimens  taken  in  Essex  in  1888  at 
South  London  Entomological  Society,  Feb.  27th,  1890  {Ent.  xxiii. 
142).  Numerous  specimens,  Leigh,  July  25th,  1890  {South;  Ent. 
xxiii.  264,  296).  Southend,  in  1882  {Bouttell ;  Ent.  xxiii.  296). 
Pale  variety  from  Shoeburyness  {Nussey ;  Ent.  xxiii.  296).  Long 
series  on  the  marshes  at  Leigh  (Tui^^we// ;  Ent.  xxiii.  320).  St. 
Osyth,  common  ;  single  specimen  near  Chappel  (Ifaru'ood).  Bures 
(  F.  Gerrard). 

Hesperia  sylvanus,  Esp.     Large  Skipper. 

Geographical  Distribution — Europe,  except  extreme  north,  North  and  West 
Asia  to  the  Amur,  and  perhaps  to  Japan.  Close  ally  in  North  America. 
Throughout  Britain. 

Larva — Pale  bluish-green,  indistinct  darker  line  on  back,  paler  line  above  feet ; 
head,  crim:on-bro\vn.  Food — Hairy  woodrush,  couch,  cocksfoot  and  other 
grasses,  in  rolleJ-up  blades.  Imago — May,  June  and  August  ;  hibernates  as 
larva. 

Common  and  generally  distributed  in  the  uplands  and  woodlands; 
more  common  than  the  Small  Skipper. 

Hesperia  comma,   L.     Silver-spotted  Skipper. 

Geogruphual  Distribution — Europe,  Asia.  Close  ally  in  North  America. 
England. 


Io8  THE    LEPIDOPTERA    OF    ?:SSEX. 

/^,-7,.7_01ive-?reen,  two  white  spots  on  tenth  and  eleventh  se.s;ments  ;  head 
black.  /=bo/— Birds'-foot,  bird's-foot  trefoil,  and  other  leguminous  plants. 
Itnigo — Jul}',  August  ;  hibernates  as  ovum. 

Apparently  very  rare  and  local. 

Three,  Danbury,  2nd  August,  1884  {Fitch;  E.N.  ii.  239). 
Saffron  Walden  {Cat.  S.W.M.  50).  Mr.  Joseph  Clarke  writes: 
"  There  are  five  specimens  in  the  '  old  collection,'  all  caught  in  this 
neighbourhood." 


LIST  OF  ABBREVIATIONS  OF  TITLES  OF  WORKS  CITED. 

B.B.     Newman's  British  Butterflies  (1871). 

B.B.     Humphreys  and  VVestwood,  British  Butterflies  (1848). 

Buxtons  E.  F.     E.  N.  Buxton's  Epping  Forest  (3rd  ed.  1890). 

Cat.  S.W.M.     Abridged  Catalogue  of  the  Saffron  Walden  xVIuseum  (1843). 

E.A.     Entomologists'  Annual  (1855-74). 

E.M.M.     Entomologists'  Monthly  Magazine  (1864-91). 

E.N.     Essex  Naturalist  (1887-91). 

Eng.  M.  and  B.     Wilkes,  English  Moths  and  Butterflies  (174760). 

Ent.     Entomologist  (1840-42,  1864-91). 

Ent.  Mag.     Entomological  Magazine  (1833-38). 

E.R.     Entomologists' Record  (1890-91). 

E.W.I.     Entomologists'  Weekly  Intelligencer  (1856-61). 

F.     Field  (1853-91). 

F.S.J.     Fulcher's  Sudbury  Journal  (1838). 

Hist.  B.B.     Morris'  History  of  British  Butterflies  (i860). 

H.I.     Ray's  Historia  Insectorum  (1710). 

I.B.E.  Haust.      Stephens'   Illustrations  of  British   Entomology,   Haustellata 

(1827-35). 

K.O.J.     Kidd's  Own  Journal  (1852-54). 

Larvce.     Buckler's  Larvae  of  British  Butterflies  and  Moths  (1885-88). 

Lep.  Brit.     Haworth's  Lepidoptera  Britanriica  (1803-29). 

M.N.H.     Magazine  of  Natural  History,  Charlesworth's  2nd  Series  (1837-40). 

N.H.J.     Natural  History  Journal  (1877-91). 

Proc.  E.F.C.     Proceedings  Essex  Field  Club  (1880-84). 

Proc.  E.S.L,     Proceedings  Entomological  Society  of  London  (1833-91). 

P.S.L  E.S.     Proceedings  South  London  Entomological  Society  (1873-87). 

Rep.  F.S.N.H.S.     Report   of  the    Felsted    School    Natural   History  Society 
(1877-90). 

S.G.     Science  Gossip  (1S65-91). 

S.M.     Stainton's  Manual  of  Butterflies  and  Moths  (1S57-59). 

T. E.F.C.     Transactions  Essex  Field  Club  (i88c-86). 

T. E.S.L.     Transactions  Entomological  Society  of  London  (1834-91). 

Tijdschrift.     Tijdschriftvoor  Entomologie  (1858-91). 

V.M.     Miss  Jermyn's  Butterfly  Collector's  Vade  Mecum  (1827). 

Y.E.     Young  England — Newman's  Butterfly  Number. 

Z.     Zoologist  (1843-91). 


log 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

BOULDER-CLAY    IN     ESSEX. 

Sir, — Referrino;  to  the  paper  "On  the  Boulder-clay  in  Essex"  (Essex 
Naturalist,  vol.  iv.  pp.  199-201),  will  Mr.  Monckton,  or  any  other  geologist, 
adduce  a  single  particle  of  evidence  of  the  passage  of  anything  resembling  an  ice- 
sheet  over  any  part  of  the  area  between  Thames  and  Humber  ? 

There  are  hundreds,  if  not  thousands,  of  sections  ampl}'  disproving  this 
hypothetical  :igency,  and  demonstrating  the  deposition  of  the  Boulder-clay  in 
a  berg-covered  sea  as  clearly  as  that  of  the  subjacent  gravels  and  sands  in  one 
less  charged  with  clayey  detritus. 

"  An  ounce  of  fact  is  worth  a  ton  of  theor)-,"  and  the  forcing  of  evidince  into 
harmony  with  conclusions  drawn  from  observ;itions  in  other  and  entirely  different 
regions  has  in  this  matter,  as  in  others,  led  to  the  promulgation  of  the  most 
contradictory  ideas. 

The  ice-sheet  which  has  scored  the  hardest  rocks  of  the  Northern  mountains, 
under  the  impulse  of  a  scarcely  perceptible  gradient,  must  be  supposed  in  East 
Anglia  to  have  glided  over  hills  of  fine  sand  without  disturbing  a  grain  of  their 
surface  !     Believe  it  who  can  ! — Yours, 

W.  H.  DalTON. 
Derby  Road,    Woodford. 


Sir, — In  reply  to  Mr.  Dalton  I  should  say  it  is  unlikely  that  an  ice-sheet 
would  move  over  hills  of  fine  sand  without  disturbing  a  grain  of  their  surface, 
ai:d  I  should  think  it  improbable  that  any  one  holds  such  a  view.  There  is , 
however,  evidence  to  show  that  an  ice-sheet  ma}'  travel  over  a  country  without 
effecting  any  great  alteration  of  the  surface.  (See  Clement  Reid,  "  Geology  of 
Holderness"  [1885],  p.  42.) 

So  far  as  Essex  is  concerned,  we  know  that,  whatever  the  precise  process  may 
have  been,  the  surface  of  the  ground  over  which  the  ice  passed  was  to  a  large 
extent  destroyed,  and  the  materials  of  the  older  beds  re-arranged.  The  Glacial- 
drift  of  Essex  consists  mainly  of  local  material,  chalk,  clay,  sand,  and  pebbles, 
with  a  small  pro{)ortion  of  foreign  material  intermingled,  and  that  seems  to  me 
the  great  difficulty  which  those  who  contend  for  the  marine  origin  of  this  drift 
have  to  meet.  Thus,  on  the  south-west  of  the  road  half-way  between  Ingatestone 
and  Frierning,  there  was  last  summer  a  pit  in  gravel  composed  of: — 

(a).  Pebbles  of  flint,  forming  the  bulk  of  the  gravel  and  clearly  derived  for 
the  most  part  from  the  pebble  beds,  remains  of  which  still  cap  the  high 
ground  at  Frierning  Church  close  at  hand. 
(/>).  S'jbangular  flints,  many. 
(cj.  Uuartz  pebbles  and  a  block  of  white  quartz,  5  by  3^  inches.     These  must 

have  been  brought  by  ice  from  a  distance. 

(d).  Two  large  blocks  of  sandstone  or  quartzite. 

Here  we  find  a  gravel  on  the  side  of  a  hill  mainly  formeci  of  materials  derived 

from  the  top  of  the  hill.     It  does  not  look  to  me  like  a   marine  bed;  it  is  not 

the  least  like  an  old  sea-beach  with  nothing  like  a  sea- cliff.     I   might  give  many 

more  instances  in  support  of  my  opinion  that  the   Boulder-clay  and   Glacial- 


no  NOTES,    ORIC.INAL    AND    SELECTED. 

gravels  were  not  formed  under  the  sea.  I  have  failed  to  find  evidence  of  tlie 
presence  of  the  sea  in  Essex  in  glacial  times,  and  it  seems  a  pity  that  Mr.  Dalton 
does  not  mention  one  of  the  hundri-ds  or  thousands  of  sections  which  in  his 
opinion  prove  the  deposition  of  the  BoulJer-clay  and  the  subjacent  sands  and 
gravels  in  the  sea.  I  know  that  two  marine  shells  were  found  in  gravel  near 
Thaxted  ("Memoirs  of  the  Geological  Surve}',  Sheet  47"  [1878],  pp.  33,  42), 
and  that  many  have  been  found  in  Norfolk,  but  the  presence  of  marine  shells  is 
not  conclusive  proof  of  submergence  (A.  Geikie,  "  Text  Book  of  Geology  "  [  1885], 
p.  897),  and  a  doubt  has  been  expressed  whether  these  shells  are  contemporaneous 
with  the  beds  in  which  they  are  found  (H.  B.  Woodward,  "  Geology  of  England 
and  Wales"  [1887J  p.  504). 

In  answer  to  Mr.  Dalton's  request  for  evidence  of  the  passage  of  an  ice-sheet 
over  part  of  the  area  between  the  Thames  and  the  Humber  I  would  refer  to  the 
remarks  of  Mr.  Skertchly  in  the  "  Great  Ice  Age,"  by  James  Geikie  (1877),  pp. 
354-362,  and  to  Clement  Reid,  "  Geology  of  Cromer,"  (1882),  p.  1 14,  an  J  H.  B. 
Woodward,  on  the  "Glacial  Drifts  in  Norfolk  "  Proc.  Geol.  Assoc,  vol.  ix.  p.  122 
(1885).— I  a-n,  etc., 

Horace  W.  Monckton. 

3  Pump  Courts  Temple. 


NOTES,    ORIGINAL    AND    SELECTED. 

Wild  Swans  inland  in  Essex. — For  upwards  of  a  month  the  "  Sedgy  Lea  " 
has  been  a  solid  highway  for  thousands  of  skaters  and  pedestrians.  A  good 
long-distance  skater  might  travel  from  Limehouse  to  Hertford,  if  he  were  oblivious 
to  rough  ice  and  did  not  object  taking  to  the  towpath  frequently  in  order  to  pass 
the  locks  and  clusters  of  ice-bound  barges.  On  Monday  afternoon,  January 
19th,  about  four  o'clock,  a  striking  phenomenon  was  witnessed  by  myself  and 
several  other  persons  near  Pigott's  Lock,  Edmonton.  Suddenly,  coming  from  the 
east,  appeared  a  f^ock  of  Wild  Swans,  which,  with  necks  outstretched  and  shrill 
clamour,  flew  low  over  the  river,  going  west.  It  was  a  pretty  sight,  the  rays  of 
the  setting  sun  gleaming  on  their  pure  white  plumage.  Wild  Swans  (these  were 
probably  "  Whoopers,"  Cygnits  miisicus)  are  not  uncommon,  I  believe,  on  the  Essex 
coast  in  severe  winters,  but  it  needs  an  Arctic  climate,  like  that  of  the  last  weeks, 
to  induce  a  flock  to  venture  so  far  inland. — Henry  A.  Cole,  Buckhurst  Hill. 
[Under  the  title  "Visitors  from  the  North-West,"  a  correspondent  ("  E.  B., 
Wakes  Colne  Rectory  "),  wrote  as  follows  to  the  '•  Essex  Standard  "  on  January 
2lst:  "About  four  o'clock  on  Tuesday  afternoon,  whilst  walking  on  Wakes 
Green,  I  observed  a  remarkable  flight  of  birds,  travelling  at  a  great  height  and  a 
rapid  pace,  in  a  south-easterly  direction.  On  they  came,  all  from  the  north-west, 
glowing  at  that  time  with  the  ruddy  fires  of  the  setting  sun,  battalion  after 
battalion,  forming  a  wide  and  sweeping  semicircle.  They  had  in  every  case  an 
advanced  guard,  and  these  also  acted  as  a  rearguard  to  t  -.e  battalion  in  front,  thus 
keeping  all  the  battalions  in  touch  with  each  other.  They  did  not  make  a  [lerfect 
semicircle,  as  the  leaders  formed  a  sort  of  wedge  in  front,  clearing  a  course,  as  it 
were,  and  showing  the  wa}^  to  those  behind  them.  Whence  came  they  ?  We  can 
hardly  reply,  in  the  language  of  Longfellow,  in  '  Evangeline  ' — 

"  '  Birds  of  pass.-\gc  sailed  through  the  leaden  air,  from  the  ice-bound 
Desolate  Northern  bays,  to  the  shores  of  tropical  islands.' 


notp:s,  original  and  sklfcti-.d.  1 1 1 

\Vhither  were  th-^y  wendinj^  tlieir  wny  1  \Vhat  birds  were  they  ?  Perhaps 
some  of  your  rea  lers  can  answer  these  questions."  These  were  clearl}'  not  swans  ; 
we  shall  he  tjlad  to  hear  from  any  ornithclogical  reader  on  the  subject. — En.]. 

The    Immigration    of   Bustards    during    the    Past    Winter.  —  In    the 

"Zoologist"  for  March,  Mr.  Harting  gi\es  some  interesting  particulars  of  the 
recenc  visitation  of  Bustards,  which  recalls  that  of  1879-80  (during  which  a 
Hustard  was  shot  in  Essex,  see  Trans.  Fi.F.C.  i.  59),  when  seven  or  eight  speci- 
mens were  recorded  in  the  "  Zoologist."  Derails  of  the  occurrence  of  seven  birds 
in  different  parts  of  England  during  the  past  w'inter  are  given  by  Mr.  Harting, 
including  the  one  shot  at  Tillingham,  in  Essex,  already  noticed  in  the  Essex 
NatI'KALIST  (vol.  iv.  p.  214.)  He  refers  to  the  curious  fact  that,  although  Bus- 
tards formerly  bred  in  England,  it  is  not  chiring  the  breeding  season  that  they  now 
visit  us  ;  they  come  as  winter  guests  ;  wh}',  it  is  not  easy  to  guess. 


Fi.iiCK  C1K  Will)  S\v.\N>;  PASSING  ovEK  THK  LiCA,  Jan.  igTH.  —  Drawn  by  H.  .\    C(ii.i:. 

Grey  Phalarope  at  Stratford.— Mr.  .\rthur  V .  Gates,  of  Marsh  Gate  Lane, 
Stratford,  records  in  the  "  Zoologist "  for  March  that  a  specimen  of  Phalaroptts 
/iilicarius  was  shot  on  the  marshes  near  Stratford  on  November  8lh,  1890. 

Supposed  Occurrence  of  the  Sand  Lizard  at  Woodford  :  a  Correc- 
tion.— The  specimen  exhibited  by  Mr.  Oldham  at  the  meeting  of  the  Club,  on 
November  8th  last  (E.N.  vol.  iv.  p.  225),  as  a  Sand  Lizard  {^Lacerler  agilis),  has 
been  submitted  by  Dr.  Laver  to  Mr,  Boulanger  of  the  British  Museum,  who 
writes  that  it  "  is  a  South  European  species,  Z.  muralis,  possibly  from  Italy,"  The 
lizard  must  have  escaped  from  some  vivarium  or  fern-case  in  Woodford,  and  the 
supposed  record  of  Z.  agilis  must  be  struck  out. 


112  NOTES,    ORIGINAr>    AND    SELECTED. 

Land  and  Freshwater  Shells  of  the  Roding  Valley. — I  have  found  Helix 
caperatii,  which  Mr.  Crouch  records  from  the  chalk  at  Grays,  on  the  ridge  of 
Chalky  Boulder-clay  which  divides  the  Roding  from  the  Cripsey  Brook.  Helix 
rufescens  and  H.  ericetorum,  both  common  on  chalk  lands,  I  have  also  found  on 
the  Chalky  Boulder-clay  near  Fyfield,  and  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Ongar.  I 
have  had  most  successful  hunts  after  water  shells  in  old  pits  dug  in  the  Boulder- 
clay  for  chalk,  and  now  full  of  water.  One  afternoon  I  collected  an  abundance  of 
Valvata  cristata,  Planorhis  nitiJuSy  P.  nautileus,  P.  carinatus  and  Ancylus  lacustris 
from  these  old  pits,  all  of  which  shells  I  was  very  pleased  to  meet  with. — HORACE 
W.  MoxCKTON,  F.G.S.,  Pump  Court,  Temple,  March  i6th,  1891. 

Primula  elatior,  Jacq. — In  the  April  number  of  the  "Journal  of  Botany,' 
our  member.  Prof.  C.  C.  Babington,  F.R.S.,  makes  the  following  observations  on 
this  peculiarly  Essex  species,  which  are  interesting  in  connection  with  Mr.  Christy's 
and  Mr.  t'lench's  papers  :  "  I  ha\e  a  plant  of  this  {P.  elatior),  growing  in  a  pot, 
and  also  one  of  P.  vulgaris  ;  this  caused  me  to  notice  the  development  of  the  young 
leaves.  I  found  a  most  marked  difference  between  them  when  very  young.  Those 
of  P.  elatior  are  transversely  plicate,  so  strongly  as  to  show  no  connecting  veins 
between  the  ridges  ;  in  P.  vulgaris  the  leaves  are  conspicuously  reticulate-rugose 
from  the  very  first.  As  the  lea\'es  increase  in  size  this  difference  becomes  much 
less  apparent,  and  does  not  attract  attention.  Unfortunately  1  have  not  a  root  of 
P.  veris  to  examine  on  this  point." 

Exceptionally  Small  Rainfall  of  the  Last  Eight  Months. — Our  mem- 
ber, Mr.  F.  Chancellor,  J. P.,  writes  advising  economy  with  respect  to  the  use  of 
water  this  summer,  owing  to  the  meagre  rainfall  during  the  past  winter.  He 
says:  "With  every  care  it  will,  I  am  afraid,  be  difficult  to  avert  a  water  famine 
in  some  districts  during  the  coming  summer  and  autumn.  The  following  is  a 
table  of  the  rainfall  for  the  corresponding  eight  months  of  the  ten  previous  years. 
This  will  show  that  I  am  not  unnecessarily  drawing  attention  to  the  matter  : — 

From  Sept.,  1880,  to  April,  1881,  inclusive 19-88 

15-64 

,          20-93 

14-69 

14-18 

...  15-94 
12-43 

15-40 

13-43 

15-16 


I88I 

„     1882 

1882 

n    1883 

1883 

1884 

1884 

„    1885 

1885 

„    1886 

1886 

„    1887 

1887 

„    1888 

1888 

„    IS89 

1889 

„    1890 

10)157-68 


Average  for  ten  years         ...         ...         ...        I5'76 

From  Se,)t.,  1890,  to  April,  1891,  inclusive  ...         ...         ...         8-28 

or  \ery  little  more  than  half  the  average  of  the  last  ten  years." 


THE     UNDULATIONS    OF    THE    CHALK    IM 
ESSEX. 

\W  \V.   H.   DAl.TON,   F.G.S  ,  /<iU  of  H.M.  Ceolosical  Sun'cy. 
[Read    May    lyth,    iSgo.] 

WITH    MAT,    ri.ATE    III 

A  S  the  surflice  of  the  greater  part  of  Essex  consists  of  clay,  the 
water-supply  is  almost  everywhere  derived  from  wells,  and  a 
considerable  proportion  of  these  have  been  carried  down  to  the 
Chalk,  and  derive  their  value  from  the  copious  stores  of  water  yielded 
by  that  formation.  There  are,  of  course,  hundreds  of  shallow  wells 
in  the  gravel  areas,  and  a  great  many  artesian  borings  that  go  no 
further  than  the  sands  in  or  under  the  London  Clay.  But  the  water 
in  gravel  is  always  liable  to  contamination  by  infiltration  of  impurities 
from  the  surface,  whilst  the  yield  from  the  Tertiary  beds,  besides 
being  often  charged  with  an  obiectionable  amount  of  mineral  matter 
in  solution,^  is  very  apt  to  be  diminished,  if  not  altogether  stopped, 
by  the  influx  of  sand  carried  up  by  the  water  into  the  bore-hole.  In 
fact,  the  utility  of  any  such  wells  is  but  a  question  of  time,  and  in 
view  of  their  cost,  it  is  often  found  that  the  larger  primary  expenditure 
is  eventually  the  more  economical  procedure.  Accordingly,  scarcely 
a  month  passes  but  we  hear  of  some  new  boring  being  made,  or  an 
old  one  deepened,  to  the  Chalk. 

This  being  the  case,  it  becomes  not  infrequently  a  matter  of  much 
importance  to  know  the  depth  at  which  the  Chalk  lies  from  point  to 
point,  so  as  to  estimate  the  approximate  cost  of  getting  water  from 
that  source  in  spots  hitherto  supplied  from  higher  beds. 

If  the  surface  of  Chalk  were  a  uniform  plane  the  determination 
of  its  position  with  regard  to  sea-level  of  any  desired  point  would  be 
one  of  the  most  simple  geometrical  problems — scarcely  more  than  a 
rule-of-three  calculation,  but  the  case  is  very  much  otherwise.  Instead 
of  a  plane  we  have  an  elaborately-puckered  surface,  which  I  have 
tried  to  illustrate  by  the  accompanying  map,  a  reproduction,  with 
geological  additions,  of  a  part  of  the  index  of  the  old  Ordnance 
Survey.  The  scale  is  ten  miles  to  an  inch.  Photography  does  not 
admit  correction  of  names  misspelt  in  the  original.  The  curved 
lines  with  figures  annexed  indicate  api)roximately  where  the   surface 

I  See  Y)T.  ].  C.  Thresh's  Report  on  the  Water  Supplies  of  the  Chelmsford  and  Maldon  Rural 
Sani;ar>'  Uislricts,  8vo,  C/te/ms/orJ  [i8gi]. 


114  THK    UNDULATIONS    OK    THE    CHALK    IN    ESSEX. 

of  the  Chalk  occurs,  one,  two,  three,  or  more,  hundred  feet  above  or 
below  the  sea-level,  the  ciphers  being  omitted  for  the  sake  of  distinct- 
ness, and  the  plus  and  minus  signs  respectively  indicating  height 
above  and  depth  below  the  Ordnance  Datum.  The  zero^  of  course, 
implies  that  the  Chalk  at  or  near  that  line  is  just  at  sea-level.  The 
straighter  lines  are  faults  whose  existence  is  imperceptible  on  the 
surface  of  homogeneous  clay,  even  where  not  concealed  by  drift,  but 
which  are  sufficiently  established  by  their  effect  on  the  Chalk  contour- 
lines. 

The  Chalk  outcrops  from  beneath  the  Tertiary  sands  along  lines 
running  from  Sudbury  to  Bishop's  Stortford,  and  from  East  Tilbury  to 
near  Wennington.  To  the  north  and  south  respectively  of  these 
lines  of  outcrop  occur  isolated  patches  of  the  Tertiary  beds,  only  the 
more  important  of  which  can  be  shown  on  so  small  a  map. 

The  Chalk  is  not  everywhere  at  the  surface  in  the  spaces  de- 
nuded of  their  original  Tertiary  covering,  for  (ilacial  and  Post- 
Glacial  drifts  mask  both  Tertiary  and  Cretaceous  areas,  and  much 
of  the  ground  that  is  shown  as  Chalk  in  the  map  consists  of  these 
gravels  and  clays,  extending  to  depths  of  sometimes  more  than  loo 
feet. 

I  have  considered  it  impracticable  to  attempt  to  make  out  any 
undulations  in  the  Chalk  beyond  the  Tertiary  boundary,  for  the 
simple  reason  that  where  the  eroding  forces  of  the  Glacial  sea  laid 
bare  the  Chalk,  they  dealt  with  it  as  erratically  as  with  the  Tertiary 
beds,  cutting  it  into  deep  and  shallow,  at  the  will  of  the  changing 
currents.  Instead,  therefore,  of  an  undulating  plane  whose  position 
may  be  calculated  with  a  fair  approximation  to  accuracy,  as  is  the 
case  under  the  Tertiary  area,  we  cannot  safely  pronounce  on  the 
position  of  the  Chalk  under  the  Drift  fifty  yards  beyond  where  it  is 
seen,  or  proved  by  boring.  Mr.  Whitaker  has  shown  us'^  how  in  the 
Cam  valley,  between  flanks  of  Chalk,  the  alluvium,  barely  300 
yards  wide,  conceals  a  drift-filled  fissure  of  great  depth,  showing  that 
calculations  from  exposures  in  such  an  area  are  liable  to  be 
completely  erroneous.  When  East  Anglia  becomes  the  scene  of 
numerous  collieries,  perhaps  we  shall  learn  from  the  undulations 
of  the  under-surface  of  the  Chalk  that  which  we  cannot  gather  from 
the  open  surface,  which  was  lost  in  the  Glacial  period.  Accordingly 
I  have  left  that  region  untouched,  and  dealt  only  with  the  area  where 
the  (ilacial  erosion  has  not  succeeded  in  reaching  the  Chalk. 

2  Essex  Nat.  \o1.  iii    pp.  140-142,  i88y  ;  (Juan.  Jouni.  Geol.  Soc.  vol.  xliv.  pp.  333-340 [1890). 


THE    UNDULATIONS    OF     ITIK    CIIAI.K.    IN    ESSEX.  II5 

It  will  be  seen  that  about  Ware,  at  Bishop's  Stortford,  Sudbury, 
and  Ipiswich,  the  Chalk  boundary  is  very  sinuous,  whilst  between 
those  points  it  forms  curves  for  the  most  part  broad  and  smooth. 

That  is  simply  due  to  our  knowledge  at  the  points  mentioned,  and 
our  ignorance  as  to  the  intervals.  We  do  not  know  what  sinuosities 
are  present  under  the  pall  of  drift,  and  w^e  can  only  carry  the  hypo- 
thetical line  between  sections  that  prove  the  absence  of  Tertiary  beds 
to  the  north,  and  their  presence  to  the  south.  Lately  a  well  sunk 
northward  of  the  boundary  assumed  in  the  (Geological  Survey  map 
at  Little  Sampford  proved  the  further  extension  of  the  Tertiaries. 
Such  corrections  (or  their  converse,  the  reduction  of  the  hypothetical 
area  of  Tertiary  beds)  are  most  welcome  and  useful.  The  general 
strike  is  E.N.E.  from  Ware  to  Sudbury,  and  thence  E.  to  Bramford. 
Beyond  the  limits  of  the  map,  it  runs  N.E.  to  Saxmundham,  and  N. 
to  Yarmouth. 

The  base  of  the  Chalk  is  approximately  parallel  to  this  line,  and 
so  is  the  the  great  faulted  undulation  of  Tiptree  Heath,  which  I 
described  several  years  ago.^ 

That  important  flexure  has  quite  recently  been  again  proved  at 
Messing,  and  its  course  through  Suffolk  is  traceable  at  Shelly,  Ipswich, 
Woodbridge,  and  Lowestoft.  Along  Tiptree  ridge  it  is  a  faulted 
anticlinal  for  several  miles.  From  Wickham  Bishop  it  is  traceable 
with  less  distinctness  by  Danbury  to  the  south-west,  its  effects  being 
complicated  by  a  series  of  obliquely-transverse  flexures  and  fractures 
in  a  manner  defying  verbal  description.  The  parallel  fault  from 
^V'alton  to  Prittlewell,  the  anticlinal  of  Mersea  and  Burnham,  and 
the  bold  flexure  at  Royston  (where  the  Chalk  dips  at  40^  to  N.N.W.) 
point  to  some  general  agency  affecting  a  wide  area,  and  in  like 
manner  the  east  and  west  fractures  from  Greenwich  to  Erith,  and 
^Valthamstow  to  Burnham,  are  probably  of  the  same  age  and  origin  as 
the  parallel  anticlinals  of  the  Stour  estuary  (not  shown  by  the  contours), 
and  that  in  which  Bentley  occurs  (as  indicated  by  the  zero-line.) 

The  lines  of  flexure  and  fault  of  N.W.-S.E.  trend  are  less  regular, 
of  shorter  continuance  and  variable  direction,  and  appear  to  be  the 
result  of  transverse  strains  at  the  time  of  the  later  of  the  previously- 
mentioned  movements  in  a  district  weakened  by  the  earlier  series. 
It  seems  probable,  for  instance,  that  the  triangular  bit  of  country 
between  Chigwell,  Havering  and  Romford  was  crushed  into  its 
present    structure    of  anticline  and  syncline   by  pressure  from   the 

3  Trans   Essex  Field  Club,  vol.  ii,  pp.  15-18,  iS3i. 


Il6  THK    UNDULAIIONS    OF    THE    CHALK    IN    ESSEX. 

north-west  acting  obliquely  to  the  earlier  fracture  between  Waltham- 
stow  and  Romford,  so  that,  whilst  a  deep  trough  was  formed  from 
Wickham  Hishop  to  Havering,  a  transverse  fracture  was  produced  at 
the  latter  place.  The  ground  to  the  south-west  of  this,  being  forced 
into  the  angle,  yielded  along  a  line  passing  through  Chigwell,  and 
there  produced  a  faulted  synclinal  of  much  greater  importance  than 
the  slight  depression  passing  southward  from  Havering.  Between 
these  synclines  the  Chalk  rises  in  Hainault  Forest  to  the  sea-level, 
whilst  to  east,  west  and  south  it  is  from  two  to  three  hundred  feet 
lower. 

In  like  manner  the  shallow  depression  between  Horndon-on-the- 
Hill  and  S.  Ockendon  becomes  a  sharp  and  deep  fold  between  Rain- 
ham  and  Dagenham,  is  unrecognisable  near  Barking,  but  re-appears 
with  its  normal  east  and  west  trend  from  East  Ham  to  Canning 
Town.  Probably  the  synclinal  of  Benfleet  is  part  of  the  same  fold, 
though  obliterated  at  Fobbing  and  Vange  by  predominant  pressure 
oblique  to  the  original  flexuring. 

I  do  not  think  it  necessary  to  describe  in  words  the  course  of  the 
several  contours,  as  the  map  supersedes  any  verbal  account,  and  the 
rest  of  the  county  calls  for  no  special  notice.  Altogether  the  Essex 
Chalk  shows  a  range  of  elevation  of  about  1200  feet  from  its  greatest 
depression  at  Fowlness,  over  600  feet  below  the  sea-level,  to  the  600 
feet  above  sea  which,  but  for  denudation,  it  would  exceed  in  the  north- 
western corner  of  the  county. 

I  believe  one  is  expected  to  conclude  a  summary  of  facts  such  as 
the  foregoing  with  a  little  theorising  as  to  the  causes  of  the  phenomena 
described.  I  would  suggest  for  the  N.E.-S.W.  folds,  a  slipping  of 
the  Chalk  and  Tertiary  beds  towards  the  line  of  main  depression  of 
the  London  Basin,  probably  over  the  surface  of  the  Gault,  but 
pinching  up  some  of  it  into  the  folds.  This  slipping  could  only 
occur  after  great  erosion  of  the  upper  beds.  The  limits  of  the 
Boulder-clay  indicate  a  great  bank  or  land-area  as  existing  in  South 
Essex  late  in  the  Glacial  period ;  over,  at  any  rate,  the  Essex  half  of 
the  Thames  valley.  What  was  then  a  hill-range  above  the  level  of 
the  Glacial  sea  is  now  South  Essex,  with  the  Thames,  Crouch  and 
Blackwater  estuaries,  proving  enormous  denudation  (or  differential 
subsidence)  in  early  Post-glacial  times.  Such  reduction  in  thickness  of 
the  Tertiary  deposits  might,  I  venture  to  suggest,  result  in  a  series  of 
undulations  in  the  Chalk  by  gravitation,  without  invoking  Messrs. 
Vulcan    &    Co.,     the   agents    generally    credited    with    all     such 


i 


THK    CKKAT    IKOST    OF     1890-91.  II7 

disturbances.      The  presence  of  Glacial  gravel   on   the  crest  of  the 
Tijitree  ridge  points  to  its  elevation  during;  the  (ilacial  period. 

I  have  referred  to  the  possibility  in  the  future  of  collieries  being 
worked  in  Essex,  but,  though  the  undulations  I  have  endeavoured  to 
portray  necessarily  aflfect  the  subjacent  beds,  this  is  not  a  suitable 
occasion  to  discuss  the  question  of  the  constitution  of  the  ancient 
basis  upon  which  the  Secondary  rocks  of  S.E.  England  repose.  I 
will  only  say  here  that  I  hold  Mr.  Godwin  Austen's  views  on  the  sub- 
ject to  have  been  a  priori  untenable,  and  to  have  been  disproved  by 
every  successive  boring  that  has  reached  the  Paljeozoic  rocks  in 
the  south-east  counties  ;  and  that,  but  for  the  glamour  of  possible 
wealth  in  concealed  coal,  his  speculations  would  have  received  but 
little  notice. 

Few  things  can  be  clearer  than  that  the  Boulonnais  and  the 
Warwickshire  coal-fields,  with  their  N.W.  strike  in  common,  are 
better  criteria  foi  the  general  trend  of  the  older  rocks  under  Essex 
than  the  Somersetshire  and  Belgian  coal-fields,  which  are  so  much 
more  remote.  That  Coal-Measures  exist,  with  a  N.W.-S.E.  strike, 
under  a  great  part  of  eastern  England  I  have  held  as  certain  for  more 
than  a  dozen  years,  whilst  every  now  and  then  proofs  have  been  dis- 
covered of  older  rocks  to  the  westward  in  Hertfordshire,  Middlesex 
and  Surrey.  Harwich,  with  its  Carboniferous  rock  of  uncertain 
horizon, and  Dover,  with  its  unquestioned  Coal-Measures, areas  yet  the 
only  Carboniferous  localities — and  they  lie  between  the  North  France 
and  Midland  English  coal-fields.  I  hope  to  live  to  see  many  a 
colliery  at  work  in  Essex,  but  it  must  be  in  regions  outside  of  the 
great  depressions  I  have  traced,  for  these  may  be  due  to  the  deep- 
seated  causes,  carrying  down  the  Coal-Measures  as  well  as  the  upper 
strata. 


THE    GREAT    FROST    OF    1890-91. 

TN  a  paper  read  before  the  Royal  Meteorological  Society  on  February  i8th, 
-'-  Mr.  C.  Harding  gave  some  details  of  the  late  prolonged  frost,  which  are 
interesting  as  supplementing  the  papers  of  Dr.  Thresh  and  Mr.  French  in  the 
last  number  of  the  Essex  Naturalist.  The  paper  dealt  with  the  whole 
period  of  the  frost  from  November  25th  to  January  22nd,  and  it  was  shown  that 
over  nearly  the  whole  of  the  south-east  of  England  the  mean  temperature  for  the 
fifty-nine  days  was  more  than  2  deg.  below  freezing  point,  while  at  seaside 
stations  on  the  coast  of  Kent,  Sussex,  and  Hampshire,  the  mean  was  only  32  de^^. 


[l8  THE    CREAT    FROST    OF     189O-9I. 

In  the  extreme  north  of  Scotland,  as  well  as  in  the  west  of  Ireland,  the  mean  was 
10  deg.  higher  than  in  the  south-east  of  England.  In  the  southern  Midlands, 
and  in  parts  of  the  south  of  England,  the  mean  temperature  for  the  fifty-nine 
days  was  more  than  10  deg.  below  the  average,  but  in  the  north  of  England  the 
deficiency  did  not  amount  to  5  deg.,  and  in  the  extreme  north  of  Scotland  it  was 
less  than  i  deg. 

The  lowest  authentic  reading  was  o-6  deg.  at  Stokesay,  in  Shropshire,  but 
almost  equally  low  temperatures  occurred  at  other  periods  of  the  frost.  At  many 
places  in  the  south  and  south-west  of  England,  as  well  as  in  parts  of  Scotland  and 
Ireland,  the  greatest  cold  throughout  the  period  occurred  at  the  end  of  November  ; 
and  at  Waddon,  in  Surrey,  the  thermometer  fell  to  i  deg.,  a  reading  quite  unpre- 
cedented at  the  close  of  the  autumn.  At  Addington  Hills,  near  Croydon,  the 
thermometer  was  below  the  freezing  point  each  night,  with  one  exception  ;  and 
there  were  only  two  exceptions  at  Cambridge  and  Reading  ;  while  in  the  Shet- 
lands  there  were  only  nine  nights  with  frost,  although  at  Biarritz  frost  occurred 
on  thirty-one  nights,  and  at  Rome  on  six  nights.  At  many  places  in  England 
the  frost  was  continuous  night  and  day  for  twenty-five  days,  but  at  coast  stations 
in  the  north  of  Scotland  it  in  no  case  lasted  throughout  the  twenty-four  hours. 
On  the  coast  of  Sussex  the  temperature  of  the  sea  was  about  14  deg.  higher  than 
the  air  throughout  December,  but  on  the  Yorkshire  coast  it  was  only  6  deg. 
warmer,  and  in  the  Shetlands  and  on  parts  of  the  Irish  coast  it  was  only  3  deg. 
warmer. 

The  Thames  water  off  Deptford,  at  2  ft.  below  the  surface,  was  continuously 
below  34  deg.  from  December  23rd  to  January  23rd,  a  period  of  thirty-two  days, 
while  the  river  was  blocked  with  ice  the  greater  part  of  the  time.  In  Regent's  Park 
skating  continued  uninterruptedl}'  for  forty-three  days,  where  the  ice  attained  a 
thickness  of  over  9  in.  The  frost  did  not  penetrate  to  the  depth  of  2  ft.  below  the 
surface  of  the  ground  in  any  part  of  England,  but  in  many  places,  especially  in  the 
south  and  east,  the  ground  was  frozen  for  several  days  at  the  depth  of  i  ft.  and  at 
6|in.  for  upwards  of  a  month.  In  the  neighbourhood  of  London  the  cold  was  more 
prolonged  than  in  any  previous  frost  during  the  last  century,  the  next  longest 
spell  being  52  days  in  the  winter  of  1794-5,  while  in  1838  frost  last  lasted  for  fifty 
days,  and  in  1788-9  for  fortj'-nine  days.  At  Greenwich  the  mean  was  9-5  deg.  below 
thetaverage,  and  in  some  parts  it  was  more  than  10  deg.  below,  while  in  the  extreme 
north  of  Scotland  it  was  approximately  in  agreement  with  average  conditions. 
Mr.  Harding  also  mentioned  the  singular  fact  that  on  only  one  day — January 
13th — was  the  mean  daily  temperature  at  Greenwich  in  excess  of  the  average 
daily  mean  for  sixty  years.  The  frost  throughout  was  remarkable  on  account  of 
the  absence  of  any  high  temperatures.  Nearly  all  the  prolonged  frosts  of  the  last 
century,  said  Mr.  Harding,  were  followed  by  a  fairly  dry  spring  and  summer,  but 
the  accompanying  weather  was  by  no  means  always  hot. 

Mr.  Harding  explained  the  great  difference  between  the  temperatures  of 
Scotland  and  Ireland  and  that  of  England  by  the  fact  that  during  the  whole 
period  there  was  a  large  area  of  high  barometric  readings  over  Europe  which 
maintained  its  own  limits.  The  incoming  disturbances  from  the  Atlantic  could 
not  make  headway  into  Europe,  but  skirted  to  the  westward  of  our  islands,  their 
centres  keeping  well  out  into  the  Atlantic.  Consequently  our  westward  coasts 
felt  the  warming  influence  of  these  disturbances,  although  the  weather  remained 
comparatively  quiet.  lingland,  especially  as  to  the  eastern  parts,  was  not  at  all 
affected  by  these  disturbances. 


THE   GREAT    FROST    OF    1890-91. 


119 


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ON  THE  RANGE  OF  THE  PRIMROSE  (PRIMULA 
VULGARIS)  AND  THE  BARDFIELD  OXLIP 
(R  ELATIOR)  IN   NORTH-WESTERN   ESSEX. 

By  J.  FRENCH  ;  with  remarks  by  MILLER  CHRISTY,  F.L.S. 
[Read  March  2 1st,  iSgi.\ 

npHERE  is  a  singularity  affecting  the  distribution  of  these  two 
species  in  the  above-named  locahty  which  is  worthy  of  note. 
The  primrose  grows  very  rarely,  if  at  all,  in  the  region  occupied  by 
the  Bardfield  Oxlip,  and  the  southern  limit,  at  least  of  the  latter 
species,  is  very  sharply  defined. 

The  northern  limit  of  the  primrose  and  the  southern  limit  of  the 
Bardfield  Oxlip  can  be  traced  at  least  twelve  miles,  the  same  line 
appearing  to  define  both  areas.  This  line  runs  nearly  due  east  and 
west  and  lies  a  little  to  the  north  of  the  high  road  (the  old  Roman  road) 
from  Braintree  to  Bishop's  Stortford.  Perhaps  it  is  in  no  case  more 
than  three  miles  to  the  north  of  that  road  throughout  the  whole  of 
the  distance  from  Braintree  to  Takeley,  some  sixteen  miles.  These 
two  closely  allied  species  have  no  debatable  borderland  that  I  am 
aware  of  throughout  that  line  ;  for  both  species  are  scarce,  if  not 
altogether  absent,  in  places  along  the  margin  of  either  area.  It  is 
very  general  to  have  to  step  over  some  three  miles  for  the  change 
from  flora  to  flora.  The  cowslip  (P.  veris)  is  common  to  both 
areas,  and  seems  to  be  equally  distributed  in  both. 

In  the  case  of  the  Bardfield  Oxlip  and  primrose,  the  growth  of 
one  species  is  not  really  inimical  to  the  growth  of  the  other ;  for 
both  species  grow  side  by  side  in  cottage-gardens.  These  cottage- 
garden  plants  also  show  that  variations  in  soil  have  not  influenced 
the  distribution  of  the  Bardfield  Oxlip,  for  it  flourishes  equally  well  in 
bog,  in  alluvial  and  upland  clays,  in  woods,  and  in  garden  soil.  At 
Oreat  Bardfield,  the  oxlip  principally  affects  wet  meadows  by  the 
river-side  and  is  perhaps  driven  there  also  as  to  a  fastness.  The 
primrose,  too,  will  suffer  a  large  variety  of  soil  without  abating  its 
vigour. 

Both  species  ripen  their  seeds  readily  in  gardens  ;  but  they  do 
not  appear  to  do  so  to  the  same  extent  when  growing  wild.  I  think 
scarcely  one  per  cent,  of  primrose  blooms  develop  seed  in  a  state  of 
nature.     This    would    seem    to   point   to  the  absence  of  fertilising 


LIST    OF    PUBLICATIONS— r^;///V/2^.v/. 

ESS£X    FIELD    CLUB,    SPECIAL    MEMOIRS,     VOL.    I. 

"REPORT    ON    THE    EAST    ANGLIAN     EARTHQUAKE, 

OF    APRIL  22N1),  1S84." 

By  Prof.  Raphael   Meldola,  F.R.S.,  F.C.S.,  F.R.A.S.,  iM.A.I.,  &c.  ;   and 
William  White,  F.E.S.,  Member  of  Geologists'  Association. 

Piice,  neatly  bound  in  cloth,  35.  6^/. 

"  Fortunately  for  this  country,  we  have  not  been  called  upon  to  notice  a  report  of  such  an 
Earthquake  as  that  which  is  chronicled  in  the  volume  before  us  since  this  journal  came  into 
existence.  Indeed,  the  authors  state  that  no  shock  approaching  it  in  intensity  has  been  experi- 
enced in  the  British  Islands  for  at  least  four  centuries.  A  brief  notice  of  the  occurrence  was 
given  in  our  columns  (vol.  xxx.,  pp.  17  and  60)  by  Mr.  Topley,  and  we  now  have  a  complete 
scientific  account  drawn  up  by  Prof.  R.  Meldola,  and  presented  to  the  Essex  Field  Club  as  a 
special  memoir,  embodying  the  results  of  his  investigation  in  conjunction  with  his  colleague,  Mr. 
William  White.  The  book  consists  of  about  225  pages  of  readable  matter,  with  four  maps  and 
numerous  illustrations,  aud  the  Essex  Field  Club  has  certainly  earned  the  gratitude  of  scientific 

men  in  enabling  the  authors  to  give  publicity  to  this  final  result  of  their  labour 

Many  illustrations  of  peculiar  forms  of  damage  are  given,  and  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  the 
observations  recorded  in  this  section  will  be  not  only  of  local  interest,  but  also  of  use  to 
engineers  and  others  who  occupy  themselves  with  the  important  question  of  Construction  in 
Earthquake  countries " — Nature,  January  21st,  i?86. 


ESSEX   FIELD    CLUB,    SPECIAL    MEMOIRS,    VOL.    II. 

"THE    BIRD.S    OF    ESSEX: 

A     CONTRIBUTIOX     OF     THE     NATURAL      HISTORY     OF     THE 

COUxNTRY." 

By  Miller   Christv,   F.L.S.   (Author  of   "The   Handbook   of   Essex,"   "The 
Trade  Signs  of  Esse.x,"  &c.,  &c.) 

Demy  8vo.     Price  15?.     To  members  of  the  E.F.C.,   \os.  Gd. 

The  book  is  printed  in  the  best  style  on  superior  toned  antique  paper,  and 
handsomely  bound  in  scarlet  cloth.  It  extends  to  300  pages,  and  more  than 
160  illustrations  of  birds  are  inserted,  together  with  two  plans  and  a 
frontispiece. 

Members  of  the  CHjB  may  obtain  single  copies  at  the  special  price  of 
105.  6rf'.,  post  free,  by  sending  postal  orders  or  cheque  to  the  Librarian. 

"'This  work  ....  does  equal  credit  to  the  enterprise  of  the  Essex  Field  Club  and  the 
author.  With  the  assistance  of  many  fellow-workers,  both  in  and  without  the  county,  Mr.  Christy 
has  striven  to  improve  on  the  plans  of  the  local  lists  which  have  hitherto  appeared  ;  and  not  only 
has  he  been  fairly  successful  in  this  respect,  but  he  has  undoubtedly  introduced  some  new  and 
useful  features.  .  .  .  The  letterpress  is,  as  a  rule,  written  with  considerable  discrimination. 
.  .  .  The  work  is  thoroughly  well  done,  and  is  a  valuable  addition  to  our  local  lists." — 
AtltetWHiii. 


A'.B. — A  reduction  of  25  per  cent,  from  the  above  prices  is  allowed  to 
members  excepting  on  the  "  Birds  of  Essex  "  and  the  Annual  Subscriptions 
to  the  "  Essex  Naturalist." 


A     SELECTION     i-RO.M     MF.SiRS. 

Edmund  Durraiit  &Co.'s  List  of  Publications. 


The    Ancient    Sepulchral    Monuments    of    Essex.        By 

EKiii).  CiiANCF.LLOK,  F.R.I. 13. A.     Imp.  4to,  cloth,  illustrated,  £\  4.?.  nett. 

Poems.  By  Alice  E.  Argent.  With  an  Introduction  by  the 
Right  Rev.   Btshop  CL.A.UGHTO.Nt.     Cm.  8vo,  cloth,  39.  6(/.  nett,  post  free. 

Durrant's  Handbook  for  Essex.    A  Guide  to  all  the  Principal 

Objects  of  Interest  in  each  Parish  in  the  County.  By  MiLLER  CHRISTY, 
F.L.S.     With  Map,  2s.  dd.  nett,  po^t  free. 

"  One  of  the  very  best  Ouide  Books  in  existence." — Ez'cning  Netus. 

The  Birds  of  Essex.     A  Contribution  to  the  Natural  History  of 

the  County.  With  numerous  Illustrations,  two  Plans,  and  one  Plate  (form- 
ing Vol.  II.  Special  Memoirs  of  Essex  Field  Club).  By  .MiLLER  Christ V. 
Deuiy  8vo,  scarlet  cloth,  15.?.  nett,  post  free. 

A  History  of  Felsted  School.      With  some    Account  of  the 

E^ounder  and  his  Descendants.  By  JOHN  S.A.RGE.'\UiMT,  M.A.  Illustrated, 
nelt  4f. 

The    Trade    Signs    of   Essex.       A    Popular   Account    of  the 

Origin  and  Meaning  of  the  Public  House  and  other  Signs,  now  or 
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Daily  Rays  of  Light  for  Sick  and  Weary  Ones.     Compiled 

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Domesday  Book  relating  to  Essex.  Translated  by  the  late 
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John  Noakes  and  Mary  Styles.     A  Poem  in  the  Essex  Dialect. 

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A    First    Catechism    of    Botany.     By   John   Gibbs.     Second 

Edition,  I2au),  fioards,  bd. 

The  Symmetry  of  Flowers.    By  John  Ginn.s.    i8mo,  sewed,  4^. 
Forms  and  Services  used  in  the  Diocese  of  St.  Alban's, 

Published  by  authorit)'.     Lisls  on  application. 


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ANNUAL  SUBSCRIPTION— Members,  4s.  6d. ;  Non-Members,  9s.    Post  Free. 

NO.  6,  VOL.  v.]  Price,  with  Plate,  9d.  [JUNE,  1891. 

The 

Essex  Naturalist: 


BEIXG    THE 


JOURNAL 

OF    THE 

ESSEX    FIELD    CLUB, 


EDITED    EV 

WILLIAM     COLE, 

Hotiorary  Secretary, 


(f  0  n  t  c  n  t  s 

On  the  Range  of  the  Primrose  and  the  Bardfield  Oxiip  {Primula  elai'ior)  in  North- 
western    Essex.— Ky    J.     French  ;    with    remarks    by    Miller    Christv,    F.L.S. 

(Concluded) 121 

On  a  Female  Specimen  of  the  Common   Rorqual  (Baltenofitcra  iinisciiliis),  captured 

near  Burnham.     By  Walter  Croich,  F.Z.S.     (With  Plate  H'.)      124 

The  Essex  Field  Club  Meeting  at  Higham  Park,  Epping  Forest,  and  123rd  Ordinary 

Meeting.     (W'itk  Illustration) 129 

Correspondence.     Boulder  Clay  in  Essex.     W.  H.  Dalton,  F.Cj.S.,  and  J.  French      ...     133 

Notes,  Original  and  Selected.— Badger  at  Asheldham  ;  .\nother  Rorqual  in  Crouch  river; 
.\  Swallow's  "Pendent  Bed  and  Procreant  Cradle  "  ;  Homing  Instincts  of  A^/a  ar^o<v<i  ; 
.Sea  Lamprey  in  the  Colne ;  A  Voracious  Eel  ;  Coleophora  vibicigerella  in  Essex  ;  Esscv 
Earthworms — .\n  .Appeal;  Parasitic  I'orticellie ;  Uncommon  Plants  at  Felstead  ;  Cook's 
"  Illusirations  of  British  Fungi  "  ;  Essex  Water  Supply 135-136 

More  Epping  Forest.     {With  Four  Illustrations)    136 


The  authors  alone  are  responsible  for  the  statements  and  opinions  contained  in  their 

respective  papers. 


PUnLISllEI)    BY    T[1E    CUB,    BrCKHCRST    HILL,    ES.SRX. 
E.   DURRANT   &   CO.,   90,    FlIGII    STREET,   CHELMSFORD. 

Fnt.  St.itioners'  Hall.] 


CoNLNUMCATIONS  r?;/// .\l)V[:i<TI?F.MENrs  should  he  addressed  : — 

The  Ediior  of  '•THE    ESSEX    N.\TL"R.\LLST," 

7,  Knighton  Villas,  Buckhurst   Hill,  Essex. 


THE    LOCAL    (ESSEX)    MUSEUM, 
LIBRARY,  AND  LABORATORY. 


The  attention  of  Members  of  the  Essex  Field  Club,  and  of  all  those 
interested  in  the  practical  study  of  Natural  Science,  and  its  applica- 
tions in  industries,  and  as  a  means  of  general  education,  is  earnestly 
called  to  the  Statement  and  Appeal  for  Funds  for  the  establish- 
ment of  the  Museum  now  being  circulated  by  the  Council. 

The  scheme  has  long  been  under  consideration,  and  it  has  been 
fully  explained  at  meetings  of  the  Club  and  in  the  Essex 
Naturalist.     Its  principal  features  are  as  follows  : — 

With  the  object  of  establishing  at  Chelmsford  (chosen  as  being 
the  County  Town,  and  also  as  a  central  position  in  Essex)  a  Local 
and  Educational  Museum,  the  club  has  agreed  to  amalgamate  with 
the  Essex  and  Chelmsford  Museum,  under  the  title  of  "  The  Essex 
Field  Club,"  conditionally  on  the  sum  necessary  for  founding  the 
new  Museum  being  raised.     The  main  objects  in  view  are  : — 

(fl)  The  formation  of  authentic  collections  to  illustrate  the  GeoIo_s:y,  Miner- 
alogy, Botany,  Zoology,  Ethnology,  Prehistoric  Archaeology  and 
Technolog}',  &c.,  of  ESSEX  and  the  adjacent  sea  and  rivers, 
together  with  an  educational  series  of  specimens  and  preparations  to 
be  employed  for  illustrative  and  teaching  purposes.  Specimens  that 
are  not  of  Essex  origin  will  be  admitted  so  far  only  as  they  serve  to 
demonstrate  the  structure  and  relationship  of  the  local  types. 

(p')  The  formation  of  a  Local  and  Scientific  Library,  to  include  (in  addition 
to  standard  scientific  works),  topographical,  antiquarian,  and  other 
books,  manuscripts,  maps,  parliameniary  and  official  papers,  pictures, 
prints,  &c.,  which  in  any  way  relate  to  the  count}-  of  Esse.x. 

(c)  The  establishment  of  a  Laboratory  and  Class-rooms,  with  fittings, 
apparatus,  and  instruments  suitable  for  the  preparation  of  specimens 
for  the  Museum,  and  for  the  practical  study  and  teaching  (either  in 
the  Museum  or  in  selected  local  stations  throughout  the  county)  of 
the  subjects  named  in  paragraph  ((?),  and  for  promoting  their  practi- 
cal application  in  Agriculture,  Forestry,  Arboriculture,  Gardening, 
Fisheries,  Manufactures,  hidustries,  and  general  education.  The 
laboratory,  class-rooms,  instruments,  &c.,  will  be  under  the  control 
of  the  Council,  who  may  permit  students,  investigators,  and  others  to 
use  them,  and  may  also  lend  instruments  and  preparations  out  of  the 
Museum  buildings  for  purposes  in  furtherance  of  the  above  objects. 

\Continued  on  page  3  of  Wrapper. 


THE    PKI.MROSF.    AND    OXLIP    IN    KSSEX.  121 

agents  ;  l:)ut  it  should  also  be  remembered  that  both  plants  have 
enemies  in  birds.  Sparrows,  in  particular,  will  feed  on  the  ovules  of 
primroses  as  soon  as  they  are  developed  and  will  destroy  an 
incredible  nimiber  of  blooms.  Still,  after  all  these  allowances,  there 
is  a  fL\ir  proportion  of  seed  ripened  ;  it  is  not,  therefore,  to  the  lack 
of  seed  that  paucity  of  plants  can  be  traced. 

Taking  into  account  the  limited  range  of  the  IJardfield  Oxlip  in 
Britain,  it  can  hardly  be  regarded  as  an  aggressive  species.  At  one 
place  along  the  southern  limit  we  have  mentioned  the  area  extends 
as  a  tongue  into  the  northern  area  of  the  primrose.  This  is  at  Box- 
ted  ^\'o()d,  a  little  south  of  Great  Saling.  In  the  neighbourhood  of 
the  wood  the  primrose  grows  very  sparingly,  but  within  the  wood  its 
place  is  monopolised  by  the  oxlips,  and  they  can  there  be  counted 
literally  by  thousands.  The  explanation  here  is  obvious  that  the 
wood  should  be  regarded  as  an  outlier  of  the  oxlip  area  which  has 
not  succumbed  to  agricultural  interference. 

The  primrose  cannot  be  regarded  otherwise  than  as  a  diminish- 
ing quantity  in  North-western  Essex,  which  is  partly  due,  as  with  the 
Bardfield  Oxlip,  to  agricultural  and  other  influences,  but  more 
particularly,  as  it  would  seem,  to  the  want  of  agents  for  the  dissemi- 
nation of  the  seeds.  This  is  the  only  rational  explanation  for  the 
narrow  border  to  which  we  have  adverted  as  being  nearly  destitute 
of  both  species.  Primroses  are  common  enough  south  of  that 
border. 

\\'hy  the  primrose  should  be  so  exceedingly  rare  or  absent  in  the 
area  inhabited  by  the  oxlip,  is  not  easy  to  say.  Darwin  says  that  its 
range  on  the  Continent  ''  differs  somewhat  from  that  of  the  cowslip 
and  primrose,  and  it  inhabits  some  districts  where  neither  of  these 
species  live."  Although,  as  we  have  observed,  the  presence  of  one 
plant  is  not  directly  inimical  to  the  other,  there  is  doubtless  some 
indirect  manner  in  which  Primula  elatior  injures  P.  vulgaris. 

Darwin  made  many  experiments  on  the  cross-fertilisation  of  these 
two  species  and  of  Primula  veris,  all  nearly  allied  (see  "  Different 
Forms  of  Flowers  in  Plants  of  the  same  Species  ").  Unfortunately 
these  experiments  do  not  help  us  to  a  solution  ;  but  incidentally 
Darwin  touches  upon  a  proljlem  which  may  be  placed  alongside  of 
our  difficulty.  In  treating  of  the  Common  Oxlip,  which  is  a  hybrid 
between  P.  veris  and  P.  vulgaris,  and  is  in  nowise  to  be  confounded 
with  the  Bardfield  Oxlip,  he  mentions  the  singularity  of  this  hybrid 
being   freciuently  found  in   some    districts  and  rarely  in   others,  and 

I 


122  THE  RANGE  OF  THE  PRIMROSE 

thinks  it  is  to  he  accounted  for  by  the  presence  or  absence  of  a 
moth  which  visits  ahke  the  primrose  and  the  co\vsH[x  AMiether  or 
no  there  has  been  a  troublesome  moth  at  work  in  the  area  of  tlie 
Bardfield  Oxhp  I  am  afraid  it  would  be  useless  to  enquire.  It  does 
not  seem  possible  that  insects  could  hybridise  and  annihilate  a 
species  ;  yet  what  other  solution  is  forthcoming  ? 

The  broad  teaching  of  Darwin's  book  is  that  hybridisation  in 
these  members  of  the  genus  Primula  is  sometimes  common,  and 
that  the  conditions  under  which  this  takes  place  in  nature  are  not 
often  known.  The  organs  of  reproduction  in  forms  recently  dif- 
ferentiated appear,  in  our  ignorance,  to  act  capriciously. 

Whatever  may  have  been  the  cause,  the  fact  of  the  local  extinc- 
tion of  the  primrose  dates  from  a  time  long  past,  for  there  are  large 
areas  now  destitute  of  both  species.  A  melancholy  interest  lies  in 
defining  these  areas,  and  more  particularly  in  marking  the  boundary 
of  P.  elatior  and  watching  its  gradual  extinction.  Its  original 
boundary  perhaps  extended  Ijeyond  the  limit  now  marked  by  the 
absence  of  the  primrose.  It  still  extends  far  into  Suffolk  and  into 
Cambridgeshire,  but  is  otherwise  unknown  in  the  British  Isles. 

A  more  satisfactory  task  is  that  of  watching  its  behaviour  both  in 
a  wild  state  and  under  cultivation,  and  comparing  its  changes  with 
those  of  nearly  allied  species.  The  changes  those  species  undergo 
may  be  roughly  tabulated  as  follows  : — 

Primrose.     P.  vu/i^aris. 
In  a  wild  state. — Pedicels  vary  in  length  ;  blooms  change  slightly   in 

colour ;  corolla  (rarely)  becomes  foliaceous. 
Under  cultivation. — In  addition  to   the  above  changes   floral   enve- 
lopes   increase    in    number,    and    flower    eventually    becomes 
double,  or  produces  "  hose-in-hose."     Blooms   vary  greatly   in 
colour. 

Cowslip.     P.  ten's. 

In  a  wild  state. — Scape  and  pedicels  vary  in  their  respective  lengths, 

and  blooms  vary  in  size  to  such  a  degree  that  the  plant  simulates, 

and  is  often  mistaken  for,  the  oxlip. 
Under  cultivation. — In  addition  to  the  above  changes  flowers  alter 

greatly  in  colour  and  finally  produce  the  polyanthus. 
Common  Oxlip  (a  hybrid  between  P.  veris  and  P.  vulgaris.) 
Under  cultivation. — Plants    become   robust  and   corolla   sometimes 

chan";es  in  colour. 


AND    TIIK    I^.ARDFIKLD    OXI.II'    IN    NORTH-WESTERN    ESSEX,        1 23 

Bardfield  Oxlip.     P.  claiior. 
In  a  7i>ild  state. — Single   tlowers  sometimes  produce  stamens  and 

pistil  of  eciual  length. 
Under  cultivation. — Scarcely  perceptible  changes  occur  (?). 

Observations  on  the  Bardfield  Oxlip  are  few,  but  all  the 
evidence  I  can  collect  goes  to  show  that  it  is  by  far  the  most  stable 
form  of  the  three  species.  Darwin  knew  of  some  plants  kept  twenty- 
five  years  under  cultivation  and  they  varied  but  slightly.  I  have  a 
plant  in  my  garden  which  has  kept  pure  for  nine  years,  whilst  its 
companion  cowslips  and  primroses  have  gone  through  changes 
incalculable. 

The  authority  for  the  statement  that  single  flowers  sometimes 
produce  stamens  and  pistil  of  ecjual  length  is  Darwin's  book  ;  a  case 
was  supplied  to  him  in  which,  out  of  894  wild  plants,  sixteen  had 
"equal  styles."  This  he  considered  to  be  very  remarkable  as 
occurring  in  the  wild  state.  The  same  authority  says  also  that 
hybrids  from  P.  elatior  are  rare. 

If  the  stability  of  the  species  be  confirmed,  and  the  occasional 
variations  of  the  filaments'  length  be  regarded  as  a  case  of  atavism, 
should  we  not  be  justified  in  claiming  a  higher  antiquity  for  the 
Bardfield  Oxli[)  than  can  be  accorded  to  either  the  cowslip  or  the 
primrose  ? 

[I  have  been  kindly  afforded  by  the  Editor  an  opportunity  of  per- 
using the  above  interesting  paper.  Few  who  compare  Mr.  French's 
remarks  on  the  distribution  of  Primula  elatior  and  P.  veris  in  North- 
west Essex  with  the  observations  contained  in  my  paper  "  On  the 
Species  of  the  Cienus  Primula  in  Essex  "  (Trans.  E.  F.  Club,  vol. 
iii.  pp.  148-21 1)  could  avoid  coming  to  the  conclusion  that  Mr. 
French  had  borrowed  largely  from  my  observations  :  but  he  has 
satisfactorily  shown  that  at  the  time  he  wrote  he  had  no  knowledge 
of  the  existence  of  my  paper.  His  remarks  come,  therefore,  to  have 
a  definite  value,  as  corroborating  my  own  statements  upon  a  very 
interesting  point  in  the  distribution  in  Britain  of  Primula  elatior.,  to 
which  far  too  little  attention  has  been  given.  Mr.  French's  state- 
ments on  this  point  are,  I  l)elieve,  accurate.  His  theory  as  to  the 
cause  of  the  peculiarity  of  distribution  of  this  species  is,  however, 
questionable.  It  is  difficult  to  believe  that  it  is  due  to  the  existence 
or  absence  of  any  particular  fertilising  insect,  and  it  would  be  very 
ditticult  to  prove  this,  if  it  were  the  case.      At  the  same  time  I  am 

I  2 


124  ON    A    FEMALE    SPECIMEN    OF    THE    COMMON    RORQUAL 

bound  to  confess  that  the  distril)ution  of  the  species  has  not  yet  been 
satisfactorily  accounted  for  on  any  other  supposition.  Further,  Mr. 
French's  arguments  on  behalf  of  the  antiquity  o{  P.  elatior  as  a  species 
on  account  of  its  non-variability  are  rather  weakened  by  facts  brought 
forward  in  my  own  paper  proving  its  variability  within  certain  limits. 
I  take  this  opportunity  of  stating  that,  since  the  appearance  of 
my  paper,  I  have  been  collecting  information  as  to  the  exact  distribu- 
tion of  P.  elatior  in  Britain,  and  I  shall  welcome  any  facts  bearing 
upon  the  point.  Beside  the  very  sharply-defined  area  which  the 
species  occupies  in  Essex,  as  shown  in  my  paper,  it  also  extends 
over  large  portions  of  Cambridgeshire  and  Suffolk,  and  there  is  at 
least  one  locality  within  the  boundaries  of  Norfolk.  I  believe,  also, 
that  it  crosses  the  Essex  border  into  Hertfordshire  in  the  vicinity  of 
Stanstead  Montfitchet,  although  this  is  not  stated  in  the  recently- 
published  "  Flora  of  Hertfordshire."  There  also  are  localities  in  Bed- 
fordshire I  believe. 

Miller  Christy.] 


ON  A  FEMALE  SPECIMEN  OF  THE  COMMON 
RORQUAL  {BAL.'ENOPPERA  MUSCULUS),  CAP- 
TURED NEAR  BURNHAM. 

By  WALTER  CROUCH,  F.Z.S. 

\_Read  February  zSth,  iSgi.\ 

With  Plate  IV. 

A  LTHOLTGH  the  Whale  which  was  stranded  in  the  River 
"^^  Crouch,  on  the  12th  February,  belongs  to  a  species  which  has 
occurred  more  frequently  on  the  British  coast  than  any  other  of  the 
Baleen  Whales,  yet  it  is  one  worthy  of  record,  not  only  as  an  Essex 
specimen,  but  as  exhibiting  a  very  marked  and  curious  asymmetry  of 
epidermal  colour. 

The  animal  appears  to  have  entered  the  river  on  the  early 
morning  flood-tide,  and  was  first  seen  by  Isaac  Courtman,  a  Burnham 
dredgerman,  who,  when  proceeding  to  his  work,  found  it  floundering 
and  blowing  in  the  shallow  water  by  Hollivvell  Point,  on  the  north 
shore  of  the  river  near  the  oyster  layings,  about  four  miles  east  of 
Burnham.  Nearly  opposite  this  .spot  on  the  south  side,  by  Fowlness 
Island,  the  specimen  of  Rudolphi's  Rorqual  was  taken  in  November, 


CAI'TURl'.l)    NKAU    lU'KNllAM.  1  25 

1883,   which   was  described   by    Prof.    I'lovver   in    I'roc.   Zool.    Soc. 
(Nov.,  1883),  and  Trans.  E.  F.  Club  (vol.  iv.  p.  113). 

The  alarm  was  given,  and  in  half-an-hour  about  thirty  men  were 
at  work  trying  to  secure  the  animal  with  ropes,  and  soon  afterwards 
Inspector  Rome  of  the  Burnham  Oyster  Company  and  Mr.  John 
Auger  appeared  on  the  scene  with  a  gun,  and  n)any  shots  were 
fired,  to  which  at  length  it  succumbed,  lying  close  under  the  sea 
wall. 

The  tide  was  then  flowing  in,  and  it  was  taken  in  tow  by  the 
smacks  "  Plover  "  and  "  Teazer,"  and  subsequently  by  the  steamer 
"Jumbo,"  which  brought  the  carcase  safely  to  Burnham,  where  a 
crowd  had  assembled  to  witness  its  arrival.  It  was  soon  seized  on 
behalf  of  the  Crown  by  Mr.  J.  Finch,  H.M.  Customs  officer  and 
receiver,  and  was  put  up  to  auction,  being  knocked  down  for 
£,\']  I  OS.  to  Mr.  J.  S.  Prior,  of  Southminster,  and  Messrs.  John 
Hawkins  and  Henry  Cook,  of  Burnham.  Later  in  the  day  it  was 
claimed  by  the  solicitors  of  Sir  Henry  Mildmay,  Lord  of  the  Manor, 
and  owner  of  the  royalty  of  the  river,  who  had  on  the  previous 
occasion  successfully  established  his  right  by  a  Chancery  in- 
junction. 

Attem{)ts  were  then  made  to  raise  it  on  to  the  quay  by  a  crane, 
but  this  was  found  impossible,  and  on  the  next  day  (Friday)  fresh 
efforts  were  made  to  raise  it  on  to  a  slip  by  means  of  a  capstan  and 
tackle,  which  were  also  unsuccessful,  the  task  of  raising  the  carcase 
being  a  more  formidable  undertaking  than  the  buyers  had  antici- 
pated. Meanwhile  a  flutter  of  excitement  was  caused  in  the  Dengie 
Hundred  by  the  news,  and  the  advertisement  of  Mr.  Prior  announcing 
the  exhibition  at  the  Malting  Yard,  and  cheap  trains  at  single  fares. 
Many  hundreds  of  people  came  down  on  Friday  and  Saturday,  but 
had  to  go  away  disappointed.  Subsequently  1,300  paid  for  admis- 
sion. 

I  went  down  to  Burnham  on  Saturday,  and  was  surprised  to  find 
the  whale  lying  in  the  shallow  water,  held  by  chains,  covered  over 
with  tarpaulins,  and  floated  by  a  number  of  empty  casks.  Later  in  the 
afternoon,  as  the  tide  came- in,  it  was  slowly  hauled  up  on  a  specially 
prepared  slip,  at  the  back  of  the  post-office,  Init  the  tackle  broke 
several  times,  giving  me,  however,  an  opportunity  of  examining  the 
head  and  baleen,  and  identifying  the  species  to  which  it  belonged. 
Later  on  it  was  well  hauled  up,  the  tail  only  resting  on  the  mud,  and 
with  the  aid  of  Mr.   John  Rogers,  jun.,  of  Burnham,  I  was  able  to 


126 


ON    A    FEMALE    SPECIMEN    OF    THE    COMMON    RORQUAL 


have  a  good  inspection  and  take  some  measurements.  A  few  days 
later  Mr.  E.  A.  Fitch,  who  had  examined  and  identified  it  on 
the  Friday,  made  further  measurements  and  notes,  and  I  am 
indebted  to  him  for  thus  enabhng  me  to  prepare  a  measured  drawing 
of  this  Rorqual  in  illustration  of  these  notes.  The  original  scale  is 
j-inch  =  I  foot ;  and  as  the  drawing  has  been  reduced  one-half  in 
length,  the  scale  of  the  accompanying  illustration  is  g  inch=i  foot. 

Two  photographs  were  taken  by  Mr.  A.  H.  Willott,  of  Maldon, 
showing  the  dead  whale  on  the  side  of  the  sea  wall,  but  in  these  the 
animal  is  very  much  foreshortened. 

The  following  are  the  chief  measurements  : — 


ft.     in. 

Extreme  length 46     ^ 

Girth  at  base  of  pectoral  fin,  estimated 

20     0 

Median  slit  of  flukes 

0     5^ 

End  of  ditto,  to  anterior  base  of  dorsal  fi 

1 

14     3 

Base  of  dorsal  fin  to  blow-holes 

23   10 

Blow-holes  to  end  of  upper  jaw 

7     4 

,,                  „         lower  jaw 

8     5 

Middle  of  eye  to  end  of  upper  jaw   . 

8     6 

,,                „                lower  jaw    . 

9     5 

Tail  flukes,  each        .... 

6     0 

,,            Width  at  A  in  illustration 

0  21 

Dorsal  fin,  basal  line 

0  leh 

,,           height  from  back     . 

0  15 

,,                „       to  point  of  fin 

0  iih 

Pectoral  fin,  greatest  length 

5    0 

,,             greatest  width 

0  13 

Blow-holes,  length  of  furrows,  each 

0  135 

Eyelids 

0     31 

Diameter  of  eyeball 

0     4]- 

Baleen,  longest  (without  bristles,  about  2  in.) 

0  22 

„         greatest  width  at  attachment  to  maxill 

a 

0     9 

„         length  of  whole  row,  each  side 

8     6 

The  general  colour  of  the  upper  portion,  the  dorsal  fin,  the  band 
of  the  lower  jaw  on  the  left  side  and  the  sides  of  this  Rorqual  were 
blackish-slate ;  and  the  under  part  white  nearly  to  the  tail.  The 
underside  of  the  pectoral  fins  and  flukes  were  white,  showing  also 
a  margin  of  white  on  the  upper  surface. 

The  baleen,  the  blades  of  which  numbered  about  350  on  each 
side,  are  delicate  slate-colour,  mottled  with  lighter  streaks,  with  the 
exception  of  about  two  feet  (part  of  the  row  measuring  8ft.  6in.)  in 
front  on  the  right  side  which  are  whitish  or  drab-white. 

It  is  a    well-known   fact  that  the  colour  of  the  skin  of  whales 


r.\i'iri<i:i)  ni'.ar   i;i.'i<niia.m.  127 

becomes  much  darker  after  death,  hut  in  this  specimen  I  have 
observed  a  feature  which  is  worth  recording  with  regard  to  the 
baleen  ;  that  the  dehcate  slate  colour  of  the  blades  which  I  have, 
became  much  darker  after  it  had  been  cut  off  and  become  dry. 

Some  interesting  particulars  as  to  the  great  variability  and  sizes 
of  the  Common  Rorcjual  are  given  by  Mr.  Cocks  in  ZooL,  1887, 
pp.  215-18/  and  1888,  pp.  205-6,  also  Zool.  1884,  p  456,  where  he 
says,  "  The  extremely  thin,  elongated,  or  seemingly-emaciated 
appearance  of  this  species  is  very  noticeable,  the  posterior  portion 
of  the  back  is  almost  sharp-edged,  c^uite  deserving  the  English  name, 
Razorback."  This  ill-conditioned  peculiarity  was  very  apparent  in 
the  Burnham  specimen. 

One  of  the  most  interesting  features  in  connection  with  this 
species  is  undoubtedly  the  asymmetry  in  colour  on  the  two  sides  of 
the  head,  which,  although  unnoticed  or  unrecorded  till  of  late  years, 
appears  to  be  a  constant  character,  and  of  specific  importance. 

This  was  first  noticed  by  Prof.  G.  O.  Sars  of  Christiana  Univer- 
sity in  descriptions  of  B.  timsculus  w^hich  appeared  in  "  Forhand  : 
Videns :  Selsk  :  Christiania,"  1878,  and  again  in  1880.  In  the 
latter  year  he  figures  a  specimen  taken  in  \'arangerfjord  Finmark, 
measuring  al)out  68  ft.  Engl.,  showing  on  the  left  side  the  upper 
jaw  and  the  band  of  the  lower  jaw  slate-black,  whilst  on  the  right 
side,  about  half  of  the  upper  jaw,  a  portion  of  the  baleen,  and  the 
lower  jaw  band  and  throat  are  white,  the  difference  in  colour  being 
very  clear  and  distinct  when  viewed  looking  down  upon  the  top  of 
the  head. 

This  want  of  symmetry  has  since  been  noticed  in  several  speci- 
mens ;  -  and  in  a  photograph  sent  me  (with  some  details)  of  a  female 
stranded  at  Sea  View,  Isle  of  Wight,  in  September,  1888,  which  was 
no  doubt  of  this  species,  though  never  absolutely  identified,  the 
same  difference  in  colour  is  clearly  shown. 

In  1884,  Prof.  G.  A.  Guldberg,  Conservator  of  the  Zootomical 
Museum  of  the  University  of  Christiania,  writing  "  on  the  existence 
of  a  fourth  species  of  Balcenoptera  "  {borealis)  (Bullet.  Acad.  Roy. 

1  On  page  215,  a  note  by  one  of  the  whalers,  Captain  Sorensen,  is  inserted,  mentioning  a 
kind  of  Rorqual  called  the  Herring  Whale  (j/V«/M-'a/l,  met  with  during  the  herring  fishing  on 
the  western  and  southern  co.xsis  of  N^orway.  He  says  it  is  most  like  the  Common  Rorqual,  but 
is  smaller,  50  to  55  feet,  with  the  dorsal  fin  somewhat  higher  and  more  pointed,  and  yields  less 
oil  He  suggests  this  may  be  the  southern  form.  From  the  description,  so  far  as  it  goes,  it 
seems  probable  that  the  Burnham  Whale  belonged  to  this  s-ariety. 

2  Notably  by  Prof.  Pouchet  in  1884,  one  with  the  right  side  white  (Comptes  rend.  .\cad.  Sc. 
Paris,  Fev.  1885);  by  k.  H.  Cocks,  1884,3  male  at  Vardo,  64^  ft.  long,  the  left  side  black  and 
the  right  side  white  (Zool.  .Ap.  1885,  p.  138):  and  by  the  same  author,  a  male  71  ft.  at  V'ardo, 
left  upper  and  lower  lip  jet  black,  right  lips  enamel  or  milk-white  (Zool.  1889,  p.  289). 


128  ON    A    FEMALE    SPECIMEN    OF    THE    COMMON    RORQUAL 

Beige,  Avril,  1884,  p.  365)  mentions  that  the  asymmetry  noted  by 
Prof.  Sars  in  B.  niusculiis  does  not  exist  in  B.  /wrea/is,  and  adds  in  a 
note,  "  Cette  couleur  l)lanche,  semi-laterale,  que  M.  le  Professeur 
G.  O.  Sars  a  deja  decrite,  n'est  pas  exclusivement  attachee  a  un  cote 
special,  mais  elle  varie  d'apres  les  observations  que  j'ai  faites."  I 
am  not  aware  of  his  having  published  any  fuller  information  on  this 
interesting  point. 

In  1886,  Prof  M.  G.  Pouchet  of  the  Paris  Museum,  in  a  very 
interesting  memoir  "  De  L'Asymetrie  de  la  Face  chez  les  Ceto- 
dontes,'""  dealing  chiefly  with  the  osteological  differences  in  toothed 
whales,  mentions  the  asymmetry  of  colour  in  B.  miisculus  recorded 
by  Sars  and  Guldberg  as  a  kind  of  pleuronectism,  and  adds  : — 

Si  cette  decoloration  existe  toujours  du  coi^  droit  comme  semble  I'indiquer 
Sars,  elle  constituerait  pour  les  Balrenides  une  sorte  de  caractere  abdominal^  de 
meme  que  la  deviation  de  I'^vent  des  Cetodontes  donne  chez  eux  au  cot^  gauche 
une  sorte  de  caractere  dorsal.  Un  lien  physiologique  semblerait  en  ce  cas  relier 
les  deux  particularit^s  auatomiques,  qui  Tune  et  I'autre  accuseraient  une  ten 
dance  au  pleuronectisme  du  meme  cot^." 

In  the  Burnham  specimen,  not  only  is  the  asymmetry  well 
marked,  but  a  curious  deviation  obtained.  On  the  right  side,  as 
may  be  seen  in  the  illustration,  a  portion  of  the  upper  maxilla  vary- 
ing from  I  to  7  inches,  about  2ft.  of  the  baleen,  and  a  curved  margin 
varying  from  5I  inches  on  the  band  of  the  lower  jaw,  being  white, 
whilst  below  this  the  throat  is  black,  which  colour  extends  in  an 
oblique  line  to  the  base  of  the  pectoral  flipper. 

Why  this  species  should  exhibit  such  a  remarkable  feature,  which 
appears  to  be  common  also  to  both  sexes  ;  and  of  what  particular 
use  it  can  be  to  the  animal  is  not  known,  nor  does  it  seem  possible 
at  present  to  advance  any  likely  reason  for  the  peculiarity. 

In  conclusion,  I  may  mention  that  the  flesh  was  used  for 
manurial  purposes  at  Southminster,  that  the  bones  are  now  being  pre- 
pared by  Mr.  E.  Gerrard,  of  Camden  Town,  for  the  owners,  and  the 
skeleton  will  probably  be  articulated  for  exhibition  at  Burnham. 

3  Prof.  Pouchet  very  kindly  sent  me  a  copy  of  this  rare  Memoir,  which  he  was  deputed  to 
write  and  publish  by  the  Nat.  Hist.  Mus.  of  Paris,  in  honour  of  the  professorial  jubilee  of  the 
veteran  cetologist,  Van  Beneden,  Professor  of  the  University  of  Louvain,  whose  works  on  the 
osteology  of  living  and  fossil  cetacea,  and  other  writings,  are  so  well  known  to  naturalists. 


Essex  Xalurii/ist,  \'ol.  \^ 


PLATE  IV 


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129 


THE    ESSEX    FIELD    CLUB. 

Mi'KTrNC,  rx  Higuam  I\\kk,  Hpping  Fokest,  and  123KI)  Okdinakv 

Meeting. 

Saturday,  March  2ist,  iSgr. 

A  Field  Meeting  was  held  this  afternoon  (previous  to  the  Ordinary  Meeting 
in  the  evening)  to  allow  of  an  inspection  of  the  portion  of  Highani  Park,  near 
Walthamstow  and  Woodford,  recently  added  to  the  Forest. 

The  members  assembled  at  Hale  End  Station  about  three  o'clock,  and  walked 
through  the  pretty  village  to  the  "  Driftwa}',"  as  the  green  lane  connecting  two 
portions  of  the  Forest  is  called.  The  fence  which  formerly  shut  off  the  woodland 
and  lake  of  Higham  Park  having  been  recently  removed,  the  whole  becomes  an 
integral  part  of  the  forest,  the  average  width  of  the  belt  of  land  being  150  yards. 

Mr.  E.  N.  Buxton  (V^erderer)  was  to  have  led  the  party,  but  a  letter  from  him 
was  read  expressing  regret  for  his  unavoidable  absence.  Mr.  Andrew  Johnston 
(Chairman  of  the  Essex  County  Council)  kindly  acted  as  cicerone^  and  gave  some 
account  of  how  the  purchase  of  the  woodland  and  lake  came  about.  Mr.  Johnston 
said  that  he  had  the  pleasure  on  the  17th  of  May  last,  at  a  meeting  in  the  Forest, 
of  making  the  first  public  announcement  to  the  Club  of  the  project  Mr.  Buxton 
entertained  about  this  addition  to  Epping  Forest,  a  project  which  he  thought 
they  would  all  say  had  been  most  satisfactorily  accomplished.  He  thought  they 
would  all  agree  with  him  that  to  Mr.  Buxton  belonged  the  credit  of  having,  with 
indomitable  resolution,  carried  the  scheme  through. 

[The  proceedings  in  connection  with  this  important  acquisition  were  alluded  to 
in  the  last  volume  of  the  ESSEX  N.\TUKALIST  (vol.  iv.  pp.  127  and  230)  and  the 
matter  forms  the  subject  of  a  separate  article  in  the  present  number.] 

At  the  entrance  to  the  Driftway,  Mr.  Johnston  pointed  out  the  ugly  elbow  of 
land  belonging  to  the  Walthamstow  Charity  Trustees,  which  abutted  into  the 
green  lane,  and  would  considerably  mar  its  beauty.  If  about  half  an  acre  of  this 
land  could  be  acquired,  it  would  be  possible  to  make  a  nice  bend,  and  Mr.  Buxton 
hoped  eventually  to  be  able  to  make  this  improvement. 

Mr.  W.  Cole  read,  from  the  "  Rolls  of  the  Court  of  Attachments  of  the  Royal 
Forest  of  Waltham,"  several  references  to  the  enclosure  of  the  "  Sale,"  showing 
that  the  land  recently  thrown  out  was  in  a  sense  a  restoration,  it  having  originally 
been  part  of  the  Forest  of  Waltham  {;inde  the  article  in  the  present  number). 

The  lake  and  woodland  having  been  inspected  and  much  admired  as  a  charm- 
ing and  useful  addition  to  the  Forest,  the  party  walked  by  Chingford  Lane,  skirting 
"  Hatch  Plain  "  and  the  "  Lops  "  to  Woodford  Green,  where,  at  the  kind  invitation 
of  Mr.  Johnston,  a  halt  was  made  at  the  "  Wilfrid  Lawson  "  Temperance  Hotel 
for  refreshment.  Then  the  ramble  was  continued  through  the  very  pretty  forest- 
land  to  the  west  of  Woodford,  over  "  Rushy  Plain  "  and  b}'  "Gilbert  Slade  "  in 
search  of  the  usual  "  high  tea,"  which  was  served  at  the  "  Eagle  Hotel,"  Snares- 
brook. 

In  the  evening  the  123rd  Ordinary  (and  Special)  Meeting  was  held  in  the 
Drummond  Room,  Wanstead,  Mr.  E.  A.  Fitch,  President,  in  the  chair. 

The  following  were  elected  members  of  the  Club  :  Messrs.  S.  T.  Taylor,  .M.B., 
Thomas  Tyrer,  F.C.S.,  F.I.C.,  and  Frederick  West,  C.C. 

I    ; 


I30 


THE    ESSEX    FIELD    CLUB. 


By  order  of  the  Council,  the  Meeting  was  made  Special,  and  Mr.  W.  Cole,  on 
behalf  of  Prof.  Meldola,  moved  the  following  resolution  :— 

"  That  Sir  Uemv  EnField  Roscoe,  D.C.L.,  F.R.S.,  M.P.,  &c.,  sometime  Pro- 
T^^TT  ',^,  u  •"  ^  *-""e?e'  Manchester,  be  elected  an  honorary  member  of  the  Essex 
•fu  .u  ^  u"  .'^«"f 'deration  of  the  services  rendered  to  the  Club  in  connection 
with  the  lechnical  Instruction  Scheme." 

This  proposal  was  carried  unanimously. 


Hicham  Pakk,  Epi'ing  Forest.     A  Woodland  Path. 


Mr.  Snell  exhibited  a  specimen  of  the  carnivorous  slug,  Testacella  sciitu/ittn,  of 
which  a  number  of  specimens  had  been  found  in  his  garden  at  Buckhurst  Hill. 


THE    ESSEX    FIELD    CLUli.  13I 

Mr.  C.  B.  Sworder  exhibited  a  sni:ill  collection  of  Mollusca  from  the 
neighbourhood  of  Epping. 

Some  photographs  were  then  thrown  upon  the  screen  by  Mr.  Wire,  consisting 
principally  of  views  taken  by  himself  during  the  last  year's  field  meetings,  views 
of  the  Higham  Park  from  drawings  by  Mr.  H.  A.  Cole,  and  some  copies  of  old 
prints  of  Essex  localities,  &c. 

The  President  then  called  upon  Mr.  Walter  Crouch,  F.Z.S.,  to  speak  on  the 
main  exhibits  of  the  evening,  consisting  of  a  goodly  number  of  specimens  from 
his  collection,  which  he  had  selected  in  illustration  of  the  characteristic  species 
of  a  few  important  groups  of  invertebrate  life,  and  showing  as  far  as  possible  the 
Foreign,  British  and  fossil  forms.  The  shells  of  the  Mollusca  were  arranged  in 
seven  large  cases,  with  larger  specimens  and  fossils  on  the  tables  ;  and  to  aid  in 
the  demonstration,  a  series  of  diagrams,  painted  by  himself,  were  hung  on  the 
walls. 

The  five  classes  into  which  the  Mollusca  are  now  divided  were  then  hastily 
reviewed. 

The  varied  forms  of  Cephalopoda,  including  the  Pearly  Nautilus  with  its  fossil 
allies  the  Ammonites — the  Cuttle  Fish,  Squids — one  of  which,  the  common 
Loljgo,  was  shown  in  spirit — and  fossil  Belemnites,  &c. — the  Octopus,  and  the 
Argonaut  with  the  delicate  fragile  "  shell  "  secreted  by  the  female,  which  is  but  a 
"  cradle  "  for  the  protection  of  the  young  fry,  were  duly  noted.  The  largest  of 
this  group,  of  which  a  diagram  was  shown,  is  the  Arc/iiteiit/iis,  which  has  often 
been  known  to  measure  sixty  feet  from  end  of  the  body  to  tip  of  the  long 
grasping  arms. 

The  small  glassy  shells  of  the  Pteropoda  or  "  butterflies  of  the  sea,"  were  then 
described — those  "winged"  forms  floating  always  on  or  just  below  the  surface  of 
the  ocean.  The  northern  species — some  of  which  are  shell-less — provide  food  for 
the  huge  Greenland  Whale.  One  of  the  larger  species,  a  fine  specimen  over 
2\  inches  in  length  {Cymbtdia peronii  ixova.  the  Mediterranean  Sea,  a  form  which 
has  no  shell),  was  exhibited,  well  preserved  in  spirit.  Many  of  this  class  exhibit 
phosphorescence  at  night. 

Then  the  small  division  of  Scaphopoda,  mud  and  sand  dwellers,  of  which  the 
little  ''elephant's  tusk"  shell,  so  commonly  cast  up  on  the  British  coast,  is  a 
well-known  example. 

The  extensive  class  of  Gastropoda  next  claimed  attention,  from  the  small 
land  shells  and  slugs  to  the  large  and  brightly-coloured  tropical  marine  species  ; 
and  the  growth  of  the  shell  from  the  "  capsule,"  in  which  the  eggs  are  laid,  up  to 
the  fully  grown  shell  of  nearly  two  feet  in  length,  was  shown  by  specimens  of  a 
large  Fusus prohoscidiferus  from  Dampier's  Archipelago. 

Special  notice  was  called  to  the  wonderful  variety,  in  shape,  colour,  and 
beautiful  patterns,  which  exists,  especially  in  tropical  shells.  The  spin}'  shells  of 
Murex,  the  brilliant  colouring  of  Vo/utrs,  Cones,  Mitras,  &c.,  the  enamel  of 
Cowries,  Olives,  and  Poached-egg  shells,  the  curious  "  keyhole  "  limpets,  the 
shells  used  for  cameo  cutting,  the  frail  glassy  shell  of  Carinaria,  and  such  aberrent 
forms  as  Chiton,  &c. 

A  large  Iriton  variegalus  was  shown,  and  the  mode  in  which  it  had  been  used 
as  a  trumpet  by  some  dusky  native  of  the  Eastern  Archipelago  to  strike  terror 
into  the  hearts  of  his  enemies  ;  and  also  a  drawing  of  the  same  shell  with  a  finely 
carved  Maori  mouthpiece,  now  in  the  Chelmsford  Museum. 

The  last  class,  Pelecypoda,  was  then  described,  the  shells  of  wiiich  consist  of 
two  valves  united  by  a  ligament,  and  generally  having  a  number  of  inter-locking 


132  THE    ESSEX    FIELD   CLUB. 

"  teeth."  The  common  cockle,  scallop,  oyster,  and  fresh  water  swan-mussel  being 
familiar  examples.  Tropical  species  occur  of  larger  size,  and  a  sketch  of  the  huge 
TriJacna  shell  from  the  Moluccas  was  shown  with  a  young  native  baby  taking  his 
bath  therein.  A  pair  of  these  shells  have  been  found  to  weigh  nearly  4  cwt., 
and  the  "dainty  "  mollusc  will  provide  a  "  square  meal  "  for  twenty  men. 

Amongst  these  bivalves  were  mentioned  the  thorny  forms  of  Spondylus  and 
cockles,  the  pearly  Trigonia,  the  Ark  shells,  the  brilliant  scallops  or  Pectens,  the 
window,  hammer,  and  pearl  oysters,  the  boring  forms  of  Pholas  and  Lithodomus, 
and  the  strange  BrechiUs,  those  dwellers  in  sand,  who  commence  life  in  a  little 
pearly  bivalve,  developing  subsequently  a  calcareous  tube  with  a  "  watering-pot  " 
top.  The  beautiful  colours  of  the  animal  of  Lima,  with  its  numerous  "  processes  " 
or  filaments,  were  shown  by  the  aid  of  a  large  drawing. 

Mr.  Crouch  then  touched  briefly  upon  the  polyps  which  form  the  stony  corals 
and  build  up  reefs,  the  Madrepores,  Galaxea,  Brain-coral,  &c.,  and  the  brightly- 
tinted  delicate  growths  of  the  Stylacter  and  Alcyonoid  corals  (which  were  exhibited 
in  two  cases),  such  as  the  organ-pipe,  red  coral,  and  the  sea  fans  or  Gorgonias,  of 
which  he  shewed  some  fine  and  large  specimens  from  Torres  Straits  and  the 
Bahamas,  and  a  large  specimen  of  the  branching  "black  coral"  Antipathes, 
^rom  the  Mediterranean  Sea. 

A  short  description  of  the  typical  forms  of  sea  urchins,  star  fish,  and  the  rare 
"  sea  lilies  "  (Crinoids)  brought  home  by  the  "  Challenger  Expedition,  1873-76  " 
then  followed,  illustrated  by  a  number  of  striking  typical  specimens. 

A  brief  note  on  Sponges  was  then  given,  and  some  large  and  rare  examples, 
chiefly  from  the  Bahamas,  were  shown  ;  one  case  containing  some  beautiful 
siliceous  sponges,  Hyalonema  sieboldii  or  glass  rope  sponge  ;  EuplectcUa 
aspergillum,  or  "  Venus'  flower-basket  "  and  some  lowlier  forms  from  the  English 
seas,  such  as  Grandad  Chalma,  and  the  boring  Clione. 

The  following  papers  were  read  : — "  Notes  on  the  Recent  Prolonged  Frost," 
by  J.  C.  Thresh,  D.Sc,  M.B.  (ante,  p.  64)  ;  "Vital  Statistics  of  the  County  of 
Essex,"  by  Dr.  Thresh  {ante,  p.  47)  ;  "  On  the  Range  of  the  Primrose  and 
the  Bardfield  Oxlip  in  North-Western  Essex,"  by  Mr.  J.  French  {ante,  p.  120). 
The  latter  paper  was  read  for  the  author  by  Mr.  Miller  Christy,  who  also  made 
some  remarks  upon  the  subject,  and  referred  to  his  paper  on  the  "  Genus  Primula 
in  Essex,"  in  the  "  Transactions  "  of  the  Club. 

A  short  discussion  on  Mr.  French's  paper  ensued,  in  which  Mr.  Fitch,  Mr. 
Christy,  Rev.  H.  C.  Howell,  and  others  took  part.  Mr.  Fitch  mentioned  that 
Mr.  G.  Alan  Lowndes,  in  a  letter  dated  May  1st,  1889,  stated  that  the  true  Oxlip 
grew  in  great  profusion  in  the  Park  Wood,  near  Barrington  Hall,  Hatfield 
Broad  Oak,  and  Mr.  Lowndes  confirmed  this  by  sending  specimens.  Mr.  Fitch 
also  stated  that  he  had  found  Primula  elatior  abundantly  in  Cobbler's  Grove, 
between  Stoke  and  Hundon,  and  that  it  was  common  in  a  pasture  called 
"  Wellum,"  in  front  of  Boyton  End  House,  Stoke-by- Clare.  These  observations 
extend  the  distribution  of  P.  elatior  N.  and  S.  of  the  lines  marked  on  Mr. 
Christy's  map  in  Trans.  E.F.C.,  iii.  p.  174. 

Votes  of  thanks  were  passed  to  the  exhibitors  and  the  authors  of  papers,  and 
the  meeting  terminated. 


CORRESPONDENCE. 

BOULDER-CLAY    IN     ESSEX, 

Sir, — Mr.  Monckton  regards  it  as  improbable  that  anyone  holds  that  an  ice- 
sheet  can  traverse  hills  of  fine  sand  without  denuding  them.  But  this  absurdity 
is  essential  to  his  assertion  of  an  East  Anglian  ice-sheet,  for  the  bedding  of  the 
Boulder-clay  is  conformable  to  that  of  the  finelj'-stratified  sands  on  which  it  often 
rests.  That  the  Glacial  Drift  of  Essex  consists  largely  (I  quite  deny  the  "  mainly  ") 
of  local  material  is  further  evidence  against  the  said  ice-sheet,  and  how  a  well- 
stratified  gravel,  such  as  is  exhibited  by  the  pit  Mr.  Monckton  refers  to,  can  be 
regarded  as  anything  like  a  moraine,  or  due  in  any  way  to  continuous  ice,  passes 
my  imagination.  If  Mr.  Monckton  goes  to  sections  in  Essex  with  a  mind  pre- 
judiced by  accounts  of  the  northern  drifts  (which  were  produced  by  confluent  ice) 
as  indicating  conditions  prevalent  throughout  West  Europe,  he  cannot  expect  to 
see  evidence  of  marine  action.  Fossil  evidence  may  be  dispensed  with  (in  the 
Thaxted  case,  the  shells  indicate  Crag,  in  place  or  nearly  so).  Stratification,  seen 
in  every  exposure  worth  calling  a  section,  settles  the  question  against  ice  as 
forming  the  East  Anglian  drifts,  though  their  material,  chiefly  of  Lincolnshire  and 
Midland  origin,  indicates  flotation  by  ice  from  those  regions,  in  which  there  is 
ample  evidence  of  the  action  of  coast  ice  as  a  powerful  engine  of  erosion,  when 
Essex  was  mainly  if  not  wholly  submerged. 

Of  the  authors  quoted,  no  one  who  knows  anything  of  the  first  values  his  con- 
tributions to  the  literature  of  the  subject,  and  I  wholly  dissent  from  the  conclu- 
sions drawn  from  the  facts  recorded  by  the  others. 

W.  H.  Dalton. 
Derby  Road,  S.    Woodford. 

Sir, — With  reference  to  the  letters  of  Messrs.  Dalton  and  Monckton  on  the 
above  subject  in  the  last  number  of  the  Essex  Naturalist  (ante,  p.  109),  may  I 
be  permitted  to  submit  some  original  observations,  which  although  limited  to  a 
small  area,  are  probablj'  typical  of  much  to  be  found  over  the  northern  half  of 
Essex. 

In  the  railway  cutting,  between  Braintree  and  Bulford  stations,  the  Boulder- 
Clay  lies  immediately  on  gravel  and  sands  of  "Westleton"  age.  The  line  of 
division  is  very  sharply  drawn.  There  is  no  disturbance  of  the  gravel  or  sand 
traceable  on  the  minutest  examination,  neither  has  either  deposit  entered  by  means 
of  a  "tongue  "  or  otherwise  into  the  domain  of  the  other.  The  inference  is  that 
the  deposition  of  Boulder-Clay  came  about  there  by  a  quiet  process,  and  not  under 
the  pressure  and  abrasion  of  land-ice. 

At  Blewitt's  pit,  one  mile  N.E.  of  Stebbing  village,  where  similar  deposits 
occur,  the  line  of  division  is  again  sharply  marked,  and  there  is  also  the  complete 
absence  of  any  disturbance  of  the  underlymg  bed.  In  the  railway  cutting,  one 
mile  west  of  Dunmow  Station,  the  same  beds  with  the  same  phenomenon  are  con- 
spicuous, and  in  Professor  Prestwich's  paper  on  the  "  Westleton  Beds  "  (Uuart. 
Journ.  Geol.  Soc.  vol.  xlvi.),  quoting  from  a  previous  paper  of  Mr.  Woodward's, 
he  says  "  the  line  between  the  undoubted  pebbly  gravels  and  the  overlying 
Glacial  Drift  is  generally  sharply  defined." 

Where  the  Boulder-Clay  rests  on  "  Middle  Glacial  Gravel,"  the  transition  is 
much  less  abrupt,  and  it  is  often  difficult  to  say  where  the  one  formation  leaves 


134  NOTES — ORKJINAL    AND    SELECTED. 

off  and  the  other  begins,  but  in  an  examination  of  Mid-Glacial  Gravel  extending 
over  some  years,  I  have  never  come  across  striated  stones,  whilst  these  are  very 
common  in  the  Boulder-Clay,  a  circumstance  also  implying  the  absence  of  an 
abrading  ice-sheet. 

In  Mr.  S.  V.  Wood's  paper  on  "The  Newer  Pliocene  Period  in  England," 
(Quart.  Journ.  Geol.  Soc.  vol.  xxxvi.  1880).  he  gives  several  illustrations  of  the 
quiet  deposition  of  Boulder-Clay  on  Mid-Glacial  Gravel,  and  on  pages  486  and 
487  of  the  volume  cited  the  following  passage  is  to  be  found  :  "  There  can,  I 
think,  be  no  question  that  these  instances  show  that  by  some  means  the  moraine 
of  which  the  clay  is  composed  was  introduced  tranquilly  over  a  sea-bottom  in 
which  sand  and  gravel  had  up  to  this  time  been  accumulating." 

J.  French. 
Fehtead^  June  \y/i,   1 891. 


NOTES— ORIGINAL    AND    SELECTED. 

Badger  at  Asheldham. — While  rabbit  shooting  the  other  day  over  the 
Asheldham  Hall  estate,  Mr.  J.  T.  Gale  and  party  unearthed  a  fine  badger.  It  is 
many  years  since  a  badger  was  caught  in  the  Dengie  Hundred. — "  Essex  County 
Chronicle,"  May  29'h,  1891. 

Another  Rorqual  in  the  Crouch  River — On  the  morning  of  the  7th 
April,  the  men  on  board  the  "Jumbo"  (s.)  saw  a  whale,  which  they  said  was 
about  fifty  feet  in  length,  almost  at  the  same  spot  where  the  one  was  captured  in 
February,  near  the  mouth  of  the  Roach.  Some  men  at  work  in  that  river  had 
heard  it  blowing  during  the  night.  It  was  subsequently  seen  distinctly  by  several 
persons  on  the  sands  at  the  mouth  of  the  Crouch,  and  is  said  to  have  been 
stranded,  but  when  the  tide  returned  it  made  a  successful  departure  from  this 
almost  inaccessible  position. — E.  A.  FiTCH,  Maldon. 

A  Swallov^r's  "  pendent  bed  and  procreant  cradle." — In  the  "  Essex 
Hsrald"  for  June  9th,  it  is  stated  that  a  pair  of  swallows  have  built  their  nest  on 
the  knot  of  a  rope  carried  from  one  rafter  to  another  in  a  workshop  in  the  village 
of  Blackmore.     The  nest  hangs  in  mid  air. 

Homing  Instinct  of  Hyk  arborea,  L. — Our  member,  Mr.  E.  N.  Buxton, 
writes  as  follows  to  the  "  Zoologist  "  for  June  : — "  Two  and  a-half  years  ago  I 
put  a  small  green  frog  {^Hyla  arborea)  that  my  daughter  brought  from  the 
South  of  France,  into  my  conservatory  here  ('  Knighton,'  Buckhurst  Hill).  In 
the  following  spring  he  began  to  croak,  and,  contriving  to  make  his  escape,  found 
his  way  to  the  pond  where  his  strident  voice  awoke  the  echoes  every  summer 
evening.  He  always  remained  about  the  same  spot,  which  was  about  three 
hundred  yards  from  the  conservatory.  Now  comes  the  extraordinary  part  of  his 
history.  When  the  winter  came  on,  he  found  his  way  back  to  the  conservatory. 
This  performance  he  repeated  last  year,  and  now  again  he  has  found  his  voice. 
That  so  small  a  creature  should  remember  where  he  had  been  comfortable  in 
winter,  and  find  his  way  back  to  the  conservatory  across  an  open  lawn,  seems  to 
me  very  extraordinary." 

Sea  Lamprey  in  the  Colne. — I  saw  lately  a  very  fine  specimen,  weighing 
about  four  pounds,  of  the  Sea   Lamprey  {Petromyzou  niarmus)  which  had  been 


NOTES —ORItHNAL    AND    SEI.KCTKO.  135 

captured  in  the  Colne,  at  the  Ilythe  in  this  town.  In  many  English  rivers 
the  capture  of  a  specimen  of  this  fish  would  not  be  remarkable  ;  but  here,  from 
its  rarity,  it  may  be  worth  a  notice.  It  was  brought  to  me  by  its  captor  to 
name,  as  he  said  he  could  find  no  one  at  the  Hythe  who  knew  anything  of 
this  strange  fish — a  sufficient  proof  that  it  is  very  uncommon  in  this  district. — 
Henry  Lavkk,  F.L.S.,  Colchester. 

A  Voracious  Eel. — On  Saturda}-,  May  23rd,  a  large  eel  was  caught  just 
outside  the  locks  at  Heybridge  Basin  by  Alfred  Clarke.  When  opened  it  had  no 
less  than  nine  perch  and  a  rat  in  its  stomach.  The  eel  itself  weighed  about  two- 
and-a-half  pounds. — John  Basham,  Maldon. 

Coleophora  vibicigerella  in  Essex. — Mr.  G.  W.  Bird  reports  in  the 
"  Entomological  Monthly  Magazine  "  for  June,  the  re-occurrence  of  this  insect. 
"  A  friend  and  myself  journeyed  down  to  the  Essex  Salt-marshes  on  April  27th,  with 
the  particular  intention  of  looking  for  hybernated  larvae  of  Geometra  smaragdaria. 
In  this,  however,  we  were  not  successful,  but,  oddly  enough,  the  very  first  plant 
of  Artemisia  examined  produced  the  Coleophora^  and  about  a  dozen  more  were 
found  wiihin  a  few  yards.  The  insect  is  exceedingly  local,  as  Mr.  Elisha  has 
previously  observed,  for  further  careful  search  during  the  day  proved  fruitless. 
.  .  .  .  On  the  Continent  this  species  is  reported  to  be  attached  to  Artemisia 
campestm  ;  possibly  a  careful  search  among  that  plant  might  produce  Coleophora 
vibicigerella  more  plentifully  than  we  have  it  at  present  from  A.  maritima." 

Essex  Earthworms. — An  Appeal. — The  Rev.  Hilderic  Friend,  F.L.S.j 
who  has  latel}-  so  successfully  studied  those  neglected,  but  exceedingly  interesting 
animals,  the  Earthworms  (^Terricolw^  and  allied  groups,  has  kindly  promised  his 
valuable  aid  in  identifying  our  Essex  species.  Mr.  Friend  writes: — "  I  have  now 
worked  at  the  worms  of  Devonshire,  Sussex,  Notts,  Yorkshire,  Cumberland,  and 
Westmoreland,  S.  Scotland,  and  other  parts  of  the  kingdom,  and  shall  be  dilighted 
to  add  Essex  to  my  list.  I  have  found  out  some  curious  facts  by  this  embracing 
method,  and  if  I  can  get  a  few  more  counties  worked  up  in  time,  I  propose 
submitting  a  report  to  the  British  Association  this  year.  Of  course,  I  must  have 
material.  So  far  as  I  am  aware,  there  is  no  record  of  Essex  worms  in  existence. 
If  you  know  of  any  references  I  shall  be  glad  to  incorporate  them  in  such  papers 
as  I  might  be  able  to  submit  to  )-ou.  Let  me  indicate  where  worms  may  be 
sought : — 

"(i.)  In  cultivated  ground,  gardens,  fields,  &c.  The  species  found  here  have 
usually  been  '  lumped '  under  the  aggregate  term  Limibricus  terreslris. 
They  need  careful  revision. 
"  (2.)  In  heaps  of  vegetable  mould,  old  manure,  refuse,  compost,  quitch,  and 
rubbish  heaps.  'Brandlings'  (Z.  olidus^  Hoff.),  'Gilt-tail'  worms,  &c., 
are  found  here. 
"(3.)   In  woods,  damp  spots  under  trees,  and  by  hedgerows  generally — these 

are  all  good  hunting  grounds. 
*'  (4.)  P^specially    by  streams   and   brooks   and    all    kinds  of  water,   fresh    or 
stagnant,  running  or  still,  the  stones,  tufts  of  grass,  each  to  a  depth  of  ten 
or  twelve  inches,  should  be  examined.     In  the  roots  of  grass,  the  '  Square- 
tail  worm  '  (^Allurus  tetrcvdriis,  Eisen)  is  mostly  found. 
"  (5.)  Under  droppings,  stones,  logs,  decaying  trees,  in  fields  and  neglected 

places,  &c. 
"  Put  the  worms  alive  and  uninjured  into  a  tin  box.     Wash  some  soft  moss, 


136  MORE    EPPINO    FOREST. 

scjueeze  it  prett}'  dr)-,  and  fill  the  tin  box  lightly  with  it,  putting  in  enough  to 
keep  the  worms  from  being  shaken  about  on  a  journey  through  the  post,  &c. 

"  My  sister  the  other  day — never  having  collected  worms  before — went  out 
and  got  me  ten  species,  within  a  mile  or  two  of  Bovey  Tracey.  What  might  not 
3'our  Field  Club  accomplish,  if  a  dozen  members  from  different  parts  of  the  county 
would  take  up  the  work  ?  " 

We  hope  to  publish  shortly  an  introductory  paper  on  the  study  of  the 
Oligochaeta,  by  Mr.  Friend.  Meanwhile  we  trust  that  members  will  assist  in  the 
attempt  to  work  out  the  Essex  species.  Mr.  Friend  says :  "  I  shall  be  glad  to 
receive  as  many  boxes  (packed  as  above)  from  your  members  as  they  like  to  send. 
I  cannot  return  them,  however,  unless  postage  is  enclosed.  In  the  end  I  could 
let  the  Museum  have  a  set  duly  labelled,  if  proper  bottles  were  provided." 
Address — Rev.  Hilderic  Friend,  F.L.S.,  "The  Grove,"  Idle,  Bradford,  Yorkshire. 
—En. 

Parasitic  Vorticellse. — On  Tuesday,  March  31st,  I  went  fishing  for  small 
objects  in  the  ponds  on  that  part  of  the  forest  at  the  back  of  Forest  House.  The 
chief  takings  were  numbers  of  Daphnia  and  Cyclops,  but  almost  all  were  covered 
with  a  species  of  the  Bell-Animalculae  (Vorticellce').  So  thick  did  these 
congregate  on  the  surface  of  their  hosts  that  swimming  was  quite  impeded, 
and  by  no  means  could  the  parasites  be  shaken  off. — Alfred  P.  Wire, 
Leytonstone, 

Uncommorr  Plants  at  Felstead. — In  the  interesting  "  Report  of  the 
Felstead  School  Natural  fiistory  Society  for  1890,"  just  issued,  are  the  following 
notes  on  the  plants  of  the  district  : — During  1890,  several  notable  additions  have 
been  made  to  our  local  flora,  chiefly  by  the  exertions  of  Mr.  W.  Moore,  of  Milch 
Hill,  Felstead;  to  him  and  to  Mr.  J.  French,  who  is  responsible  for  two  of  the 
plants  below,  our  thanks  are  greatly  due.  The  new  plants  added  are  : — 
Viburnum  lantana,  Hesperis  matronalis  (casual  in  a  field  of  Trifolium  incarnatuni), 
Apium  inundatiim,  Valerienella  olitoria,  Car  ex  axillaris,  C.  panicea,  Festuca  mvurus, 
Dianthus  (.?)  armeria.  1  he  following  of  our  rarer  plants  have  been  found  in 
fresh  places  : — Onithogalum  umbellatum,  Carex  pseudocyperus,  Genista  tinctoria, 
Ophrys  nmscifera,  0.  apifera,  Carlina  vulgaris,  Campanula  glomerata,  Melampyrum 
arvense.  Polygonum  bistorta,  Neottia  nidus-avis,  Paris  quadrifolia,  Potamogeton 
lucens,  Scirpus  sylvaticus.  Ranunculus  parviflorus,  Saxifraga  tridactyhtes,  Echium 
vulgar  eT 

Cooke's  "  Illustrations  of  British  Fungi." — We  called  attention  to  the 
completion  of  this  fine  work  last  year  (E.  N.,  iv.  p.  224).  It  was  emphatically  a 
labour  of  love  with  Dr.  Cooke,  and  we  are  very  sorry  to  hear  that  he  has  not  only 
received.no  reward  for  ten  3^ears'  persistent  work,  but  he  is  a  very  considerable 
loser  by  the  publication,  owing  to  the  small  number  of  subscribers.  Fifty  sets,  in 
parts,  still  remain,  and  it  is  suggested,  if  subscribers  can  be  obtained,  that  they 
should  be  issued  at  the  rate  of  two  parts  monthly,  at  the  original  subscription 
price  of  5s.  per  part,  thus  ensuring  its  complete  issue  in  three  years,  and  enabling 
Dr.  Cooke  to  recoup  part  of  his  actual  pecuniary  loss.  The  work  consists  of 
1,200  plates  (in  eight  volumes)  drawn  and  coloured  b)'  Dr.  Cooke,  representing 
1,400  species  of  the  gill-bearing  fungi,  or  Agaricini,  the  greater  number  never 
ha\ing  been  figured  before.  At  the  subscription  price  it  is  the  cheapest  work  o' 
the  kind  ever  issued  To  complete  the  Hymenomycetes  there  yet  remain  the 
species  of  Boletus,  Polyporus,  Hydmtm,  the  Thelephorei,  Tremella,  and  Clavaria, 
and   Dr.   Cooke  is   willing   to   issue   these   plates  in  four   volumes,  if  a  sufficient 


NOTES — OKI(;iNAL    AND    SRLKCTEl).  137 

number  of  subscribers  can   be  obtained   to   shield   liini    from   severe    loss.       We 
sincerel}-  hope  that  man)-  of  our  readers  will  become  subscribers  to  these  works. 

Essex  Water  Supply. — Dr.  Thresh  has  issued  in  pamphlet  form  a  very 
interesting  and  valuable  "Repoit  on  the  Water  Supplies  of  the  various  villages 
and  hamlets  in  the  Chelmsford  and  IVIaldon  Rural  Sanitary  Districts" 
(Chelmsford,  1891),  which  includes  details  of  analyses  of  over  four  hundred 
samples  of  water.  The  pamphlet  contains  matter  imt  only  of  value  to  the 
sanitarian,  but  also  to  geologists  and  ph3'sioeraphers.  In  view  of  the  growing 
importance  of  a  good  water  s.upply  in  Essex,  the  following  passage  is  alarming: 
"  Several  deep  wells,  which  formerly  yielded  an  abundance  of  water,  at  the 
present  time  only  furnish  a  limited  supply,  and  in  others  which  once  overflowed 
the  water  does  not  now  rise  to  the  surface.  Dr.  Downes,  writing  to  me  in 
reference  to  these  deep  wells,  says,  '  I  have  told  the  Essex  people  that  they  are 
drawing  upon  capital  in  regard  to  their  wells — drawing  from  the  lower  Tertiaries. 
I  think  so,  because — i,  the  gathering  surface  at  the  outcrop  is  small,  and  to  the 
north  steeply  graded  ;  2,  the  number  of  bored  wells  has  greatly  increased  ;  3, 
the  level  of  the  water  is  falhng.'  " 


MORE  EPPING  FOREST. 

TX  the  Essex  Naturalist  for  1889  (vol.  iii.  pp.  57-60)  we  had 
the  satisfaction  of  recording  the  inclusion  of  Oak  Hill  enclo- 
sure into  the  "  green  lands  "  of  the  map  of  Epping  Forest,  and  now 
it  is  our  pleasant  task  to  chronicle  a  yet  more  important  addition  to 
this  grand  open  space.  On  Saturday,  June  6th,  1891,  a  strip 
of  about  30  acres  in  extent,  part  of  Higham  Park,  \\'altham- 
stow,  was  ceremoniously  made  free  land,  and  many  of  those  who 
have  taken  an  active  interest  in  the  forest  had  the  pleasure  in  joining 
in  the  hearty  cheers  which  greeted  H.R.H.  the  Ranger's  announce- 
ment— "  I  now  declare  this  newly  acquired  land  and  water  to  be 
part  and  parcel  of  Epping  Forest,  and  to  be  dedicated  to  the  use 
and  enjoyment  of  the  public  for  ever." 

Seldom  has  an  important  public  improvement  been  carried  out 
with  greater  rapidity  and  success  than  this  last  addition  to  our  great 
Esse.x  woodland.  It  was  only  on  May  17th,  1890,  at  a  meeting  of 
the  Essex  Field  Club,  held  under  the  shade  of  the  trees  at  Ambresbury 
Banks,  that  Mr.  Andrew  Johnston  made  the  first  public  announce- 
ment of  the  proposals  of  Mr.  E.  N.  Buxton  and  Sir  T.  Fowell 
Buxton  with  regard  to  this  matter,  and  by  the  middle  of  December 
in  the  same  year  the  matter  had  been  practically  settled.  We  may 
refer  our  readers  to  Mr.  Johnston's  speech  on  the  occasion  alluded 


138 


MORE    EPPINO    FOREST. 


to,  printed  in  the  Essex  Naturalist  (vol.  iv.  p.  127).  A  meeting 
was  called  at  the  "  Wilfrid  Law.son  "  on  Thursday  evening,  June  5th, 
1890,  "  to  take  the  necessary  steps  to  secure  a  portion  of  Higham 
Park,  including  the  ornamental  water,  as  an  addition  to  the  Forest.'' 


The  Ching  Bkook  in  Higham  Park'. 


The  chair  was  taken  by  Mr.  A.  Johnston,  and  he  and  Mr.  E.  N. 
Luxton  explained  the  main  principles  and  advantages  of  the  scheme. 
As  the  open  lands   then   existed,  the  wayfarer  travelling  from  Ching- 


MORE    EPI'I.\(;    I'OREST.  I39 

ford  Hatch  to  Walthanistow,  and  striving  to  keep  within  the  bounds 
of  the  forest,  had  to  traverse  a  narrow  strip  of  land,  known  as  the 
"Driftway"  or  "Sale."  This  way  skirted  Higham  Park,  and  was 
partly  margined  by  the  the  Ching  Brook.  Mr.  Buxton's  proposal 
was  to  extend  this  avenue  to  an  average  width  of  150  yards,  by 
acquiring  the  timbered  wilderness  of  the  western  side  of  the  park,  and 
also  the  fine  lake,  so  as  to  secure  some  water  views,  a  kind  of  scenery 
sadly  lacking  in  the  forest.  The  whole  quantity  of  land  proposed  to 
be  acquired  was  estimated  at  27I  acres.  An  independent  valuation  of 
^6,000  had  been  made,  for  which  sum  Mr.  Courtney  Warner  was 
willing  to  part  with  so  much  of  his  park.  If  ^3,000  could  be  raised 
locally,  Mr.  Buxton  was  hopeful  that  an  equal  sum  would  be 
contributed  by  the  Corporation  of  London  from  the  Capital  Fund 
under  the  Epping  Forest  Act,  1878.  Towards  the  local  contribu- 
tion Mr.  Buxton,  Sir  T.  Fowell  Buxton  and  a  relative,  generously 
offered  ;^i,8oo.  A  resolution  in  flivour  of  the  scheme,  proposed  by 
Mr.  W.  Cole,  and  seconded  by  Mr.  Batey,  was  unanimously  carried. 
A  Local  Committee,  with  Mr.  Buxton  as  chairman,  and  Mr.  W. 
Cole  as  hon.  secretary,  was  also  formed,  to  make  the  proposal 
widely  known,  and  to  solicit  subscriptions  towards  the  funds  required. 
At  public  meetings  called  by  the  Local  Boards  of  Walthanistow  and 
Woodford  grants  from  the  rates  of  ^500  and  ^250  respectively 
were  voted,  and  in  response  to  the  request  of  a  deputation  which 
waited  upon  the  Common  Council  on  the  25th  of  September,  the 
Corporation  resolved  to  grant  the  ^3,000  required.  The  Drapers' 
Company  contributed  ^210,  Mr.  Warner  ^100,  the  Commoners' 
Compensation  Fund  ^100,  and  the  balance  was  made  up  by  smaller 
contributions. 

The  quantity  of  land  proposed  to  be  acquired  under  the  original 
scheme  was,  as  above  stated,  27I  acres.  During  the  course  of  the 
negotiations  carried  on  by  the  City  Solicitor,  this  was  increased  by 
three  acres,  and  the  exact  measurement  of  the  land  and  water  added 
to  the  forest  is  30  a.  2  r.  39  p.  The  shady  avenues,  and  the  lake 
with  its  tributary  stream,  the  Ching,  are  exceedingly  picturesque,  and 
the  whole  forms  a  most  valuable  addition  to  the  open  lands  of  the 
forest.  The  evidences  of  human  handiwork  proper  to  a  park 
combine  charmingly  with  the  natural  luxuriance  of  a  piece  of 
primitive  woodland,  the  tract  having  been  at  one  time  forest  land,  or 
was  at  least  land  subject  to  the  forestal  rights  of  the  king.  This  is 
evident  from  the  following  facts  : — 


MOKK    KIM'lNd    FOkRSr.  I4I 

In  the  "Rolls  of  the  Court  of  Attachments'"  there  are  several 
entiies  of  leave  having  been  given  from  time  to  time  to  cut  the  wood 
in  the  "  Sale."  For  instance,  in  the  records  of  a  Court  held  on 
November  19th,  1720,  it  was 

"  Ordered  that  Wm.  Row,  Esq'",  have  leave  to  fell  a  Grove  called  the  Sale 
in  Waltlianistow  Walk  at  3  several!  falls,  it  appearing  to  be  of  full  growth 
cont.  80  acres." 

And  on  the  3rd  July,  1786,  is  recorded  the  following  protest 
against  the  attempted  enclosure  of  this  wood  : — 

"  At  this  Court  Sir  James  Tylney  Long  Bart.  Lord  Warden  presented  two  letters 
the  one  wrote  b^-Himself  to  Governor  Hornby  owner  of  the  Wood  called  the  Sale 
in  the  Forest  of  Waltham  concerning  His  beginning  to  enclose  the  same  & 
Govr.  Hornby's  ansr.  to  the  same  ;  which  being  read  to  the  Court,  The  Court 
are  of  opinion  that  it  is  necessary  for  the  preservation  of  the  Forest  that  the  Wood 
call'd  the  Sale  cannot  lawfully  be  enclosed." 

And  again  on  30th  July,  1787,  "  Bamber  Gascoyne,  John  Con- 
yer,  and  Eliab  Harvey,  Esq'"'*-  Verdurors,"  report : 

"  We  have  viewed  the  Wood  called  the  Sale  in  the  Parish  of  Walthamstow 
and  part  of  the  said  Forest  of  Waltham  at  the  request  of  William  Hornby  Esq"' 
Proprietor  of  the  said  Wood  called  the  Sale.  And  we  do  declare  that  if  the  said 
Wood  is  inclosed  by  Pale  as  now  begun  and  intended  to  be  carried  on  by  the  said 
William  Hornby  Esq"--  that  the  same  will  be  injurious  to  the  rights  of  the  Forest 
and  the  Ruin  and  Destruction  of  the  Red  and  Fallow  Deer  of  the  s"*  Forest  - 
and  thereby  that  part  of  the  Forest  called  the  Walthamstow  Walk  will  be  as  dis- 
afforested and  we  do  not  think  that  the  present  Proprietor  or  those  from  whom  he 
claims  has  or  had  any  Right  by  Pale  to  inclose  the  same.  And  we  do  also  present 
that  there  ancientl}- were  one  or  more  Roads  and  Ridings  through  the  said  Wood 
called  the  Sale  which  have  lately  been  and  are  still  shut  up  and  that  the  same 
ought  to  be  opened." 

Action  seems  to  have  been  taken  at  this  Court  to  abate  the  enclo- 
sure, for  it  is  recorded  : — "  Note  the  Failing  taken  down  and  the  com- 
munication bet"  the  Wood  called  the  Sale  and  the  other  part  of 
the  Forest  opened."  In  spite  of  these  presentments,  "  Wm.  Hornby 
Esq"""  persevered  in  his  attempts  to  enclose  the  Sale,  and  on 
19th  May,  1788,  there  is  another  record: — 

"John  Laver  Underkeeper  of  Walthamstow  Walk  presents  William  Hornby 


1  "The  Rolls  of  the  Court  of  Attachment  of  the  Royal  Forest  of  Waltham  in  the  County  of 
of  Essex,  from  the  31st  October,  1713,  to  the  6th  December,  1848,"  printed  by  order  of  the 
Epping  Forest  Commissioners,  1783.  The  Court  of  Attachments,  anciently  the  Woodmote, 
whatever  may  have  been  its  original  nature  and  jurisdiction,  was  held  under  the  Charter  of  the 
Forest,  which  directed  that  the  foresters  and  verderers  should  meet  every  forty  days  to  see  the 
attachments  of  the  forest,  both  for  "  greenhue  and  hunting"  by  presentments  of  the  foresters. 
There  are  no  early  records  of  this  Court  in  the  Forest  of  Waltham,  although  they  appear  to 
have  been  duly  kept.  There  are  a  few  of  the  time  of  Elizabeth  in  the  British  Museum.  In 
the  reigns  of  James  I.  and  Elizabeth  the  Court  was  held  at  Chigwell,  and  in  1713  and  afterwards 
its  sittings  were  always  "  apud  le  King's  Head  in  Chigwell." 

2  Licences  to  enclose  lands  on  the  forest  were  only  granted,  as  a  genera!  rule,  on  the  under- 
standing that  the  ditch  or  hedge  should  be  low  enough  to  allow  a  doe  with  her  fawn  easily  to  sur- 
mount it,  certainly  not  more  than  about  four  feet  high. 


MOKK    KPI'IXG    KORKST.  I43 

Esq  for  inclosing  and  stubbing  up  part  of  the  Sale  adjoining  to  his  P^ields  also 
for  securing  or  making  up  the  remainder  of  the  fence  round  the  cover  called  the 
Sale  so  as  to  prevent  the  Deer  passing  the  said  cover." 

Notwithstanding  the  efforts  of  the  verderers  to  enforce  the  law 
and  prevent  these  encroachments  on  the  open  forest,  money  or  Court 
influence  appears  to  have  prevailed,  and  at  a  Court  held  on  July  24th, 
1797,  a  licence  was  entered  on  the  Rolls  to  permit  John  Harman,  of 
Higham,  in  the  parish  of  Walthamstow,  to  enclose  the  Sale,  but  not 
so  as  to  prevent  the  deer  leaping  over  the  fences,  and  with  no  rights 
of  building  on  the  enclosed  lands.  The  record  is  interesting,  because 
it  shows  that  the  lake  forming  part  of  the  recent  purchase  is  in  reality 
the  Ching  stream,  artificially  widened  out,  and  also  that  the  acquired 
land  is,  in  a  sense,  a  restoration,  it  having  been  formerly  land  under 
forestal  rights.  The  record  also  determines  the  date  of  the  forma- 
tion of  the  ''  Driftway  "  : 

The  Licence  gives  power  to  John  Harman,  as  Lord  of  the  Manor  of  Higham 
Hills  or  Higham  Benstead,  "to  enclose  and  continue  enclosed  a  piece  of  Ground 
at  the  North  Corner  of  the  said  Wood  called  Little  Sale  Wood  containing  about 
si.xty  yards  and  no  more  one  way  and  fift}'  yards  and  no  more  the  other  wa)' lying 
adjoining  to  and  at  the  Head  of  a  piece  of  Water  made  by  the  said  John  Harman 
by  widening  an  Old  Brooke  at  or  on  the  West  side  of  his  Lands  called  Hill  Mead 
and  Flatt  Mead  for  the  purpose  of  planting  only  .  .  .  (provided  that  no  Cottage  or 
other  Erection  or  Building  was  erected  or  built  thereon  or  anj-part  thereof).  And 
to  make  put  or  place  down  a  Ditch  or  other  sunken  Fence  in  the  long  slip  of 
Ground  situate  on  the  West  side  of  the  said  piece  of  Water  such  Ditch  or 
sunken  Fence  to  run  parallel  and  coextensive  with  the  said  piece  of  Water  on  the 
West  or  outward  side  thereof  leaving  a  passage  on  the  outside  of  such  fence  One 
Hundred  feet  in  width  at  the  least  for  the  Deer  and  all  persons  having  right 
thereto  to  pass  and  repass  through  the  said  long  slip  of  land.  .  ,  (Provided  that 
such  last  mentioned  Fence  was  not  made  or  constructed  so  as  to  hinder  his 
Majesty's  Deer  from  passing  and  repassing  to  and  from  the  said  piece  of  Water 
and  to  the  said  lands  adjoining  thereto  called  the  Hill  Mead  and  Flat  Mead  on 
the  East  side  thereof  in  such  manner  as  they  were  before  the  granting  the  said 
Licence  by  Law  entitled  to  do  but  no  farther  or  otherwise  or  was  in  any  other 
manner  to  the  hindrance  or  prejudice  of  such  Deer)."  The  Licence  contained 
other  clauses  sanctioning  further  enclosures,  but  always  providing  that  "  his 
Majesty's  Vert  and  \'^enison  of  the  said  Forest  received  no  prejudice  by  the  said 
enclosures."  [To  the  Licence  there  were  attached  plans  showing  the  extent  of  the 
enclosures  ;  it  would  be  very  interesting  to  examine  these,  if  now  in  existence]. 

The  Rolls  contain  no  further  reference  to  the  Sale,  and  we  can- 
not therefore  tell  when  the  Lord  of  the  Manor  assumed  full  rights 
over  the  property,  but  it  must  have  been  some  time  between  1848 
and  the  sittings  of  the  Epping  Forest  Commission. 

The  dedication  of  the  land  and  water  by  the  Duke  of  Connaught 
(as  Ranger  of  the  forest),  was  made  the  occasion  of  a  festival  by  the 


^, 


^^€? 


-5^  ^ 


THE  LOCAL  (ESSEX)  MUSEUM- Co^ifu/ueil. 

Il  cannot  be  too  cmplialically  stated  or  too  well  known  that  the 
institution  is  for  the  benefit  of  the  whole  county,  and  not  exclusively 
for  that  of  Chelmsford  or  any  particular  district.  It  must,  of  course, 
have  a  home,  and  the  proposed  buildings  are  to  be  erected  at 
Chelmsford  simply  because  Chelmsford  is  a  convenient  centre  at 
and  from  which  the  important  educational  work  that  is  contemplated 
can  be  best  carried  out.  Express  care  has  been  taken  in  the 
amalgamation  scheme  to  guard  against  the  county  town  having  a 
])aramount  or  more  than  fair  share  in  the  management.  The  insti- 
tution is  to  be  essentially  and  really  a  county  one,  and  it  is  designed 
for  the  assistance  of  every  student,  whether  a  member  of  the  Club  or 
not,  desirous  of  improving  himself  in  natural  knowledge,  and  in 
contributing  to  the  general  well-being  of  Essex.  The  total  amount 
of  capital  required  for  the  Museum  scheme  is  ^^4,000,  and  the 
estimated  annual  expenditure  is  ;^4oo.  Active  work  can  be  com- 
menced in  the  temporary  premises  when  one-fourth  of  the  required 
capital  has  been  obtained. 

The  Council  appeals  strongly  to  the  public  spirit  of  the  inhabi- 
tants of  Essex,  and  generally  to  all  those  interested  in  science  and 
in  its  practical  ap[)lications,  to  give  the  financial  support  necessary  to 
launch  and  to  maintain  the  Museum,  and  to  help  forward  the  useful 
and  interesting  work  which  will  grow  up  around  it. 

The  property  of  the  Club  will  be  placed  under  the  care  of  the 
following  Trustees  : — 

The  Right  Hon.  Lord  Rayleigh,  D.L.,  D.C.L.,  LL.D.,  F.R.S.  ; 
Lord  Brooke,  M.P.  ;  Sir  T.  Fowell  Buxton,  Bart.,  D.L.,  F.R.G.S. ; 
The  ^'en.  the  Archdeacon  of  Essex  ;  W.  M.  Tufnell,  Esq.,  J. P., 
D.L;  Professor  Meldola,  F.R.S.,  F.R.A.S.,  F.C.S.  ;  and  0.  P. 
Hope,  Esq.,  M.A. 

Copies  of  Appeal  and  pamphlet  of  papers  relating  to  the  pro- 
posal may  be  had  from  the  //o/i.  Secretaries,  Mr.  ^\'.  Cole,  Buck- 
hurst  Hill,  Essex,  and  Mr.  E.  Durr.\nt,  go,  High  Street,  Chelms- 
ford, who  will  be  glad  to  give  further  information  to  en(iuirers. 

Subscriptions  either  to  the  C.-vpital  Fund,  or  promises  of 
annual  donations  to  the  Maintenance  Fund,  may  be  sent  to 
Messrs.  Sparrow,  Tufnell  &  Co.,  Bankers,  Chelmsford,  or  to  the 
National  Bank,  Old  Broad  Street,  London,  or  to  the  Treasurer  of 
the  Club,  Mr.  .■\.  Lockyer,  Mornington  Lodge,  Wanstead,  Essex. 


A     SELECTION     FROM     MESJR5. 

Edmund  Durrant  &  Co.'s  List  of  Publications. 


The    Ancient    Sepulchral    Monuments    of    Essex.        By 

FiiEi).  Chancellor,  F.R.I. B. A.    Imp.  410,  cloih,  illu-trated,  ^"4  4^.  nett. 

Poems.  By  Alice  E.  Argent.  With  an  Introduction  by  the 
Right  Rev.  Bishop  CLAaoHTON.    Crn.  8vo,  cloth,  3^.  6d.  nett,  post  free. 

Durrant's  Handbook  for  Essex.    A  Guide  to  all  the  Principal 

Objects  of  Interest  in  each  Parish  in  the  County.  By  MlLLER  CHRISTY, 
F.L.S.     With  Map,  2s.  6'/.  nett,  post  free. 

"  One  of  the  very  best  Guide  Books  in  existence." — Ez'ening  Ne2us. 

The  Birds  of  Essex.     A  Contribution  to  the  Natural  History  of 

the  County,  ^^"ith  numerous  Illustrations,  two  Plans,  and  one  Plate  (form- 
ino;  Vol.  II.  S,)ecial  Memoirs  of  Essex  Field  Club).  By  MiLLEK  CHRISTY. 
Dem}'  8vo,  scarlet  cloth,  i^s.  nett,  post  free. 

A  History  of  Felsted  School.      With  some   Account  of  the 

Founder  and  his  Descendants.  By  JOHN  Sargeaunt,  M.A.  Illustrated, 
nett  4?. 

The    Trade    Signs    of   Essex.       A    Popular   Account   of  the 

Origin  and  Meaning  of  the  Public  House  and  other  Signs,  now  or 
forniiily  found  in  the  County  of  Essex.  With  Illustrations.  By  MiLLER 
Christy.     Demy  8vo,  cloth,  "js.  6,/.  nett. 

Daily  Rays  of  Light  for  Sick  and  Weary  Ones.     Compiled 

by  Edith  L.  Wells,  with  a  Preface  by  the  Rev.  Prebendary  HUTTO.N. 
Crown  Svo,  cloth,  65. 

The  Limits  of  Ritual  in  the  Church  of  England.     By  Rev. 

R.  E.  Baktlett,  M..A.,  late  Fellow  and  Tutor  Trinity  College,  Oxford  ; 
Bampton  Lecturer,  1888.  Reprinted  by  permission  from  Contemporary 
Review.     Price  3(/.,  by  post   35^/.  ;  2s.  gd.  per  dozen,  post  free. 

Homespun  Yarns.  By  Edwin  Coller.  Crown  Svo,  cloth,  y.  6d. 
Royal  Illustrated  History  of  Eastern  England.     By  A.  D. 

Bayne.     With  many  Illustrations.     Two  vols.,  large  Svo,  cloth,  155. 

Domesday  Book  relating  to  Essex.  Translated  by  the  late 
T.  C.  Chisenhale-Marsh.  4to,  cloth,  21s,  nett.  Only  a  few  copies 
unsold. 

John  Noakes  and  Mary  Styles.     A  Poem  in  the  Essex  Dialect. 

By  the    late   CHARLES   Clark,  of    Totham   Hall.       With    a    Glossary   and 

Portrait,  i^.  nett. 

The  History  of  Rochford  Hundred,  Essex.  Vol.  I.,  15^^.  6d. ; 
Vol.  II.,  iSj-.  nett.     By  PHILIP  Benton. 

A    First    Catechism    of    Botany.     By   John   Cii!p,s.     Second 

Edition,  i2mo,  boards,  6d. 

The  Symmetry  of  Flowers.    By  John  Gibes.    iSmo,  sewed,  4^. 
Forms  and  Services  used  in  the  Diocese  of  St.  Alban's. 

Published  by  authority.     Lists  on  application. 


EDMUND  DURRANT  &  CO.,  Publishers,  90,  High  St.,  Chelmsford. 


ANNUAL  SUBSCRIPTION-Members,  4s.  6d. ;  Non-Members,  9s.    Post  Free. 

N0.7,V0L.V.l  Price,  9d.  [JULY,  1891. 

The 

Essex  Naturalist: 


r.F.IXG    THK 


JOURNAL 

OF    THE 

ESSEX    FIELD    CLUB, 


EDITED    nV 

WILLIAM     COLE, 

Honorary  Secretarv, 


(f  on  tents 

More  Eppirig  Forest.     (Concluded}        145 

A  Day  on  the  Crouch  River.     }'.y  Edwakd  A.   Fncii,   I.L.S .     145 

The  Lepidoptera  of  Leyton  and    Neighbourhood  ;    a    Contribution    to    the    County 

Fauna.     l!y  Prof.   k.   Mki.doi.a,   F.R.S 15? 


The  authors  alvne  are  rr<:poiisi/i/e  for  thi'  sla'etiienls  and  tpiuiovs  a  n.'aiiied  w  their 

respective  papers. 


PUBLISHF.n    BY    THE    CLUB,    BL'CKlirRST    HILL,    F.SSF.X. 
E.   DLRRANT   &   CO.,   90,    HIGH    STRHHT,   CHELMSFORD. 

F.nt.  St.itioners'  ITall.] 


CoM.Mr.NIC.ATIONS  ffW  AdvektISEMENTS  should  be  addressed  : — 

The  Editor  of  "THE    ESSEX    N.ATl'RALIST," 

7,  Kiiigluon  \'ill;i=,  Buckluiisi   Hill,  Essex. 


THE    LOCAL    (ESSEX)    MUSEUM, 
LIBRARY,  AND  LABORATORY. 


The  attention  of  Members  of  the  Essex  Field  Club,  and  of  all  those 
interested  in  the  practical  study  of  Natural  Science,  and  its  applica- 
tions in  industries,  and  as  a  means  of  general  education,  is  earnestly 
called  to  the  Statement  and  Appeal  for  Funds  for  the  establish- 
ment of  the  Museum  now  being  circulated  by  the  Council. 

The  scheme  has  long  been  under  consideration,  and  it  has  been 
fully  explained  at  meetings  of  the  Club  and  in  the  Essex 
Naturalist.     Its  principal  features  are  as  follows  : — ■ 

With  the  object  of  establishing  at  Chelmsford  (chosen  as  being 
the  County  Town,  and  also  as  a  central  position  in  Essex)  a  Local 
and  Educational  Museum,  the  club  has  agreed  to  amalgamate  with 
the  Essex  and  Chelmsford  Museum,  under  the  title  of  "  The  Essex 
Field  Club,"  conditionally  on  the  sum  necessary  for  founding  the 
new  Museum  being  raised.     The  main  objects  in  view  are  : — 

(a)  The  formation  of  authentic  collections  to  illustrate  the  Geology,  Miner- 
alogy, Botany,  Zoology,  Ethnology,  Pre-historic  Archseology  and 
Technology,  &c.,  of  ESSEX  and  the  adjacent  sea  and  rivers, 
together  with  an  educational  series  of  specimens  and  preparations  to 
be  employed  for  illustrative  and  teaching  purposes.  Specimens  that 
are  not  of  Essex  origin  will  be  admitted  so  far  only  as  they  serve  to 
demonstrate  the  structure  and  relationship  of  the  local  types. 

(/>)  The  formation  of  a  Local  and  Scientific  Library,  to  include  (in  addition 
to  standard  scientific  works),  topographical,  antiquarian,  and  other 
books,  manuscripts,  maps,  parliamentary  and  official  papers,  pictures, 
prints,  &c.,  which  in  any  way  relate  to  the  county  of  Essex. 

(c)  The  establishment  of  a  Laboratosy  and  Class-rooms,  with  fittings, 
apparatus,  and  instruments  suitable  for  the  preparation  of  specimens 
for  the  Museum,  and  for  the  practical  study  and  teaching  (either  in 
the  Museum  or  in  selected  local  stations  throughout  the  county)  of 
the  subjects  named  in  paragraph  (a),  and  for  promoting  their  practi- 
cal application  in  Agriculture,  Forestry,  Arboriculture,  Gardening, 
Fisheries,  Manufactures,  Industries,  and  general  education.  Ti.e 
laboratory,  class-rooms,  instruments.  &c.,  will  be  under  the  control 
of  the  Council,  who  may  permit  students,  investigators,  and  others  to 
use  them,  and  may  also  lend  instruments  and  preparations  out  of  the 
Museum  buildings  for  purposes  in  furtherance  of  the  above  objects. 

\_Contimted  on  page  3  0/  Wrapper. 


A    DAY    ON    THE    CROUCH    RIVKR.  145 

Epping  Forest  Committee  of  the  Corporation  of  London  on  June  6lh, 
as  before  mentioned.  The  ceremony  took  place  in  a  marquee  by  tlie 
western  side  of  the  lake,  and  many  of  the  company  were  afterwards 
entertained  at  luncheon  at  the  Royal  Forest  Hotel.  The  speakers 
all  testified  to  the  value  and  beauty  of  the  acquisition,  and  to  its 
im[)ortance  as  connecting  two  parts  of  the  forest  before  almost 
severed.  The  thanks  of  all  true  foresters  are  again  due  in  the 
highest  degree  to  the  two  verderers  who  have  so  often  shown  their 
real  interest  in  the  forest  in  a  practical  way.  There  are  many  other 
desirable  additions  which  might  be  made  to  the  forest,  and  we  hope 
that  the  exaniple  of  the  Buxton  family  will  be  largely  followed  by 
those  able  to  thus  benefit  present  and  future  generations. 

AVe  print  a  few  views  of  Higham  Park,  from  original  drawings, 
by  Mr.  H.  A.  Cole,  which  were  prepared  for  publication  in  the  news- 
papers during  the  negotiations,  in  order  to  aid  the  movement  by 
demonstrating  the  beauty  of  the  proposed  acquisition.  Other 
sketches  by  Mr.  Cole  will  be  found  in  the  "  Illustrated  Sporting  and 
Dramatic  News  "  for  July  21st,  1890. 


A    DAY    ON    THE    CROUCH    RIVER. 

By  EDWARD  A.  FITCH,  F.L.S.,  F.E.S. 
[Read  Fc/'iKury  zSth,  iSgi.\ 

A  FTER  the  meeting  at  Upminster  last  year,  Mr.  Crouch  returned 
"^^  with  metoMaldon.  Early  on  the  Monday  morning  (July  28th) 
we  proceeded  to  Burnham,  a  dull  threatening  morning  breaking  out 
into  a  finer  and  warmer  day  than  it  promised. 

Close  by  the  railway  station  on  the  grass  of  both  sides  of  the 
approach  we  found  Heiix  virgata  abundant,  large  and  well  marked 
varieties  occurred  and  one  prettily  variegated.  AV'e  so  began  a  good 
day's  work. 

At  Burnham  we  went  on  board  Mr.  John  Roger's  yacht  "  Fame," 
he  and  his  son  being  with  us,  and  we  had  a  most  pleasant  day,  the 
trawl  and  one  dredge  being  kept  constantly  at  work.  These  brought 
\\\)  some  most  interesting  material  and  I  have  thought  that  a  short 
account  of  our  finds,  as  far  as  we  were  able  to  recognise  them,  might 
be  interesting  to  our  members. 

To  conimence  with   the  Crustacea.     We   found    one  Nyinphon 

K 


146  A    DAY    ON    THE    CROUCH    RIVLR. 

gracile  crawling  over  a  large  mass  of  "  ross  "  {Serjyi/lce).  This  inter- 
esting and  extraordinary  looking  little  Sea-spider  forms  the  subject  of 
chapter  xxvii.  of  Gosse's  "  Tenby."  With  his  usual  felicity  of  expres- 
sion, Mr.  Gosse  refers  to  it  as  "  Mr.  Nobody,"  and  comparing  its  tiny 
cephalothorax  with  its  eight  long,  many-jointed,  strongly-hooked, 
sprawling  legs,  it  certainly  seems  to  have  no  body.  Another  of  these 
curious  Pycnogonids  occurred  in  a  male  specimen  of  Fyctiogotmm 
littorale.  A  much  more  compact  looking  creature  than  Nymphon 
and  with  its  four  eyes  on  a  swelling  on  the  first  segment.  According 
to  Prof.  E.  Forbes,  this  is  a  true  whale-louse.  Do  coming  events  cast 
their  shadows,  or  their  parasites,  before  them  ? 

Several  specimens  of  the  roughly  triangular-shaped  Pisa  tetraodon 
were  brought  up,  all  so  covered  with  mud,  in  their  short  hairs,  in 
which  Algae  and  Zoophytes  were  growing,  that  they  had  almost  lost 
their  individuality.  Indeed,  when  pointed  out  to  our  two  practical 
dredgermen,  they  declared  they  had  never  seen  this  crab  before, 
although  I  have  no  reason  to  believe  but  that  it  is  fairly  common. 
They  knew  the  Common,  Spider  and  Flying-crab  well.  Specimens  of 
all  were  obtained.  Carcinus  in«nas  (the  Common  Shore  Crab)  was, 
of  course,  in  great  abundance  :  this  pest  appears  to  increase  as  the 
eels  decrease.  The  Spider-crab  {Hyas  araneus)  was  not  common, 
but  very  variable  in  size  and  general  appearance.  Possibly  some 
were  H.  coarctatus,  but  I  have  no  specimens  now  to  examine.  Two 
or  three  "  Flying-crabs,"  as  they  are  called  here  (more  generally 
known  as  "  Swimming-crabs,"  Portuniis  depurator)  were  captured,  all 
in  the  trawl.  Their  presence  in  the  bucket  was  frequently  impressed 
upon  us  by  a  sharp  nip  on  the  fingers ;  these  active  and  pretty  but 
pugnacious  little  fellows  are  exceedingly  fond  of  giving  one  a  nip,  and 
they  do  it  effectually. 

Many  of  the  pretty  little  red-brown  Pea-crabs  {Pinnotheres pisuni) 
were  found,  some  hiding  amongst  the  irregular  Serpulidoe  and  others 
in  the  Cliona-hox&di  shells  of  oysters  and  mussels,  the  former  for 
preference.  I  only  brought  home  one  male  and  certainly  the  females 
were  much  the  more  common,  these  were  all  well  loaded  with  the 
bright  orange  ova,  very  inconveniently  so,  I  should  think.  So  also 
were  many  of  the  exceedingly  abundant  Carcinus  fna'nas. 

Hermit-crabs,  locally  "  Farmers  "  {Enpagurus  hernhai-dus)  were 
as  usual  a  common  inhabitant  of  the  A\''helk  (yBuccinuni)  shells.  I 
found  one  in  a  Natica  shell,  which  may  belong  to  a  different  species 
{P.  hvvis  ?).     When   these  creatures  are   frightened  and  they  have 


A    DAY    ON    THE    CROUCH    RIVER.  I47 

thorouglily  withdrawn  themselves  with  a  snap  into  the  shell,  it  is 
quite  impossible  to  extract  them  by  force,  but  a  gentle  tapping  on 
the  apex  of  the  \Vhelk-shell  with  the  cull-tack  or  a  knife  blade  will 
soon  cause  them  to  tumble  out.  When  put  in  a  bucket  with  two  or 
three  empty  shells,  it  is  interesting  to  note  how  speedily  they  provide 
themselves  with  a  new  house.  There  are  other,  but  less  humane, 
methods  of  dislodging  the  Pagurus  from  its  home. 

A  fine  Lobster  had  been  taken  in  the  river  the  day  before  our 
visit,  but  such  grand  Crustaceans  did  not  fall  to  our  luck. 

A  large  Rhizostoma  brought  up  in  the  trawl  was  put  into  a  bucket 
of  clear  water,  and  this  was  soon  filled  by  dozens  of  the  very  active 
Hyperea  latreillii,  shooting  about  in  all  directions  near  the  top  of  the 
water.  Their  large,  elongate,  bright  apple-green  eyes  were  especially 
noticeable.  These  little  Crustacea  were  parasitic  within  the  pellucid 
gelatinous  substance  of  the  Medusa,  especially  between  the  peduncle 
and  the  umbrella-like  disk.  I  also  found  its  tick-like  larva  (figured 
in  Gosse's  "Naturalist's  Rambles  on  the  Devonshire  Coast,"  pi.  xxii. 
fig.  15).  Those  I  brought  home  were  much  larger  than  his  grain  of- 
sand-sized  specimens. 

Many  Shrimps  and  Sandhoppers,  or  "  Skipjacks,''  were  captured, 
but  I  am  not  sufficiently  acquainted  with  them  to  attempt  to  give  a 
list  of  the  species.  Idotea  emargitiata  was  in  the  greatest  abundance, 
and  we  took  several  Crangon  vulgaris  (Common  Shrimp)  alive. 
Oysters,  mussel-shells  and  stones  were  covered  with  the  Acorn  Bar- 
nacle {Balanus porcatus)  locally  known  as  "  chitters." 

Of  the  Actinaria  or  Sea-anemones  we  only  found  two  spe- 
cies. The  Beadlet  {Actinia  mesembryanthemum)  was  abundant, 
but  all  of  the  liver-brown  variety.  In  one  of  the  bottles  you  will  see 
three  Daisies  {Sagartia  bellis). 

The  day  was  not  hot  enough  for  us  to  see  many  of  the  common 
jelly-fish  {Aurelia  aurita),  near  the  surface  of  the  water,  as  was  the 
case  in  the  Blackwater  on  September  15th,  1888,  (Essex  Nat.  ii.  247), 
when 

"  Thick  as  blanc-mange  the  jelly-fish  clung  to  the  sluggish  keel." 

Many,  however,  were  noticed,  and  on  one  or  two  hauls  the  trawl 
was  so  filled  with  "  blubber  "  that  care  had  to  be  exercised  to  avoid 
breaking  the  net,  and  when  the  cord  was  untied  the  deck  was  covered 
with  the  jelly-like  substance.  A  few  of  these  common  jelly-fish  were 
pale  purple  in  colour,  far  the  larger  majority  being  white,  but  none 


148  A    DAY    ON    THK    CROUCH     RIVER. 

were  so  brilliantly  deep  purple  as  I  had  seen  them  in  the  Ijlackwater 
in  the  spring.  Several  of  the  larger  stinging  Cyancea  capillata  were 
noticed,  and  the  slippery  crystal  globes  of  Cydippe  pomiformis  were 
not  uncommon. 

Six  species  of  Echinodermata  were  found.  The  Common  Sand- 
star  {Ophiog/ypha  ciliata)  in  great  abundance,  many  hundreds  in 
some  hauls,  the  writhing  and  squirming  of  so  many  flexible  arms 
presenting  a  curious  spectacle.  The  Lesser  Sand-star  ((9.  albidd)  also 
occurred  with  it,  but  it  was  much  scarcer.  Within  certain  limits  the 
disks  of  these  two  species  varied  much  in  colour.  The  Common 
Brittle-star  Ophiothrix petitaphyUutn,  Penn.  {rosula,  Link),  was  by  no 
means  common,  only  two  or  three  specimens  being  noticed.  The 
Five-finger  { Uraster  rubens)  was  far  too  abundant  in  our  host's  eyes  ; 
in  one  haul  of  the  dredge  as  many  as  seventy-five  were  brought  in, 
all  young  and  violet  coloured  ;  they  turn  orange  and  red  later.  One 
violet  coloured  fellow  might  have  been  Uraster  violacea,  if  that  species 
be  really  distinct  from  U.  rubens;  it  was  the  only  large  violet  one  caught 
during  the  day.  The  "Five-finger"  is  a  great  oyster  enemy,  sucking 
out  the  animal  and  leaving  only  "a  clock  "  behind.  The  voracious 
Sun-star  {Solnsfer  papposa),  was  not  common,  but  all  were  very 
bright  in  colour  ;  specimens  with  eleven,  twelve  and  thirteen  rays 
were  brought  home.  The  only  Sea-urchin  met  with  was  the  purple- 
tipped  species  {^Echinus  ?iu7iaris),  and  this  occurred  commonly — 
again  too  commonly — from  the  size  of  a  sixpence  to  that  of  a  five- 
shilling  piece  (Forbes  says  it  attains  if  inch  sometimes). 

The  "  ross  "  already  spoken  of  consists  of  the  crowded  tubes  of  a 
Serpula,  I  believe  Filograna  implexa,  and  all  that  were  noticed  as 
"live,"  i.e.,  containing  the  living  worms,  was  well  crushed  under  foot. 
Neplitys'M'xiS.  Nereis  were  common  amongst  the  "rubbish  "  or  "stuff," 
but  the  only  other  Annelid  that  calls  for  mention  was  a  living  speci- 
men of  Pectinaria  l>elgica,  dredged  on  the  sandy  bottom  off  Holly- 
well.  The  smooth,  sandy  conical  tube  was  a  large  one,  and  the  beau- 
tiful orange  comb  (branchial  cilia)  of  the  enclosed  worm,  which 
Gosse  says  "seems  to  be  made  of  burnished  gold,"  was  soon  shown 
busy  at  work  when  the  worm  was  placed  in  a  small  bottle  of  sea- 
water.  Mr.  Crouch  was  on  the  look-out  for  tubes  of  TerebellidiC  or 
Sabella,  as  likely  to  contain  minute  shells,  but  none  turned  up. 

Several  Polyzoa  were  noticed,  but  they  were  not  well  known  to 
us.  Dead  Lepralice  were  very  common  on  the  shells  of  oysters,  mus- 
sels, whelks,  the  carapaces  of  the  various  crab.s,  and  on  Laminaria 


A    DAY    ON    THK    CUOUCH    RIVLR.  I49 

and  other  seaweeds.  Specific  (letermination  in  this  puzzling  genus 
was  not  attempted.  One  of  tlie  hard  Esckar-r  was  noticed,  and  some 
fine  pieces  of  "  Lemon-weed '' or  "Sea-mat"  {^Flustra  foliacea  and 
the  more  delicate  F.  papyrncea),  were  brought  up.  These  animal 
colonies  being  flat  and  frond-like,  are  invariably  taken  for  sea-weeds 
by  the  61  ttuXXoi,  but  the  use  of  a  lens  soon  dispels  this  idea  and 
shows  the  numerous  closely-clustered  cells,  each  inhabited  by  its  own 
Polypide.  Gosse  calculated  that  in  F.  foliacea  there  were  13,440  cells 
to  the  square  inch.  For  figure,  see  his  "Tenby,"  pi.  x.  Although 
here  called  "  Lemon-weed,"  the  scent  is  little  like  that  of  a  lemon, 
but  more  resembles  verbena  or  pine-apple.  Alcyonidiiim  gelatinosum^ 
somewhat  resembling  sticks  of  barley-sugar,  occurred,  but  in  nothing 
like  the  abundance  we  found  it  in  the  Orwell  (E.  N.  iv.  170). 
Membranipora  pilosa  was  common,  matting  together  several  Sea- 
weeds {Algcp)  and  Sertularians. 

The  somewhat  repulsive  looking  Ascidians  or  sea-squirts,  whose 
local  name  need  not  be  given,  were  in  the  greatest  abundance.  They 
bear  considerable  resemblance  to  oriental  and  ancient  wine-skins, 
whence  their  scientific  name.  They  were  mostly  the  common 
Ascidia  virginea  and  were  of  all  sizes  and  forms  consistent  with  the 
species,  and  were  attached  to  everything  in  the  shape  of  a  stone  or 
shell,  often  in  bunches.  Alolgida  ociilata  was  found  sparingly 
towards  the  mouth  of  the  river  opposite  Hollywell,  looking  like  little 
bullets  of  sand  ;  they  were  quite  indistinguishable  until  they  were 
touched.  'I'he  currant-squirter,  Cynthia  {Styela)  grossularta,  looking 
like  a  small  pink  or  brick-red  sea-anemone  when  closed,  was 
particularly  abundant  on  the  shells  of  the  oyster.  It  is  locally 
termed  "pock"  ;  when  squeezed  these  smell  much  like  cucumber. 
The  life-history  of  these  Ascidians  or  Tunicata  affords  an  excellent 
example  of  ancestral  degeneration  ;  they  all  have  a  free-swimming 
fish-like  larva. 

Now  coming  to  the  MoUusca.  We  found  Pholas  Candida^  alive, 
boring  into  chalk  nodules  that  were  dredged  up.  These  had 
probably  been  used  originally  to  face  the  sea-walls,  some  of  the 
lumps  had  been  completely  riddled  by  this  animal.  The  soft, 
wet  chalk  was  easily  split  or  cut  through  with  the  cull-tack  and  so 
the  thin  and  extremely  brittle  shell  could  be  easily  obtained 
perfect ;  many  living  specimens  were  found.     One  or  two  dead  and 

I  When  at  Hurnham  on  14th  P'ebri:ary  last,  Mr.  Crouch  got  a  fine  living  specimen  of  Pholas 
cris/>ata.^  Shell  3  inches  long  by  ij  inches  broad.  The  animal  with  syphons  measured  almoit 
exactly  six  inches. 


150  A    DAY    ON    THE    CROUCH    RIVER. 

broken  shells  of  P.  dactylus  occurred  as  well  as  those  of  Sohn 
fnarginatus.  Thracia  papyracea  was  noticed,  but  the  specimen  is 
now  lost.  Many  living  specimens  of  the  pretty  little  Nticula  nucleus 
were  found  amongst  the  "stuff"  dredged  up.  Fhiline  aperta  occurr&d 
rather  commonly,  but  was  unrecognised  at  first ;  it  greatly  resembled 
a  small  piece  of  cooked  fat,  or  was  like  the  figure  of  Lccmargus 
muricatus  in  Gosse's  "  Manual  of  Marine  Zoology  "  (vol.  i.,  fig.  203). 
About  half  a  dozen  Dentalium  etitalis  were  brought  up  in  two  hauls 
of  the  trawl  towards  the  mouth  of  the  river,  off  the  sand.  Chito7is 
were  numerous  and  Mr.  Crouch  took  many  specimens  to  examine  at 
leisure. 

Several  living  Trochus  cinerarius  were  brought  up,  but  only  one 
Nassa  reticulata ;  and  the  small  Pleurotoma  rufa  occurred  sparingly. 
A  few  good  specimens  of  Natica  monilifera  were  also  collected.  A\' e 
had  one  haul  at  the  dredge  over  the  "  trail "  and  got  as  many 
mussels  [Mytilus  edulis),  mostly  small,  as  could  be  hauled  aboard, 
but  nothing  else.  All  day  we  did  not  get  enough  whelks  {Buccinum) 
for  a  "  cook,"  nor  did  we  see  a  single  "  Winkle  "  {Littorind).  The 
Whelk-tingles  {Purpura  lapillus)  or  Dog-whelks  were  in  evidence, 
but  not  in  the  same  pretty  variety  as  is  the  case  on  a  rocky  coast, 
such  as  at  Hastings,  Deal,  or  Devonshire.  These  carnivorous  molluscs, 
being  a  great  and  deadly  enemy  of  the  oyster,  by  boring  through 
the  shell  into  the  oyster's  heart,  were  soon  crushed  by  the 
practical  men,  as  were  one  or  two  nests  of  their  yellow  horn  or  urn- 
like eggs  attached  to  stones.  Several  sponge-like  masses  of  the 
egg-capsules  of  Buccinum  were  brought  up.  For  an  interesting  paper 
on  these  curious  objects,  see  Dr.  J.  E.  Gray.  "  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  "  (2), 
i.,  247.  Ostrea  edulis  of  course  occurred,  also  two  specimens  of 
Tapes pu lias tra,  and  one  dead  shell  of  Tellina  balthica. 

Of  the  interesting  Nudibranchs  or  "  Sea-slugs,"  four  species  were 
recognised.  Doris  pilosa  was  common,  often  as  niany  as  half-a- 
dozen  were  brought  up  at  one  haul  of  the  dredge,  with  two  or  three 
pieces  of  gelatinous  spawn  resembling  a  loosely-rolled  frill  of  sandy 
ribbon.  We  found  three  specimens  of  the  curious  Doto  coronaia, 
which  we  at  once  christened  the  "prickly-pear  slug,"  as  that  fruit 
was  almost  exactly  represented  in  miniature  by  the  dorsal  papilla;  of 
the  slug  both  in  colour  as  well  as  form.  These  papillae  are  not  only 
branchiae  or  "gill-plumes  "  as  in  the  fine  and  beautiful  Dendronotus 
and  others,  but  in  Doto  they  contain  an  important  part  of  the 
digestive  system  ;    nearly  the  whole  of  the   liver  is  carried  on  the 


A    DAY    ON    THK   CROUCH    RIVER.  151 

slug's  back.  One  brilliant  specimen  of  the  bright  purple  Eolis 
ccronnfa,  and  another  dark  reddish-brown  species  of  Eolis  (either 
Eo/is  conciitfia,  Alder  and  Hancock,  pi.  24,  or  a  new  species) 
occurred,  but  these  slugs  are  difficult  to  preserve,  even  to  make 
subsequent  indentification  possible.  Doris  can  be  kept  well,  Doto 
fairly  well,  though  it  loses  its  bright  colours,  but  attempts  to  preserve 
Eolis  are  quite  failures.  These  slugs  are  handsome  and  conspicuous 
objects  when  separated  from  their  surroundings,  but  amongst  the 
various  living  Zoophytes  and  Algce  their  protective  resemblance  is 
remarkable  and  they  are  by  no  means  easily  recognised  amongst  the 
varied  contents  of  the  dredge  or  trawl. 

Corallines  or  Zoophytes  were,  of  course,  abundant,  but  we  were 
neither  of  us  specialists  enough  to  recognise  many.  Hydractinia 
echinata  was  common  on  the  shells  of  Purpura  iapillus,  living  and 
beautiful ;  much  interest  was  shown  in  two  specimens  we  bottled. 
The  presence  of  a  fine  "  root  "  of  Tubularia  indivisa  in  a  jar,  with 
its  rich  bouquet  of  delicate,  but  brilliant,  white-plumed  scarlet  flowers, 
was  also  a  great  surprise  to  our  crew.  This  Tubularia  occurred 
many  times  in  the  deeper  water  near  the  mouth  of  the  river,  as  did 
also  a  brilliant  orange  species,  almost  equally  beautiful,  but  whose 
name  we  did  not  know.  Sertularians  were  abundant,  but  all  we 
recognised  with  certainty  were,  Serhilaria  pumila,  S.  alnetiua,  S. 
Jilicula,  S.  argentea,  and  Hydrallmannia  falcata  on  S.  pumila. 
Among  the  Escharids  Cellnlaria  avicularia  and  Eschara  foliacea 
appeared  to  be  common. 

Of  the  sponges,  several  fine  pieces  of  Chalina  oculata  were 
noticed,  and  both  Grantia  ciliata  and  G.  compressa  occurred, 
attached  mostly  to  the  larger  Sertularians.  The  "  Crumb-of-bread 
Sponge  "  {Halichoudria  panicea)  was  not  uncommon.  Oyster  shells, 
bored  by  Clione  cclata,  were  seen  in  thousands. 

\\'hile  we  were  examining  the  "rubbish,"  the  crew  and  the 
Messrs.  Rogers  were  busy  with  the  oyster  spat,  of  which  several  were 
found,  varying  from  the  size  of  a  pin's  head  to  that  of  a  shirt-button. 
Often  three  or  four  were  found  on  a  shell,  thus  giving  promise  of 
a  good  fall  of  spat ;  a  promise  which  has  been  fulfilled,  for  probably 
there  was  a  larger  spat  in  our  Essex  rivers  last  year  than  in  any  since 
1 88 1,  but  it  came  late.  I  heard  of  as  many  as  forty  being  counted 
on  a  single  sh^U  from  the  Blackwater  this  year,  varying  from  the  size 
of  a  pin's  point  to  a  split  pea  ;  sixteen  and  seventeen  on  a  shell  were 
not   unusual    in    1S81.     This   is   rather  a  shock  to  Mr.  Frank  Buck- 


152  A    DAY    ON    THE    CROUCH    RIVEK. 

land's  famous  "heat  and  trarKjuillity  "'  formula.  Let  us  hope  this 
valuable  spat  will  not  be  killed  in  the  winter,  as  was  the  case  in 
1880.2 

Of  fish  we  found  Flounder  (one),  Plaice  (common),  Dal)  (com- 
mon), Sole  (several),  Dogfish  (one,  certainly  a  young  Galeus  milgaris). 
Bullhead  {Agojius cafaphraetus,  several),  Fatherlasher  {Cotiiis  scorpius 
and  C.  bubalis,  common  as  usual),  and  several  young  Thornbacks 
i^Raia  elavatd).  The  young  Tope  had  been  feeding,  apparently 
freely,  on  crabs  and  shrimps  It  was  differentiated  from  the  picked 
Dogfish  by  the  fishermen  through  its  rough  coat.  They  showed  us  how 
to  scrub  the  decks  with  the  skin,  and  it  certainly  did  it  very  well. 

On  November  8th,  I  had  another  day's  trawling  at  Burnham,  but 
which,  from  a  fisherman's  point  of  view — my  object  then — was  not  a 
very  satisfactory  one.  We  took  one  Eel-pout  {Zoarces  viviparus\  one 
of  our  few  viviparous  fish.  After  it  had  been  dead  some  time,  I  took 
from  it  fifty-five  young,  all  very  lively.  Four  of  that  little  purplish 
wriggler,  the  Diminutive  Lumpv-sucker  {Liparis  montagiii)  and  one 
Sea-Snail  {Liparis  vulgaris),  besides  tlie  usual,  but  a  poor,  catch  of 
"Bull-routs"  (local  name  for  the  Fatherlashers,  Cotius),  Dabs, 
Flounders,  and  Plaice.  One  Bull-rout  contained  a  Whiting  as  long 
as  itself,  and  several  contained  two  crabs,  besides  sundry  shrimps  and 
prawns.  I  believe  they  are  fully  as  voracious  as  they  look,  and  that 
is  saying  a  good  deal. 

In  my  previous  notes  I  ought  to  have  said  that  during  the  day 
(July  28th)  we  landed  on  Fowlness  for  the  purpose  of  inspecting  the 
Shell-bank  already  referred  to  in  the  Essex  Naturalist  (ii.  268,  and 
iii.  39),  and  found  that  certainly  the  bulk  of  the  schram  consisted  of 
Cockle-shells,  but  some  few  other  species  were  present ;  all,  of  course, 
dead  and  broken.  This  Shell-bank,  probably  an  old  Sea-beach,  may 
be  easily  traced  from  Sales  Point,  Bradwell,  at  the  mouth  of  the 
Blackwater,  to  Shelford  Creek,  between  Fowlness  and  New  England 
islands.  Besides  these  places  it  gives  the  name  to  many  farms,  as 
Old  and  New  Mountsales  (  =  the  shelly  mound),  the  How  (=the 
hole),  and  to  many  fields. 

Here,  on  Fowlness,  the  sea  lavender  {Staiice)  was  in  the  greatest 
abundance  and  just  in  full  bloom — a  lovely  sight. 

I  do  not  think  anything  further  remains  so  be  recorded  of  a  very 
pleasant  and  by  no  means  unprofitable  day's  work. 

2  Unfortunately  this  has  happened;  the  destruction  of  oyster-brood  during  the  late  se\ere 
weather  has  been  enormous. 


153 


THE  LEPIDOPTERA  OF   LEYTON    AND    NEIGH- 
BOURHOOD;   A    CONTRIBUTION    TO    THE 
COUNTY    FAUNA. 

I?y  Prof.   R.   MKLDOLA,   P'.Ti.S.,  &c.,  Vice-President  Entomological  Society. 

npHE  publication  of  the  first  instalment  of  Mr.  Fitch's  paper  (a/?/^, 
-'■  pp.  74-108)  has  induced  me  to  place  upon  record  my  own 
experience  as  a  collector  in  the  above  district.  Any  interest  which 
these  records  may  possess  is  perhaps  more  of  a  personal  than  of  a 
scientific  character,  since  they  relate,  for  the  most  part,  to  a  period 
of  about  twenty  years  ago,  when,  as  a  novice,  I  first  took  up  the 
fascinating  pursuit  of  butterfly  and  moth  collecting  with  all  the 
enthusiasm  of  youth.  The  district  referred  to  in  these  notes  was 
comprised  by  the  garden  attached  to  No.  8,  Park  Place,  Leyton, 
with  the  neighbouring  parts  of  Epping  Forest,  more  especially  the 
glades  about  "  Rushey  Plain  "  and  "Gilbert's  Slade,"  although 
excursions  were  also  frequently  made  to  the  more  remote  parts  of 
the  Forest.  Commencing  in  the  autumn  of  the  hot  and  dry  season 
of  1868,  the  various  methods  of  collecting  by  netting  on  the  wing, 
sugaring,  searching  Cowers  at  night,  attracting  by  light,  breeding 
from  larvre,  (S:c.,  were  carried  on  without  intermission  on  every 
favourable  day  and  evening,  till  we  left  the  locality  in  1870.  After 
this,  collecting  was  still  carried  on  in  the  district,  but  not  so  con- 
tinuously. Fairly  complete  notes  of  captures  from  1869  to  1874 
have  been  kept,  and  most  of  the  specimens  are  still  in  my  collection 
in  as  good  a  state  of  preservation  as  when  taken  off  the  setting- 
boards  twenty  years  ago.  From  these  notes  and  specimens  the 
present  list  has  been  drawn  up.  As  the  locality  at  Leyton  where 
these  captures  were  made  is  now  being  rapidly  covered  with  build- 
ings, it  has  appeared  to  me  of  sufficient  interest  to  publish  the  present 
list,  both  as  a  contribution  to  the  County  fauna  and  as  a  record  of 
the  Lepidopterous  population  of  a  suburb  which  was  at  the  time  rural, 
but  which  is  now  being  gradually  absorbed  into  the  metropolis. 
Fortunately  from  the  naturalists'  point  of  view,  however,  Leyton  stiil 
is,  and  always  must  be,  cut  off  from  London  to  the  north  by  the  Lea 
valley  and  the  low-lying  marsh  and  meadow  lands  bordering  that 
river. 

In  the  list  now  given,  it  must  be  understood  that,  unless  sjjecially 


154         THE    LEPIDOPTERA    OF    LEVTON    AND    NEIGHBOURHOOD, 

Stated,  the  record  refers  to  the  garden  at  Leyton.  All  the  species 
entered  have  been  taken  by  myself  unless  otherwise  stated.  To 
make  the  list  as  complete  as  possilile,  I  have  included  many  species 
which  I  have  never  taken  in  the  district  myself,  but  which  I  have 
seen  others  take,  or  which  are  known  to  me  on  good  authority  to  be 
inhabitants  of  the  locality.  Any  omissions  will,  I  hope,  be  supplied 
by  others  who  have  worked  in  the  same  neighbourhood  ;  one  of  my 
reasons  in  publishing  the  list  as  it  stands  being  the  hope  that  it 
will  serve  as  a  basis  for  other  collectors  to  work  upon  and  to  enlarge, 
especially  with  respect  to  the  smaller  moths  (Tortrices  and  Tineina), 
which,  at  the  period  referred  to,  I  did  not  know  enough  about  to 
attempt  to  name. 

RHOPALOCERA. 

All  the  commoner  species  were  taken  in  the  garden  and  neigh- 
bourhood, and  need  only  be  briefly  referred  to  here  : — 

Pieridae.  Gonepteryx  rhamni  was  fairly  common  in  the 
autumn  and  spring  ;  but  never  so  abundant  as  I  have  seen  it  in  the 
southern  counties  (Kent,  Sussex,  and  Surrey).  Of  Colias  edusa,  I 
saw  one  specimen  flying  over  Leyton  Green  on  October  9th,  1869. 
Pieris  brasskcs,  rapce  and  napi  were  always  common.  Euchlo'e 
cardamines  was  occasionally  taken  in  the  garden,  but  more  commonly 
in  the  lanes  between  Walthamstow  and  Chingford. 

Nymphalidae.  Vanessa  cardui  was  rare  as  a  garden  insect.  I 
did  not  see  more  than  two  or  three  at  Leyton,  the  only  Essex 
specimens  taken  between  1868  and  1874  having  been  captured  in 
the  plantations  on  the  Forest  near  the  Wanstead  Orphan  Asylum. 
V.  atalanta  was  quite  common  in  the  garden  in  1868  and  1869.  I 
often  used  to  see  this  butterfly  by  day  on  the  trunks  of  trees  that 
had  been  sugared  the  preceding  night.  I  remember  also  being 
struck  by  the  ease  with  which  it  was  captured  in  small  glass  forcing 
frames,  supported  on  bricks  over  plates  of  beer  and  sugar,  placed 
about  the  garden  to  attract  the  wasps,  which  at  that  time  did  much 
damage  to  the  wall-fruit.  It  was  not  unusual  to  find  a  dozen  or  more 
of  these  handsome  butterflies  in  one  small  glass  frame  mixed  up 
with  the  swarms  of  wasps,  flies,  and  other  insects  attracted  by  the 
bait.  The  larva  of  this  species  and  V.  urtiae  used  to  occur  also  on 
the  nettles  growing  in  a  narrow  lane  (now  built  upon)  running  along 
one  side  of  the  garden  and  leading  to  the  marshes.  V.  io  was  fairly 
common  in  the  garden.      V.  polychloros  was  never  seen  in  the  garden. 


THE    I.EPIDOPTERA    OF    LEVI'ON    AND    NEIGHHOURHOOD.  T55 

I  have  taken  it  in  the  Forest  near  Wanstead,  and  my  mother  has 
taken  it  in  tlie  same  locaHty.  /'  urtiae  was  common  in  the  spring 
and  autumn. 

With  reference  to  the  habits  of  Vancssas^  I  recollect  an  observa- 
tion which  caused  me  the  greatest  interest  at  the  time.  In  the  small 
plantations  near  the  Orphan  Asylum  above  mentioned,  there  were 
(and  still  are)  many  old  birch  trees  with  rugged  trunks.  From 
wounds  in  the  bark  or  some  other  cause,  the  sap  had  exuded  from 
several  of  the  trees  and  had  trickled  down  the  trunk  in  a  long  dark 
streak,  extending  from  near  the  top  of  the  trunk  to  the  roots.  This 
exudation  had  attracted  numbers  of  V.  io  and  V.  ataianta,  and  one 
or  two  V.  polychloros  were  also  seen,  the  butterflies  flying  round  and 
settling  on  the  dark  streak  of  moist  bark.  As  the  insects  sat  with 
wings  alternately  opened  and  closed,  after  the  manner  of  their  family, 
they  seemed  to  me,  even  at  that  time,  to  reveal  the  meaning  of  the 
sombre  mottling  of  the  under  surface  of  the  wings  which  harmonised 
so  well  with  the  mottled  bark,  that  when  they  sat  motionless  with 
closed  wings  they  were  almost  invisible,  especially  when  viewed 
"end  on,"  i.e.,  in  the  plane  of  the  closed  wings. 

The  only  specimen  of  Argynnis  paphia  taken  at  Leyton  is  the 
one  referred  to  by  Mr.  Fitch.  It  was  a  somewhat  tattered  male 
ca])tured  in  August,  1868,  on  the  flowers  of  a  patch  of  thyme 
growing  in  the  garden.  I  have  records  of  having  seen  this  species 
in  Epping  Forest  (near  High  Beach),  on  July  31st,  1870,  and  July 
19th,  1872  ;  and  my  mother  has  also  seen  it  in  the  Forest,  on  at  least 
one  occasion  near  Wanstead.  Of  the  other  Fritillaries,  A.  sekne  has 
been  taken  by  me  some  what  rarely  in  the  Forest  between  Monk's 
\\'ood  and  Epping,  and  A.  euphrosyne  more  commonly  in  the  same 
part  of  the  Forest.  I  have  seen  one  or  both  these  species  in  the  same 
locality  within  recent  years,  and  they  appear  to  be  getting  commoner. 

Satyridse.  Pnrarge  egcria  was  never  seen  at  Leyton,  but  com- 
monly in  the  Forest.  P.  megcera  was  occasionally  taken  in  the 
garden,  but  more  commonly  in  the  Forest.  Epinephele  Janira  was 
common  in  the  garden  and  abundant  among  the  grass  of  the  marshes. 
E.  tithonus  was  only  an  occasional  visitor  to  the  garden,  although 
common  enough  in  the  Forest.  E.  hypcranthus  never  appeared  in 
the  garden,  but  was  common  in  the  Forest.  Civnonympha  painphilus 
was  common  everywhere. 

Lycaenidae.  Thcda  betulce  was  well  known  to  occur  in  the 
neighbourhood  of   High  Beach,  where  its  larva  was  beaten  from  the 


156  THE    I.EPinOPTERA    OK    LEYTON    AND    NEIGHBOURHOOD. 

l)lackthorn.  I  liavc  ofleii  taken  the  larva  in  this  way  ;  but  I  do  not 
know  wliether  it  is  still  to  he  found  there,  as  for  many  years  systematic 
persLicution  of  this  species  has  been  carried  on  by  collectors  and 
dealers.  Although  the  larva  was  fairly  common  at  the  period  to 
which  these  records  refer,  I  only  saw  the  butterfly  itself  on  the  wing 
on  one  occasion  :  viz.^  on  September  23rd,  1870,  when  I  for  some 
time  watched  a  female  flying  over  the  blackthorn  and  depositing  eggs. 
The  butterfly  probably  escapes  notice  owing  to  its  being  mistaken 
for  a  common  Satyrid,  which  it  much  resembles  on  the  wing. 
Thecla  qucrcus  is  the  only  other  Hairstreak  that  I  have  taken  in  the 
Forest.  It  was  pretty  common  about  the  oaks  between  Monk's 
Wood  and  Epping  Thicks.  Polyommatus phlceas  was  common  as  a 
garden  and  forest  insect.  Lyccena  argiolns  was  also  common  both  in 
the  garden  and  Forest.  The  earliest  record  of  the  appearance  of 
this  butterfly  in  my  notes  is  April  24th,  1869.  L.  icarus  was  common 
in  the  garden,  on  the  marshes,  and  in  the  Forest.  L.  cegon  was 
taken  only  at  one  locality  :  viz.,  in  the  reedy  swamps  near  the  King's 
Oak  at  High  Beach.  L.  astrarche  was  taken  occasionally  in  the 
garden  ;  more  commonly  in  the  Forest. 

Hesperidae.  None  of  these  butterflies  were  taken  at  Leyton  ; 
and  the  only  species  I  have  taken  in  the  Forest  are  Syrichthus  /iialvce, 
which  I  saw  in  considerable  numbers  in  1889  between  Monk's 
Wood  and  Epping  Thicks,  and,  in  the  same  part  of  the  Forest, 
Hesperia  thaiimas  was  occasionally  taken.  I  have  a  distinct  recol- 
lection also  of  having  seen  Nisoniades  tages^Awdi  Hesperia  sylvanus  in 
the  Forest  within  the  last  few  years,  but  these  are  not  recorded  in 
the  notes  from  1869  to  1874. 

One  noteworthy  fact  respecting  the  butterflies  captured  in  1869, 
is  the  exceptionally  small  size  of  some  of  the  specimens.  I  have 
now  in  my  collection  dwarfed  P.  rapce  and  napi,  E.  cardaniines 
(taken  in  lane  at  Chingford),  V.  atlanta  and  V.  io  (both  taken  in 
the  garden).  Whether  this  character  was  prevalent  generally,  might 
perhaps  be  ascertained  by  referring  to  the  entomological  records  of 
that  season. 

HETEROCERA.^ 
Zygaena  filipendulse.     This  species  was   taken  in   the  mea- 
dows about  Chingford  rather   commonly.      I    believe   it  still  occurs 

1  The  sequence  and  nomenclature  of  the  species  of  Heterocera  adopted  by  Prof.  Meldola  is 
that  of  Stainton's  "  Manual  of  British  Butterflies  and  Moths"  (1857).  As  this  book  is  so  well 
known  to  entomologists,  it  is  unnecessary  to  re-arrange  the  species  ill  accordance  with  the  more 
modern  lists. — Ed. 


THE  i.ei>ii)01'ti:ra  ok  i,i:vt()N  and  nekiihiourhood.        157 

there,  and  alsc)  in  other  meadows  in  the  Abridge  district.  I  often 
searched  for  it  among  the  grass  of  the  marshes  about  Lcyton,  but 
without  success. 

Smerinthus  ocellatus.  Several  larwx  of  this  species  were 
taken  on  S(r//x  by  Mr.  I'^.  B.  Poulton  and  myself,  near  the 
Wake  Arms  in  1887.  I  have  no  record  of  the  species  from 
Leyton. 

S.  populi.  Fairly  common  ;  taken  at  light,  on  the  wing,  and 
occasionally  at  rest  on  fences. 

S.  tilise.     One  specimen  at  rest  on  fence  ;  "Chestnut  Walk." 

Sphinx  convolvuli.  Two  specimens  seen  hovering  over  a 
bed  of  geraniums  in  September,  1868;  one  was  captured,  the  other 
escaped. 

Sphinx  ligustri.  Fairly  common  on  the  wing  in  1868  and 
1869.  All  my  captures  were  made  at  the  flowers  of  the  honeysuckle 
growing  round  the  trunk  of  an  apple-tree  I  never  saw  the  moth 
visit  anv  other  tlowers  in  the  garden. 

ChcErocampa  elpenor.  Fairly  common  in  1868  and  1869  ; 
taken  on  the  wing  at  honeysuckle  with  the  last  species. 

C.   porcellus.     One  at  honeysuckle,  June  29th,  1869. 

Macroglossa  stellatarum.  Frequently  seen  in  district ;  once 
captured  over  a  scarlet  geranium  in  the  garden. 

M.  fuciformis.  Never  seen  in  Leyton  garden,  but  taken 
somewhat  freely  in  certain  seasons  at  High  Beach,  over  rhododen- 
dron, by  Mr.  H.  A.  Cole. 

M.  bombyliformis.  Taken  at  High  Beach  by  Mr.  H.  A. 
Cole  with  the  preceding  species,  but  much  rarer. 

Sesia  tipuliformis.  Common  in  the  garden  on  the  leaves  of 
currant  bushes  in  early  morning,  and  during  bright  sunshine  on  the 
flowers  of  syringa. 

S.  myopiformis.  Fairly  common  on  trunk  of  an  apple-tree  in 
early  morning,  and  on  flowers  of  syringa  by  day. 

Hepialus  hectus.     Common  in  Forest ;  never  seen  in  garden. 

H.  lupulinus.  Not  common  in  garden,  commoner  in  Forest  ; 
on  the  wing  at  dusk,  and  on  fences  by  day. 

H.  sylvinus.  This  species  is  known  to  occur  along  the  lanes 
in  the  Chingford  district.  The  only  record  I  have  is  from  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  Higham  Park,  August  9th,  1874. 

H.  humuli.  I'airly  common  on  wing  at  dusk,  many  more 
females  than  males  being  captured. 


158         THE    LEPIDOPTERA    OF    LEYTON    AND    NEIGHBOURHOOD. 

Zeuzera  sesculi.  Only  once  taken  at  Leyton  on  trunk  of 
apple  (or  pear)  tree  in  neighbouring  garden.- 

Cossus  ligniperda.  One  specimen  taken  on  fence  in  Lea 
Bridge  Road.      Larva  occasionally  found. 

Dicranura  vinula.  Taken  only  in  the  larval  form  on  willows 
about  marshes. 

Notodonta  camelina.  Once  on  wing  in  garden  ;  occasionally 
in  the  Forest. 

Stauropus  fagi.  I  have  never  taken  this  species,  but  it  is  well 
known  to  occur  in  the  northern  part  of  the  Forest. 

Diloba  coeruleocephala.  Fairly  common  in  larval  form  in 
Forest  about  High  Ijeach  ;  not  recorded  from  Leyton. 

Pygaera  bucephala.  Abundant  in  larval  form  ;  not  so  com- 
mon as  imago. 

Liparis  auriflua.     Common  in  garden  as  larva  and  imago. 

L.  salicis.  Common  on  the  wing,  or  at  rest  on  tree  trunks  and 
fences.     Has  become  much  rarer  in  the  district  of  late  years. 

L.  monacha.  At  rest  on  tree  trunks  in  northern  portions  of 
Forest ;  not  uncommon  in  some  seasons. 

Demas  coryli.  In  northern  part  of  Forest;  scarce  (larval 
form). 

Orgyia  antiqua.  Common  in  garden,  but  not  so  abundant 
as  in  the  London  Squares. 

Calligenia  miniata.  Taken  on  the  wing  at  High  Beach ; 
not  common. 

Lithosia  helvola.     One  specimen  beaten  out  at  High  Beach. 

L.  griseola.  Occasionally  on  the  wing  in  garden,  and  in  the 
Forest. 

L.  complanula.  On  wing  in  the  garden,  rare ;  more  com- 
monly in  Forest. 

Nola  cucullatella.  Fairly  common  in  garden  ;  common  in 
Forest,  both  as  larva  and  imago. 

Arclia  caja.     Common  in  larval  form,  less  common  as  imago. 

A.  villica.     One  specimen  taken  at  rest  by  day  on  leaf  of  lilac. 

Spilosoma  menthastri.     Abundant  as  larva  and  imago. 

S.  lubricipeda.     Common  as  larva  and  imago. 

2  I  find  among  my  notes,  that  in  1871  this  moth  was  remarkably  abundant  in  the  London 
Squares.  In  July  of  that  year,  scores  were  to  be  seen  on  the  trunks  of  trees  in  Euston  and  other 
Squares,  and  numbers  of  detached  wings  were  lying  about  on  the  ground  at  the  foot  of  the  trees. 
Whether  these  wings  indicated  that  the  moihs  h.ad  been  eaten  by  the  birds,  as  appeared  the  most 
probable  explanation,  I  was  never  enabled  to  ascertain  by  direct  observation.  The  empty  pupa 
cases  from  which  the  moths  had  emerged  were  to  be  seen  projecting  from  the  bark  in  large 
numbers.     See  "  Land  and  Water,"  August  12th,  1871. 


THE    LRPIDOPTERA    OF    I.FA'TON    AND    NEIGH I'.OURHOOD.  1 59 

S.  mendica.  Taken  occasionally  on  the  wing  (female) ;  not 
taken  in  Forest. 

Euchelia  jacobeae.  Never  seen  at  Leyton  ;  common  in  larval 
form  on  ragwort  about  High  Beach,  much  less  common  as  imago. 

Bombyx  quercus.  Never  taken  in  garden  ;  larva  fairly 
common  on  grassy  banks  about  Chingford  and  VValthamstow. 

B.  neustria.     Abundant  in  garden  as  larva  and  imago. 

Odonestis  potatoria.  Same  remarks  apply  as  under  Bom/^yx 
quercus. 

Saturnia  carpini.  I  have  never  seen  this  sjiecies  in  the 
Forest,  l)ut  its  larva  is  sometimes  taken  about  the  heathy  parts. 

Cilix  spinula.  Occasionally  on  wing  in  garden ;  more  com- 
monly in  Forest. 

Platypteryx  falcataria.  Beaten  from  birch  in  Forest  about 
Theydon  IJois  ;  never  taken  at  Leyton. 

P.  hamula.  Once  taken  in  garden  ;  occurs  (somewhat  rarely) 
in  Forest. 

P.  unguicula.     Not  uncommon  among  beech  at  Monk's  Wood. 

Fumea  radiella.  Once  taken  flying  in  some  numbers  about 
a  roadside  bank  near  the  "  Robin  Hood." 

NOCTUAi. 

Thyatira  derasa.  At  sugar  in  garden  occasionally  ;  com- 
moner in  Forest. 

T.  batis.  Not  uncommon  at  sugar  in  various  parts  of  F'orest ; 
not  taken  in  garden  at  Leyton. 

Cymatophora  duplaris.  Occasionally  at  sugar  in  Forest 
("  Rushey  Plain  "). 

Bryophila  perla.  Taken  in  profusion  on  wall  by  Lea  Bridge 
Station,  and  also  on  a  wall  at  Loughton.  I  have  not  seen  the  moth 
in  the  Lea  Bridge  locality  of  late  years. 

Acronycta  tridens  and  psi.  Both  species  occurred  at  Ley- 
ton  ;  but  were  not  recorded  separately,  as  I  was  then  unable  to  dis- 
tinguish them. 

A.  aceris.  Larva  occasionally  taken  on  fences  throughout 
district. 

A.  megacephala.     Fairly  common  as  larva  and  imago. 

A.  rumicis.  A  specimen  bred  from  larva  feeding  on  verbena 
in  garden  ;  occasionally  at  sugar  in  Forest. 

Leucania  conigera.     At  sugar  in  garden,  scarce. 


l6o  THE    LEPIDOPTRRA    OK    I.KYTON    AND    NEIGHHOURHOOD. 

L.  lithargyria.     Occasionally  at  sugar  in  garden  ;  common   in 
the  Forest. 

L.  comma.     Somewhat  rare  at  sugar  ;  and  on  the  wing. 

L.  impura.     Common  at  sugar  and  on  the  wing,  both  in  garden 
and  Forest. 

L,  pallens.    Very  common  at  sugar  and  on  wing,  in  garden  and 
Forest. 

Nonagria    despecta.       In    Forest,    about    swampy   j^arts   of 
"  Rushcy  Plain  "  ;  not  at  Leyton. 

N.  fulva.     Same  remarks  as  under  preceding  species. 

Hydrsecia  nictitans.      Fairly  common  at  sugar  and  on  wing, 
in  garden  and  Forest. 

H.    micacea.       Occasionally   at    sugar;    more    frequently    on 
flowers  at  night. 

Xylophasia  lithoxylea.     Common   at  sugar,  and  on   fences 
by  day. 

X.  polyodon.     Abundant  at  sugar,  at  lime  blossom,  and   on 
the  wing. 

Dipterygia  pinastri.^''     Occasionally  at  sugar  in   the  garden  ; 
fairly  common  in  Forest. 

Heliophobus  popularis.     Occasionally  at  light. 

Luperina  tes  acea.     Common  at  rest   on  fences  by   day,  on 
the  wing,  and  at  light. 

Mamestra    anceps.       Once   at    sugar    in    Forest    ("  Rushey 
I'lain  "),  June  i8th,  1870. 

M.  brassicse.     Abundant  at  sugar,  on  fences,  and  on  the  wing. 

M.  persicariae.     Not   common  at   sugar;    larva  common  on 
garden  dahlia,  (S:c. 

Apamea  ophiogramma.     Once  on  wing  in  garden  at  Wan- 
stead. 

A.  oculea.     Abundant   on  the  wing,  at  sugar,  light,  and  lime 
blossom. 

Miana  strigilis.     Common  at  sugar  and  on  fences,  in   garden 
and  Forest. 

M.    fasciuncula.       At    sugar    in    garden    and    Forest ;    not 
common. 

M.  furuncula.     Very  common  at  sugar,  and  on  wing  in  garden 
and  Forest. 

3  I  have  records  of  lhi>i  and  many  other  species  h.iving  been  taken  on  ihe  leaves  of  currant 
bushes  and  nellies  covered  wiih  "honey  dew"  (Aphis  secretion).  See  "  Entomologist,"  vol. 
iv.,  p.  303. 


THE    LKPIDOPTKRA    OF    LEYTON    AND    NEIGHBOURHOOD.  l6l 

Grammesia  trilinea.  Not  uncommon  at  sugar  in  Forest ; 
not  taken  at  Leyton. 

Caradrina  morpheus.     Fairly  common  in  garden  and  Forest. 

C.  alsines  and  blanda.  Both  species  occurred  somewhat 
commonly,  but  were  not  recorded  separately. 

C.  cubicularis.     Common  in  garden  and  house.  ' 

Rusina  tenebrosa.  Not  common  at  sugar  in  garden ;  com- 
mon in  Forest. 

Agrotis  suffusa.  Occasionally  at  sugar  in  garden  and 
Forest. 

A.  saucia.  Five  taken  at  sugar  in  garden  in  September  and 
October,  1869.* 

A.  segetum.  Very  common  at  sugar  and  on  wing  ;  absoluttly 
swarmed  in  1869. 

A.  exclamationis.  Common  at  sugar,  at  light,  and  lime 
blossom. 

A.  nigricans.  Occasionally  at  sugar  in  garden  :  commoner  in 
Forest. 

A.  tritici  and  aquilina.  Both  species  occurred,  but  not 
commonly.  They  were  not  recorded  separately  as  I  could  not  then 
distinguish  them. 

A.  porphyrea.  A  fresh  specimen  taken  flying  by  day  over 
heathy  part  of  Forest  near  Loughton  Camp,  July  19th,  1888. 

Triphaena  ianthina.  Occasionally  at  sugar  in  garden  ;  com- 
moner in  Forest. 

T.  fimbria.  Two  specimens  at  sugar  in  garden  in  1869  and 
1870. 

T.   orbona.     Common  at  sugar  and  on  the  wing. 

T.  pronuba.     Abundant  throughout  district. 

Noctua  glareosa.  Once  at  sugar  in  Forest  ("  Gilbert's 
Slade"),  September  8th,  1869. 

N.  augur.  Occasionally  at  sugar  in  garden  ;  commoner  in 
Forest. 

N.  plecta.  P\iirly  common  at  sugar  and  on  wing,  in  garden 
and   Forest. 

N.   c-nigrum.     Common  at  sugar. 

N.  triangulum.  Scarce  at  sugar  in  Forest  ("  Rushey  Blain  ') 
in  July,  1870. 

4  This  species  appears  to  be  somewhat  capricious  in  its  appearance.  1869  must  have  been  a 
good  season  for  it,  as  it  sw.-irmed  at  sugar  in  a  copse  neir  lirighion  on  Septemlier  21st  of  iliat 
year,  when,  among  oilier  things,  I  captured  a  specimen  of  I.cucania  vitetlina. 


l62  THE    LEPIDOPTERA    OF    LEYTON    AND    NEIGHBOURHOOD. 

N.   festiva.     Scarce  at  sugar  in  garden  ;  abundant  in  Forest. 

N.  rubi.  Occasionally  at  sugar  and  on  the  wing,  in  garden  and 
Forest. 

N.   umbrosa.     Several  at  sugar  in  garden  in  1869  and  1870. 

N.  baja.  Very  rarely  at  sugar  in  garden;  commoner  in 
Forest. 

N.  xanthographa.  Extremely  abundant  at  sugar  and  on 
wing. 

Tseniocampa  gothica.  At  sallow  in  woods  near  Chingford  ; 
fairly  common. 

T.  rubricosa.     Same  locality  as  preceding  ;  scarce. 

T.   instabilis.     Common  at  sallow  throughout  district. 

T.  stabilis.  Very  common  at  sallow  in  woods  near  Ching- 
ford. 

T.  gracilis.     Same  locality  as  preceding  ;  scarce. 

T.  cruda.     Very  common  in  same  locality  as  preceding. 

Orthosia  upsilon.     Scarce  on  the  wing  in  garden. 

O.   lota.     Fairly  common  at  sugar  in  garden. 

O.   macilenta.     Scarce  at  sugar  in  garden. 

Anchocelis  rufina.  Scarce  at  sugar  in  garden. 
A.  pistacina.  Common  at  sugar  in  garden.  This  species 
absolutely  swarmed  in  1869,  every  patch  of  sugar  attracting  them  by 
scores.  The  moths  were  sometimes  seen  still  at  the  sugar  by  broad 
daylight  in  the  morning.  I  have  never  seen  the  species  in  such 
profusion  since. 

A.  lunosa.  Common  at  sugar  with  the  preceding,  but  not  so 
abundant. 

A.  litura.     At  sugar  in  garden ;  scarce. 

Cerastis  vaccinii.  Fairly  common  at  sugar  in  the  garden  in 
the  autumn,  and  at  sallow  in  the  spring  (woods  near  Chingford). 

C.  spadicea.  Not  quite  so  common  as  preceding;  taken 
under  same  conditions. 

Scopelosoma  satellitia.  Occasionally  at  sugar  in  gardei>, 
and  at  sallow  in  the  spring.  Commoner  in  the  Forest,  where  the 
larva  can  be  beaten  out  in  large  numbers. 

Xanthia  citrago.  Occasionally  at  sugar  in  garden.  A  speci- 
men was  taken  l)y  my  mother  on  a  fence  at  Buckhurst  Hill,  in 
1890. 

X.  ferruginea.  Fairly  common  at  sugar  in  garden  and 
Forest. 


THE    LEPIDOPTKRA    OF    LEYTON    AND    NEIGHBOURHOOD.  163 

Dicycla  oo.  Not  uncommon  in  some  seasons  at  sugar  in 
"  Rushey  Plain  "  ;  never  seen  in  garden. 

Cosmia  trapezina.  Very  common  at  sugar  in  garden  and 
Forest. 

C.   diffinis.     Not  uncommon  at  sugar  in  garden  and  Forest. 

C.  affinis.  At  sugar  in  garden  and  Forest ;  scarcer  than 
preceding. 

Dianthaecia  capsincola.  Not  uncommon  over  honeysuckle 
in  garden  in  iS6S  and  1869.  It  used  to  fly  about  the  flowers  with 
S/'/iinx  Iigustri\  Chcrrocampa  e/penor,  and  Cucullia  timbratica. 

Hecatera  serena.  Occasionally  at  sugar  in  Forest;  once  or 
twice  on  fenc-es  near  Woodford. 

Polia  flavicincta.     Occasionally  at  sugar  in  garden. 

Miselia  oxyacanthse.  Fairly  common  at  sugar  in  garden,  and 
in  larval  form  in  Forest. 

Phlogophora  meticulosa.  Common  at  sugar  and  on  wing, 
in  garden  and  Forest. 

Euplexia  lucipara.  Occasionally  at  sugar  in  garden  ;  com- 
mon in  Forest. 

Aplecta  occulta  Two  specimens  at  sugar  in  "  Gilbert's 
Slade,"  August  26th,  1869.      ("  Entomologist,"  vol.  iv.,  p.  325.) 

A.  nebulosa.  Scarce  at  sugar  in  garden  ;  fairly  common  in 
Forest. 

A.  tincta.  One  specimen  on  fence  near  Woodford,  June  25th, 
1871. 

Hadena  protea.     At  sugar  in  Forest ;  somewhat  rare. 

H.  den  tin  a.  Occasionally  at  sugar  in  Forest ;  more  fre- 
quently on  fences  by  day. 

H  chenopodii.  Common  at  sugar  in  garden  and  Forest.  I 
once  saw  this  moth  actively  on  the  wing  in  bright  sunshine,  flying 
over  flowers  of  Epilobium. 

H.  oleracea.     Common  at  sugar  in  garden  and  Forest. 

H.  pisi.     Larva  not  uncommon  on  broom  in  Forest. 

H.  genistae.  Occasionally  at  rest  on  fences  in  Woodford 
district. 

Xylocampa  lithoriza.  Fairly  common  on  fences  and  tree 
trunks  throughout  district. 

Cucullia  chamomillae.  One  specimen  taken  at  rest  on  the 
extreme  end  of  a  pointed  wooden  paling  in  the  Lea  Bridge  Road, 
April  22nd,  1869.    (See  Ann.  and  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.,  Feb.  1878,  p.  159.) 

L  2 


164  THE    LEPIDOPTERA    OF    LEVTON    AND    NEIGHBOURHOOD. 

C.  umbratica.     Common  over  honeysuckle  in  garden. 

Heliodes  arbuti.  Fairly  common  among  grass  of  wayside 
strips  in  lanes  between  Walthamstow  and  Chingford.  This  record 
refers  to  1869  and  1870  ;  I  have  not  seen  it  there  of  late  years. 

Habrostola  urticse.  Occasionally  on  wing  in  garden  ;  not 
common. 

H.  triplasia.     Not  uncommon  on  wing  in  garden. 

Plusia  chrysitis.     Occasionally  on  wing  in  garden. 

P.  festucae.  One  specimen  over  flowers  of  garden  "sweet 
herbs,"  in  1868. 

P.  gamma.     Abundant  on  wing  in  garden  and  Forest. 

Gonoptera  libatrix.  Occasionally  at  sugar  in  garden  and 
Forest. 

Amphipyra  pyramidea.  Common  at  sugar  in  forest ; 
occasionally  in  garden. 

A.  tragopogonis.  Common  at  sugar  in  garden  and  concealed 
in  house. 

Mania  typica.  Fairly  common  on  wing  and  at  sugar  in 
garden. 

M.  maura.  Common  at  sugar  in  garden  and  concealed  in 
house. 

Catocala  nupta.  Common  at  sugar  in  garden,  and  on  fences 
and  walls  by  day. 

GEOMETR.^. 

Urapteryx  sambucaria.  Common  in  garden  and  Forest.  I 
have  a  record  of  this  species  having  been  double-brooded  in  1868, 
the  second  brood  appearing  in  September. 

Epione  apiciaria.  I  took  this  species  in  the  Forest  district 
in  the  neighbourhood  of  Higham  Park  in  1874  (August  9th)  with 
the  Messrs.  Cole.  My  mother  took  it  in  1890  in  a  garden  at  Buck- 
hurst  Hill. 

Rumia  crataegata.     Abundant  in  garden  and  Forest. 

Venilia  maculata.  Fairly  common  in  Forest ;  never  taken  in 
garden. 

Angerona  prunaria.  Common  in  Forest;  never  taken  in 
garden. 

Metrocampa  margaritata.  Common  in  Forest ;  occasion- 
ally taken  in  garden. 


THE    LKlMDOi'TKRA    OV    LEVTON    AND    NEIGHBOURHOOD.  1 65 

Eurymene  dolabraria.  Occasionally  at  rest  on  tree  trunks 
in  I'orrst.^^Always  tx)nsiclcred  a  rarity. 

Pericallia  syringaria.     Occasionally  on  the  wing  in  Forest. 

Selenia  illunaria.  Fairly  common  in  Forest,  in  both  spring 
and  summer  forms.     Rare  in  garden. 

S.  lunaria.     Bred  from  larvae  beaten  out  near  High  Beach. 

Crocallis  elinguaria.     Common  in  Forest  and  garden. 

Ennomos  tiliaria.  Once  at  rest  on  fence  in  "Chestnut 
Walk." 

E.  fuscantaria.     Once  at  light  in  house. 

E.  angularia.     Fairly  common  on  fences  by  day  and  at  light. 

Himera  pennaria.  The  larva  of  this  species  was  fairly  com- 
mon in  Forest. 

Phigalia  pilosaria.  At  rest  on  tree  trunks  and  in  the  larval 
form  ;  not  uncommon  in  Forest. 

Biston  hirtaria.  Although  a  London  insect,  this  moth  was 
very  seldom  taken  in  the  garden. 

Amphidasis  prodromaria.  Occasionally  on  tree  trunks  and 
fences.     Never  taken  in  garden. 

A.  betularia.     Occasionally  on  fence  in  "Chestnut  Walk." 
Hemerophila  abruptaria.     Common  on  fences  throughout 

district. 

Boarmia  repandata.     Fairly  common  in  garden  and  Forest. 

B.  rhomboidaria.     Common  in  garden  and  Forest. 
Tephrosia  crepuscularia.     Occasionally  on  tree  trunks  in 

Forest  ;  never  taken  in  garden. 

Pseudoterpna  cytisaria.  Fairly  common  in  Forest  in  larval 
and  imaginal  forms. 

lodis  lactearia.  Very  common  in  Forest ;  not  uncommon  in 
garden. 

Phorodesma  bajularia.  Not  uncommon  in  Forest;  only 
once  taken  in  garden. 

Hemithea  thymiaria  Very  common  in  Forest ;  not  uncom- 
mon in  garden. 

Ephyra  porata.''  Not  uncommon  in  Forest ;  not  taken  in 
garden. 

^  The  species  of  this  genus  are  seasonally  dimorphic.  My  Reneral  experience  has  been  that  the 
spring  brood  is  always  somewhat  more  abundant  than  the  autumnal  brood.  [.See  notes  on  the 
seasonal  dimorphism  of  F.fihyra,  H.  G.  Cole,  in  Proc.  Entom.  Soc,  Lond.,  1887  ;  pp.  vi.  and 
vii.— Eu.l 


1 66  THE    LEPIDOPTERA    OF    LEYTON    AND    NEIGHBOURHOOD, 

E.  punctaria.  Not  uncommon  in  Forest;  not  taken  in 
garden. 

E.  trilinearia.  Fairly  common  among  beech  woods  in 
Forest. 

E.  omicronaria.  Not  uncommon  in  Forest;  not  taken  in 
garden. 

E.  pendularia.     Occasionally  in  Forest;  once  taken  in  garden. 

Asthena  canditata.  Abundant  in  Forest ;  not  so  common  in 
garden. 

A.  sylvata.     Rare  in  Forest. 

Acidalia  scutulata.  Common  in  Forest ;  less  common  in 
garden. 

A    bisetata.     Very  common  in  Forest  and  garden. 

A.  trigeminata.     Occasionally  in  Forest. 

A.  osseata.     Very  common  in  Forest  and  garden. 

A.  incanaria.     Abundant  in  garden  and  Forest. 

A.  subsericeata.  Occasionally  in  Forest ;  flies  with  A. 
canditata,  which  it  closely  resembles  on  the  wing.  (See  Efit.  Mo.  Mag., 
vol.  ix.,  p.  163.) 

A.  remutata.     Very  common  in  Forest;  rare  in  garden. 

A.  imitaria.     Fairly  common  in  Forest ;  occasionally  in  garden. 

A.  aversata.     Abundant  in  garden  and  Forest,  and  on  fences. 

A.  inornata.     Rare  in  Forest ;  never  taken  in  garden. 

A.  emarginata.     Not  uncommon  in  Forest. 

Timandra  amataria.  Occasionally  along  lanes  towards 
Chingford. 

Cabera  pusaria.  Very  common  in  Forest ;  occasionally  in 
garden. 

C.  exanthemaria.    Common  in  Forest;  occasionally  in  garden. 

Corycia  temerata.     Not  uncommon  in  Forest. 

C.  taminata.     Occasionally  in  Forest. 

Aleucis  pictaria.  Not  uncommon  over  blackthorn  blossom  in 
Forest. 

Halia  wvaria.     Swarmed  in  garden;  less  common  in  Forest. 

Panagra  petraria.     Common  in  heathy  parts  of  Forest. 

Numeria  pulveraria.  I  have  seen  series  of  this  moth  from 
the  Forest  near  High  Beach. 

Fidonia  atomaria.     Abundant  in  heathy  parts  of  Forest. 

Abraxas  grossulariata.  Abundant  in  garden  and  Forest. 
The  larva  was  commonly  beaten  from  blackthorn. 


THE    I.EPinOPTERA    OF    LEVTON    AND    NEIOHBOURHOOD.  167 

Ligdia  adustata.  Not  uncommon  in  Forest;  occasionally  in 
garden. 

Lomaspilis  marginata.     Not  uncommon  in  Forest. 

Hibernia  rupicapraria.  Fairly  common  along  hedges  and  at 
light. 

H.  leucophearia.     Fairly  common  at  rest  on  tree  trunks. 

H.  aurantiaria.  Larva  fairly  common  ;  I  have  never  taken  the 
imago  in  the  Forest  district. 

H.  progemmaria.  Common  along  hedges,  at  light,  and  in  the 
larval  form  in  the  Forest. 

H.  defoliaria.  Very  common  in  larval  form  in  Forest  ;  imago 
less  common  :  generally  taken  at  light. 

Anisopteryx  aescularia.  Common  in  larval  form  in  Forest, 
and  imago  on  fences  throughout  district. 

Cheimatobia  brumata.  Extremely  abundant  in  larval  form 
everywhere  :  the  imago  swarmed  in  garden. 

Oporabia  dilutata.     Common  on  fences  throughout  district. 

Larentia  didymata.  This  moth  was  tolerably  common  in  the 
Forest,  but  was  never  taken  in  the  garden.  I  have  never  seen  it  so 
abundant  in  this  district  as  I  have  in  Surrey  and  in  the  Midland  and 
Northern  Counties.  In  parts  of  Lancashire  and  Yorkshire  and  the 
Lake  District  it  is  the  prevailing  species  at  a  certain  period  of  the 
year. 

L.  olivata.     Occasionally  in  Forest ;  not  taken  in  garden. 

L.  pectinitaria.  Not  uncommon  in  Forest ;  not  taken  in 
garden. 

Emmelesia  affinitata.  Occasionally  in  Forest ;  never  in 
garden. 

E.  alchemillata.  Occasionally  in  Forest;  rarer  than  preced- 
ing. 

E.  decolorata.  I  only  took  the  species  once  in  the  district,  a 
specimen  C(Miiing  to  light  at  Leyton  (May  23rd,  1869). 

Eupithecia  centaureata.  Fairly  common  in  garden  and 
Forest. 

E.  pygmseata.     Once  in  garden. 

E.  castigata.     Occasionally  in  garden. 

E.  denotata.     Once  or  twice  in  garden. 

E.  indigata.     Occasionally  in  garden. 

E.  nanata.      In  heathy  parts  of  Forest. 

E.  subnotata.      Not  uncommon  in  irarden. 


l68         THE    LEPIDOPTERA    OF    LEYTON    AND    NEIGHBOURHOOD. 

E.  vulgata.     Common  in  garden  and  Forest. 

E.  assimilata.     Common  in  garden. 

E.  abbreviata.     Occasionally  in  garden. 

E.  exiguata.     Occasionally  in  garden. 

E.  sobrinata.     Occasionally  in  garden. 

E.  pumilata.     Not  uncommon  in  garden  and  Forest. 

E.  rectangulata.     Common  in  garden. 

Thera  variata.  Not  uncommon  in  Forest ;  by  no  means  so 
common  as  in  Surrey  and  Kent. 

Hypsipites  elutata.  Fairly  common  in  Forest ;  but  never  so 
common  as  I  have  found  it  in  the  woods  of  Surrey  and  Kent. 

Melanthia  rubiginata.  Not  uncommon  in  Forest.  It  is  one 
of  the  first  geometers  to  appear  on  the  wing  at  dusk. 

M.  ocellata.      Fairly  common  in  Forest;  rare  in  garden. 

Melanippe  rivata.  Not  uncommon  in  Forest;  never  in 
garden. 

M.  subtristata.     Fairly  common  in  Forest  ;  never  in  garden. 

M.  montanata.     Common  in  Forest;  rare  in  garden. 

M.  fluctuata.     Abundant  throughout  district. 

Anticlea  badiata.     Fairly  common  in  Forest. 

A,  derivata.     Not  uncommon  in  Forest. 

Coremia  propugnata.  Occasionally  in  Forest ;  never  in 
garden. 

C.  ferrugata.     Common  in  Forest  ;  less  common  in  garden. 

C.  unidentata.  Fairly  common  in  Forest.  Neither  this  nor 
the  preceding  are  so  common  as  in  Surrey. 

Camptogramma  bilineata.     Abundant  throughout  district. 

Scotosia  dubitata.     Not  uncommon  in  garden. 

S.  certata.     Occasionally  in  garden. 

S.  undulata.  I  have  seen  this  species  taken  once  or  twice  in 
the  Forest. 

Cidaria  corylata.     Not  uncommon  in  the  Forest. 

C.  russata.  Fairly  common  in  the  Forest ;  but  not  so  abundant 
as  in  other  parts  of  the  country  where  the  species  occurs. 

C.  suffumata.      Not  uncommon  in  Forest.'' 

C.  testata.  Occasionally  in  heathy  parts  of  Forest ;  a  rarity  as 
compared  with  the  abundance  of  this  species  in  other  districts. 

6  I  have  no  record  of  C.  prunata  ;  the  species  may  occur,  however,  in  the  district.  Its  absence 
would  be  remarkable,  seeing  that  it  is  a  common  garden  insect  in  Kent,  Surrey  and  Sussex,  and  in 
the  west  of  England.  In  1888  it  was  almost  the  only  species  on  the  wing  in  a  garden  at  Chippen- 
ham. 


THE  LOCAL  (ESSEX)  MUSEUM— Co/i/i/n^eJ. 

It  cannot  he  too  emphatically  stated  or  too  well  known  that  the 
institution  is  for  the  benefit  of  the  whole  county,  and  not  exclusively 
for  that  of  Chelmsford  or  any  particular  district.  It  must,  of  course, 
have  a  home,  and  the  proposed  buildings  are  to  be  erected  at 
Chelmsford  simi)ly  because  Chelmsford  is  a  convenient  centre  at 
and  from  which  the  important  educational  work  that  is  contemplated 
can  be  best  carried  out.  Express  care  has  been  taken  in  the 
amalgamation  scheme  to  guard  against  the  county  town  having  a 
paramount  or  more  than  fair  share  in  the  management.  The  insti- 
tution is  to  be  essentially  and  really  a  county  one,  and  it  is  designed 
for  the  assistance  of  every  student,  whether  a  member  of  the  Club  or 
not,  desirous  of  improving  himself  in  natural  knowledge,  and  in 
contributing  to  the  general  well-being  of  Essex.  The  total  amount 
of  capital  required  for  the  Museum  scheme  is  ^4,000,  and  the 
estimated  annual  expenditure  is  ;^400.  Active  \vork  can  be  com- 
menced in  the  temporary  premises  when  one-fourth  of  the  required 
capital  has  been  obtained. 

The  Council  appeals  strongly  to  the  public  spirit  of  the  inhabi- 
tants of  Essex,  and  generally  to  all  those  interested  in  science  and 
in  its  practical  applications,  to  give  the  financial  support  necessary  to 
launch  and  to  maintain  the  Museum,  and  to  help  forward  the  useful 
and  interesting  work  which  will  grow  up  around  it. 

The  property  of  the  Club  will  be  placed  under  the  care  of  the 
following  Trustees  : — 

The  Right  Hon.  Lord  Rayleigh,  D.L.,  U.C.L,  LL.D.,  F.R.S.  ; 
Lord  Brooke,  M.P.  ;  Sir  T.  Fowell  Buxton,  Bart.,  D.L.,  F.R.G.S. ; 
The  \'en.  the  Archdeacon  of  Essex  ;  W.  M.  Tufnell,  Esq.,  J. P., 
D.L;  Professor  Meldola,  F.R.S.,  F.R.A.S.,  F.C.S.  ;  and  G.  P. 
Hope,  Esq.,  M.A. 

Copies  of  Appeal  aivl  pamphlet  of  papers  relating  to  the  pro- 
posal may  be  had  from  the  Ifo/i.  Secrefaries,  Mr.  W.  Cole,  Buck- 
hurst  Hill,  Essex,  and  Mr.  E.  Durrant,  90,  High  Street,  Chelms- 
ford, who  will  be  glad  to  give  further  information  to  enquirers. 

Subscriptions  either  to  the  Capital  Fund,  or  promises  of 
annual  donations  to  the  Maintenance  Fund,  may  be  sent  to 
Messrs.  Sparrow,  Tufnell  &  Co.,  Bankers,  Chelmsford,  or  to  the 
National  Bank,  Old  Broad  Street,  London,  or  to  the  Treasurer  of 
the  Club,  Mr.  .\.  Lockyer,  Mornington  Lodge,  Wanstead,  Essex. 


A     SELECTION     FROM     ^MESSRS. 

Edmund  Durrant  &  Co.'s  List  of  Publications. 


The    Ancient    Sepulchral    Monuments    of    Essex.        By 

Faed.  Chancellor,  F.R.I.B.A.     Imp.  410,  cloth,  illustrated,  ^4  4?.  nett. 

Posms.     By  Alice  E.  Argent.      With  an    Introduction  by  the 
Right  Rev.  Bishop  Claughton.     Cm.  8vo,  cloth,  3^.  dd.  nett,  post  free. 

Durrant's  Handbook  for  Essex.    A  Guide  to  all  the  Principal 

Objects  of  Interest  in  each  Parish  in  the  County.  By  MiLLER  Christy, 
F.L.S.     With  Map,  2s.  6d.  nett,  po=t  free. 

"  One  of  the  very  best  Guide  Books  in  existence." — Evening  News. 

The  Birds  of  Essex.     A  Contribution  to  the  Natural  History  of 

the  County.  With  numerous  Illustration^,  two  Plans,  and  one  Plate  (form- 
ing Vol.  II.  Special  Memoirs  of  Essex  Field  Club).  By  MiLLER  CHRISTY. 
Demy  8vo,  scarlet  cloth,  15^.  nett,  post  free, 

A  History  of  Felsted  School.      With  some   Account  of  the 

Founder  and  his  Descendants.  By  JOHN  SaRGEAU.VT,  M.A.  Illustrated, 
nett  4r. 

The    Trade    Signs    of   Essex.       A    Popular   Account   of  the 

Origin  and  Meaning  of  the  Public  House  and  other  Signs,  now  or 
formerly  found  in  the  County  of  Esse.x.  With  Illustrations.  By  MiLLER 
Christy.     Demy  8vo,  cloth,  7.V.  6d.  nett. 

Daily  Rays  of  Light  for  Sick  and  Weary  Ones.     Compiled 

by  Edith  L.  Wells,  with  a  Preface  by  the  Rev.  Prebendary  HiiTTON. 
Crown  Svo,  cloth,  65. 

The  Limits  of  Ritual  in  the  Church  of  England.     By  Rev. 

R.  E.  Bartlett,  M..-\.,  late  Fellow  and  Tutor  Trinity  College,  O.xford  ; 
Bampton  Lecturer,  1888.  Reprinted  by  permission  from  Contemporary 
Review.     Price  3^/.,  by  post   3^(/.  ;  2s.  qd.  per  dozen,  post  free. 

Homespun  Yarns.  By  Edwin  Coller.  Crown  Svo,  cloth,  35.  6d. 
Royal  Illustrated  History  of  Eastern  England.     By  A.  D. 

Bayne.     With  many  Illustrations.     Two  vols.,  large  8vo,  cloth,  i<^s. 

Domesday  Book  relating  to  Essex.     Translated  by  the  late 

T.  C.  Chisenh ale-Marsh.  4to,  cloth,  21s.  nett.  Only  a  few  copies 
unsold. 

John  Noakes  and  Mary  Styles.     A  Poem  in  the  Essex  Dialect. 

By  the  late  CHARLES  Clark,  of  Totham  Hall.  With  a  Glossary  and 
Portrait,  15.  nett. 

The  History  of  Rochford  Hundred,  Essex.   Vol.  I.,  15,^.  6d. ; 
Vol.  II.,  185.  nett.     By  Philip  Benton. 

A   First   Catechism   of    Botany.     By   John  Gibbs.     Second 

Edition,  i2mo,  boards,  6d. 

The  Symmetry  of  Flowers.    By  John  Gibbs.    i8mo,  se^ved,  4^. 
Forms  and  Services  used  in  the  Diocese  of  St.  Alban's. 

Published  by  authority.     JJsts  on  application. 


EDMUND  DURRANT  &  CO.,  Publishers,  90,  High  St.,  Chelmsford. 


ANNUAL   SUBSCRIPTION -Members    4s.  6d. :  Non-Members,  9s.    Post  Free. 


NO.  8,  VOL.  v.] 


Price,  with  Plate,  6d. 


[AUGUST,  1891. 


7^e 


Essex  Naturalist: 


DKI.VO    THE 


JOURNAL 


OF    THE 


ESSEX    FIELD    CLUB, 


EDITl.n    1!V 

WILLIAM     COLE, 

llittiora  ry  Scweta  ry. 


Contents 

The  Lepidoptera  of  Leyton  and     Neighbourhood  ;    a    Contribulicn    to    the    County 

Fauna.     IJy  Prof.   R.   Mei.dola,   F.R.S.     {Concltidi-d)      169 

Notes:   Original  and  Selected.      Botlle-Nose  Whales  in  the  Th.nnies  ;  Short-Eared  Owls  in 
I'Issc.x  in  May;  Capiuns  of  I^epidoptera  in   Essex;    "Assembling"  of   Geometer  Moths; 

/////«/•/>  7'«/i,«/-/j.- in  Esse.x  ;  The  Highest  Land  in  Essex    170-172 

The  Essex  Field  Club  and  the  County  Council  of  Essex       17^ 

Monk  Wood,  in  Loughton.    A  Fragment  of  Forest  History.     Hy  W.  C.  Wallek,  M.A.     174 
The   Essex  Field  Club.        Meetings  at   Newport,  Qnendon,    cic,    antl    in    Hainaiilt    Forest 

1  )isirii:t  and  Barking  Side  ('?('//// /'/«/(•;  ..  173 


The  authors  alone  are  responsible  for  the  statements  aud  opinions  contained  in  their 

respective  papers. 


PrBLISIIKD    BY    THE    CLLB,    Bt'CKHLRST    IllI.L.    ESSEX. 
E.   DCRRAXT   cS:   CO.,   90,    IHGII    STREET,   Cl  1 IIEMSIORD. 

I'm.  St.itioners'  Hall.] 


CoM.Mi-.N'iCATioNS  aW  Advertisements  should  he  addressed  : — 

The  Editor  of  "THE    ESSE.X    NATlRAErST," 

7,  Knighton   \'illa-,   Huiklnii.^i    II ill,   E~se.x. 


THE    LOCAL    (ESSEX)    MUSEUM, 
LIBRARY,  AND  LABORATORY. 


The  attention  of  Members  of  the  Essex  Field  Club,  and  of  all  those 
interested  in  the  practical  study  of  Natural  Science,  and  its  applica- 
tions in  industries,  and  as  a  means  of  general  education,  is  earnestly 
called  to  the  Statement  and  Appeal  for  Funds  for  the  establish- 
ment of  the  Museum  now  being  circulated  by  the  Council. 

The  scheme  has  long  been  under  consideration,  and  it  has  been 
fully  explained  at  meetings  of  the  Club  and  in  the  Essex 
Naturalist.     Its  principal  features  are  as  follows  : — 

With  the  object  of  establishing  at  Chelmsford  (chosen  as  being 
the  County  Town,  and  also  as  a  central  position  in  Essex)  a  Local 
and  Educational  Museum,  the  club  has  agreed  to  amalgamate  with 
the  Essex  and  Chelmsford  Museum,  under  the  title  of  "  The  Essex 
Field  Club,"  conditionally  on  the  sum  necessary  for  founding  the 
new  Museum  being  raised.     The  main  objects  in  view  are  : — 

(rt)  The  formation  of  authentic  collections  to  illustrate  the  Geolog}',  Miner- 
alogy, Botany,  Zoolog}',  Ethnology,  Pre-historic  Archaeology  and 
Technolog}%  &c.,  of  ESSEX  and  the  adjacent  sea  and  rivers, 
together  with  an  educational  series  of  specimens  and  preparations  to 
be  employed  for  illustrative  and  teaching  purposes.  Specimens  that 
are  not  of  Essex  origin  will  be  admitted  so  far  only  as  they  serve  to 
demonstrate  the  structure  and  relationship  of  the  local  tj-pes. 

(/')  The  formation  of  a  Local  and  Scientific  Library,  to  include  (in  addition 
to  standard  scientific  works),  topographical,  antiquarian,  and  other 
books,  manuscripts,  maps,  parliamentary  and  official  papers,  pictures, 
prints,  &c.,  which  in  any  way  relate  to  the  county  of  Essex. 

(c)  The  establishment  of  a  Laboratoiy  and  Class-rooms,  with  fittings, 
apparatus,  and  instruments  suitable  for  the  preparation  of  specimens 
for  the  Museum,  and  for  the  practical  sti:dy  and  teaching  (either  in 
the  Museum  or  in  selected  local  stations  throughout  the  county)  of 
the  subjects  named  in  paragraph  («),  and  for  promoting  their  practi- 
cal application  in  Agriculture,  Forestry,  Arboriculture,  Gardening, 
Fisheries,  Manufactures,  Industries,  and  general  education.  The 
laboratory,  class-rooms,  instruments,  &c.,  will  be  under  the  control 
of  the  Council,  who  may  permit  students,  investigators,  and  others  to 
use  them,  and  ma}'  also  lend  instruments  and  preparations  out  of  the 
Museum  buildings  for  purposes  in  furtherance  of  the  above  objects. 

\Continued  on  page  3  0/  W'lappir. 


THE    LEPIDOPTKRA    OF    LEYTON    AND    NEIGHHOURHOOD.  1 69 

C.  fulvata.     Not  uncommon  in  Forest. 

C.  pyraliata.     Occasionally  in  garden  and  Forest. 

C.  dotata.     Abundant  in  garden. 

Pelurga  comitata.     Somewhat  rare  in  garden. 

Eubolia  cervinata.  I  took  this  species  once  or  twice  in  a  lane 
leading  from  the  garden  to  the  marshes. 

E.  mensuraria.     Common  in  Forest. 

E.  palumbaria.     Common  in  Forest. 

Anaitis  plagiata.     Occasionally  in  Forest. 

Chesias  spartiata.  Not  uncommon  in  larval  form  on  broom 
in  the  Forest. 

Tanagra  chserophyllata.  My  mother  has  taken  this  species 
in  the  Forest  ("  Gilberts  Slade"). 

DELTOIDES? 

Hypena  proboscidalis.     Common  in  garden  and  Forest. 
H.  rostralis.     Abundant  in  garden. 

Hypenodes  albistrigalis.  Once  or  twice  at  sugar  in  Forest 
("  Rushey  Plain  "). 

Herminia  tarsipennalis.     Fairly  common  in  Forest. 
H.  nemoralis.     Occasionally  in  garden. 

PYRALIDES. 

Pyralis  costalis.     Common  in  garden  and  Forest. 

P.  farinalis.     Common  in  garden  and  about  the  premises. 

P.  glaucinalis.     Occasionally  in  garden. 

Aglossa  pinguinalis.     Common  in  garden  and  stables. 

A.  cuprealis.     Once  or  twice  in  garden. 

Pyrausta  purpuralis.     Occasionally  in  heathy  parts  of  Forest. 

Endotricha  flammealis.     Abundant  in  Forest. 

Cataclysta  lemnata.  Abundant  over  standing  water  through- 
out district. 

Paraponyx  stratiotata.  Occasionally  at  light  and  over 
ponds. 

Botys  verticalis.     Abundant  among  nettles. 

B.  fuscalis.     Once  in  Forest. 

B.  urticalis.     Abundant  everywhere. 

7  The  species  in  this  and  the  following  tribe  are  very  imperfectly  recorded,  as  I  was  but  little 
acquainted  with  them  at  the  time.     The  list  will  no  doubt  be  largely  added  to  by  others. 


IJO  NOTES ORIGINAL    AND    SELECTED. 

Ebulea  sambucalis.     Not  uncommon  in  garden. 

Pionea  forncalis.     Very  common  in  garden. 

Scopula  olivalis.     Common  in  garden  and  Forest. 

S.  prunalis.     Common  in  garden  and  Forest. 

S.  ferrugalis.     Not  uncommon  in  Forest. 

Stenopteryx  hybridalis.     Common  in  Forest. 

Of  the  remaining  species  of  this  tribe  and  of  the  Crambites  I  havt 
not  sufificiently  complete  records  ;  nor  is  my  recollection  of  captures 
sufficiently  distinct  to  make  the  list  trustworthy.  I  prefer,  therefore, 
to  leave  its  completion  to  later  collectors  better  acquainted  with  the 
species  than  I  was  at  the  time  covered  by  my  notes.  I  can  only  add 
that  many  species  of  Eudorea  were  common  ;  that  Phycis  roborella 
was  occasionally  taken  on  the  wing  in  the  Forest,  and  Pempelia 
palumbella  in  the  same  localities,  flying  over  the  heathy  parts.  Of 
the  genus  Cramhus,  the  beautiful  C.  pinetellus  is  a  noteworthy 
Forest  species.  I  have  also  taken  Aphomia  sociella  commonly  in 
the  Forest ;  and  once  a  specimen  of  Galleria  cerella  at  rest  by  day 
on  a  fence,  bearing  a  most  remarkable  resemblance  to  a  raised  splinter 
of  wood. 

The  list  now  presented,  although  confessedly  incomplete,  will,  it 
is  hoped,  serve  as  a  basis  for  the  more  complete  catalogue  which  in 
time  it  will  be  possible  to  draw  up  from  the  joint  observations  of  all 
those  who  have  collected  in  the  district. 


NOTES— ORIGINAL    AND    SELECTED. 

Bottle-nose  Whales  in  the  Thames. — Two  male  specimens  of  this  whale 
{^Hyperoodon  rostrattis)  occurred  in  the  Thames  at  the  end  of  July — one  near  the 
Nore  lightship,  which  was  towed  into  Leigh,  and  one  near  the  entrance  to  Bark- 
ing Creek.  Our  member,  Dr.  Murie,  has  made  a  careful  examination  of  the  Leigh 
specimen,  and  has  promised  to  communicate  a  paper  on  it  to  the  Club,  and  Mr. 
Crouch  will  append  a  few  remarks  on  the  Barking  example. 

Short-eared  Owls  in  Essex  in  May. — Mr.  F.  Kerry,  of  Harwich,  writes  as 
follows  to  the  "  Zoologist  "  : — "  Whilst  looking  for  the  nests  of  some  gulls,  Larus 
ridihundus^  on  the  bentlings  near  Walton-on-the-Naze,  on  Whit-Monday  last,  I 
flushed  a  short-eared  owl.  It  had  just  killed  a  black-headed  gull,  and  had  com- 
menced to  pluck  and  eat  it  ;  the  blood  was  flowing  from  the  dead  bird.  Being 
very  fearless,  it   did  not  fly  more  than  ten  yards  at  a  time  ;  most   probably  it  was 


NOTES — ORIGINAL   AND    SELECTED.  171 

breeding  somewhere  near.  It  was  about  one  mile  distant  from  the  spot  where  I 
saw  short-eared  owls  in  August,  1884,  and  two  miles  from  where  they  bred  in  1889 
(see  Zool.  1889,  p.  453)." 

Captures  of  Lepidoptera  in  Essex. — At  the  meeting  of  the  City  of  London 
Entomolou;ital  Society  on  May  2ist,  Mr.  Battley  exhibited  various  Lepidoptera 
from  Southend,  including  Lyccena  argioltts^  Biston  liirtaria,  Aleucis  pictaria  and 
Psyche pulUlla  ;  and  at  a  meeting  of  the  same  Society  on  June  l8th,  Mr.  Huckett 
showed  a  bo.\  of  insects  taken  near  Epping  on  May  23rd  and  June  6th,  including 
Platvpteryx  hamula,  P.  laceriula,  Noln  cristualis,  Corycia  Umerata,  Tephrosia 
consonaria^  &c.  On  July  22nd,  Mr.  Hill  exhibited  a  fine  aberration  of  Argyutiis 
eiiphrosyne,  taken  by  a  lad  in  Epping  Forest  some  years  ago.  The  upper  surfaces 
of  the  wings  were  much  suffused  with  black,  and  the  silver  spots  on  the  under 
sides  were  reduced  to  mere  streaks.  On  July  i6th,  Mr.  Clark  exhibited  a  series 
of  Heliodes  arhuti  from  Epping  Forest ;  Mr.  Gates,  Psyche  reticella  from  Southend, 
and  Dr.  Buckell  a  series  of  Ephyra  trilinearia  from  Epping  Forest,  which  varied 
considerably  in  (l)  the  basal  line,  which  was  well  marked  in  some,  but  scarcely 
to  be  traced  in  others  ;  (2)  central  line,  usually  narrower  in  the  females,  but  in 
one  specimen  (female)  it  was  exaggerated  into  a  band ;  (3)  discoidal  spot  on  (a) 
upper  wings,  not  to  be  traced  in  one  specimen,  well  marked  in  others,  and  out- 
lined with  black  in  one  ;  [b~)  hind  wings  to  be  traced  in  all,  and  often  well  marked. 
The  position  of  this  spot  varied  from  being  imbedded  in  the  median  line,  to  half- 
way between  median  and  basal  lines.  Mr.  Bayne  exhibited  Demas  coryli,  Tephro- 
sia consonaria,  Emmelesia  ajjinitata  and  Ephyra  porata  from  Epping.  Mr.  Battley 
reported  that  he  had  met  with  Hesperia  lineola  commonly  on  July  14th  between 
Benfleet  and  Leigh.  He  thought  that  it  was  more  sluggish  than  H.  linea,  and  it 
was  very  easy  to  detect  the  difference  between  these  two  species  when  at  rest. 
[We  have  taken  these  records  from  the  reports  in  Mr.  Tutt's  useful  "  Entomo- 
logists' Record." — Ed.]. 

"  Assembling  "  of  Geometer  Moths. — The  mysterious  phenomenon  of  the 
attractive  influence  of  a  virgin  female  moth  is  well  known  to  occur  amongst  various 
groups  of  the  Bombicidae,  but  the  records  of  the  "  'sembling  "  power  are  much 
fewer  in  other  families.  It  may  therefore  be  worth  while  to  print  the  following 
observations: — In  mid-June  last,  having  a  number  of  pupas  of  Amphidasis 
betularia,  the  cage  containing  them  was  placed  at  the  window  of  an  upper  room 
overlooking  my  garden  at  Buckhurst  Hill,  a  great  extent  of  forest  and  thickly- 
wooded  park  land  lying  beyond.  As  the  female  "  pepper  moths  "  emerged  in  the 
cage  an  astonishing  sight  presented  itself.  For  several  successive  nights  numbers 
of  male  moths  congregated  to  the  spot  and  flew  around  the  cage  and  into  the 
room.  Scores  might  have  been  easily  taken,  and  most  of  them  were  in  fine  con- 
dition. When  the  cage  was  taken  into  the  garden,  a  few  moths  were  attracted, 
but  nothing  like  the  swarm  around  the  upper  window.  My  brother  and  I  had 
previously  noticed  this  "  'sembling  "  in  two  other  species  of  Geometrae.  In  New 
Forest,  many  years  ago,  we  observed  numbers  of  the  pretty  "  emerald  moth," 
Hemithea  strigata,  all  males,  flying  aronnd  a  small  bush,  and  a  careful  search 
revealed  a  female  ensconced  therein.  On  another  occasion,  in  May,  1875,  a 
similar  phenomenon  was  observed  in  Epping  Forest,  near  Woodford,  the  species 
being  the  common  "  brimstone  moth,"  Ritmia  luteolata.  It  is  worthy  of  note  that 
in  the  "  Entomologist  "  for  May,  our  member,  the  Rev.  G.  H.  Raynor,  records  a 
remarkable  instance  of  "  'sembling  "  in  the  case  of  Brephos  parthenias,  a  moth 

M    2 


172  NOTES — ORIGINAL    AND    SELECTED. 

formerly  classed  with  the  Noctuae,  but  now  grouped  in  a  special  famil}'.  Mr. 
Raynor's  experience  was  in  a  wood  near  Warley,  Essex,  in  April  last.  Having 
caught  a  {<im^[&  part/ienias,  his  net  was  soon  a  centre  of  attraction  for  the  males, 
which  continued  to  come  both  with  the  wind  and  against  it.  It  is  very  desirable 
that  such  cases  should  be  recorded,  so  that  we  may  get  to  know  how  far  the  habit 
attains  with  moths,  and  indeed  ar-iong  insects  generally. — WILLIAM  CoLE,  Buck- 
hurst  Hill,  August,  1891. 

Hippuris  vulgaris,  L.  (Common  Marestail). — I  found  an  abundance  of 
this  singular  plant  in  the  Stour  river  near  Sudbury,  last  June.  As  it  is  compara- 
tively scarce  in  our  county,  the  occurrence  of  the  plant  maj'  be  worth  a  record. — 
J.  C.  Shenstone,  Colchester. 

The  Highest  Land  in  Essex. — Arising  out  of  a  statement  as  to  the  height 
of  Danbury  in  the  programme  of  the  Chelmsford  to  Maldon  meeting  of  the  Club, 
some  correspondence  on  the  moot  point  as  to  which  part  of  Essex  stands  highest 
above  Ordnance  Datum  has  appeared  in  the  "  County  Chronicle."  It  is  ver}' 
clear  that  Danbury  must  hide  its  diminished  crest,  and  lose  the  distinction  so  long 
assigned  to  it  in  the  local  guide-books  of  being  the  "highest  point  in  E!ssex." 
We  referred  the  question  to  our  Vice-president,  Mr.  T.  V.  Holmes,  and  he  has 
furnished  us  with  data,  taken  from  the  new  Ordnance  Sheets,  which  show  that  the 
highest  land  in  Essex  is  in  the  N.W.  corner  of  the  county.  The  following  are  a 
few  data  :  — 

Danbury  (a  mile  N.  of  Little  Baddow  Road)    .         .         332  ft. 
Road  close  to  Warley  Barracks  ....         378  ,, 

Langdon  Hills 378  „ 

Epping  Forest  (a  few  miles  N.  of  Ambresbury  Banks)      379  „ 
Great  Chishall  ........         479  ,, 

Between  Great  Chishall  and  Langley         .         .         .         485  ,, 
This  last  spot  seems  entitled  to   the   honour  of  being   the  "highest  land  in 
Essex." — Ed. 

John  Constable,  R.A.,  and  the  Valley  of  the  Stour. — In  one  of  the  writ- 
ings of  this  delightful  nature-artist,  he  says,  "  I  associate  my  careless  boyhood  with 
all  that  lies  on  the  banks  of  the  Stour  ;  those  scenes  made  me  a  painter,  and  I  am 
grateful."  His  finest  pictures  were  carefully  studied  scenes  in  that  neighbour- 
hood, in  which  he  was  born,  and  to  which  he  ever  and  again  returned  for  fresh- 
ness and  vigour. 

An  interesting  article  on  "  Constable's  Country,"  by  Mr.  C.  L.  Burns,  hasjust 
appeared  in  the  "  Magazine  of  Art  "  (June,  1891),  which  is  well  illustrated  by 
several  views  ;  Flatford  Lock  and  Blackwater,  the  mill  at  Flatford,  where  he  was 
born,  and  Willy  Lott's  house,  the  original  of  his  fine  picture,  "  The  Valley  Farm," 
are  therein  depicted.  The  sketch  of  East  Bergholt  church  is  also  of  interest  to 
those  who  know  the  old  edifice  with  its  ruined  foundation  of  a  tower,  which  never 
was  (so  it  is  said)  erected  ;  and  the  peal  of  bells  is  housed  in  the  churchyard, 
under  a  massi\e  structure  of  timber,  with  red  tiled  roof. 


173 


THE   ESSEX    FIELD    CLUB  AND    THE    COUNTY 
COUNCIL  OF  ESSEX. 

'T^  HE  outcome  of  the  Club's  application  for  a  grant  to  carry  on 
-^  scientific  and  technical  instruction  work  in  the  county  (fully 
set  forth  in  the  last  vol.  (iv.)  of  the  Essex  Naturalist,  pp.  258-262), 
has  been  the  appointment  of  a  hybrid  committee  for  the  purpose  of 
assisting  in  the  endeavour  to  establish  a  system  of  technical  instruc- 
tion in  Essex.  At  the  County  Council  meeting  held  on  July  7th, 
1 89 1,  the  scheme  of  the  Technical  Instruction  Committee  was 
adopted,  which  included  the  following  recommendations.  It  should 
be  stated  that  by  the  scheme  the  extraordinary  plan  of  dividing  the 
major  portion  of  the  money  received  under  the  Local  Taxation  Act, 
1890,  among  local  authorities,  on  the  basis  of  id.  in  the  j£,  of  the 
assessment  to  the  county  rate  of  the  district  concerned,  was 
adopted  : — 

{a)  That  a  sum  not  exceeding  ^250  be  granted  to  an  Organis- 
ing Joint  Committee  consisting  of  six  members  of  this 
Committee  and  six  members  of  the  Essex  Field  Club  for 
administration  purposes,  and  the  constitution  of  a  centre 
for  the  supply  of  lecturers  and  teachers,  whose  services 
will  be  paid  for  by  the  Urban  Authorities  or  Local  Com- 
mittees engaging  them. 
{b)  That  a  sum  not  exceeding  ^^500  be  granted  to  the  same 
Joint  Committee  for  the  purchase  of  apparatus  and  dia- 
grams, which  are  to  be  the  property  of  the  Council,  and 
that  a  sum  not  exceeding  ^i^ioo  be  granted  to  the  said 
Committee  for  the  storage  and  carriage  of  such  apparatus 
and  diagrams. 
{c)  That  a  sum  not  exceeding  ^50  be  granted  to  the  same  Joint 
Committee,  to  be  expended  in  lectures  under  the  direction 
of  the  Essex  Bee-keepers'  Association. 
{d)  That  Local  Committees  throughout  the  county,  especially  in 
rural  districts,  be  recommended  to  make  application  to  the 
said  Joint  Committee  or  the  Essex  Agricultural  Society,  for 
aid  in  lecturers  or  teachers,  obtaining  apparatus  and 
materials,  the  conducting  of  examinatious,  and  seeking  help 
and  guidance  generally. 


174  MONK    WOOD,    IN    LOUGHTON. 

The  following  are  the  members  of  the  Organising  Joint  Com- 
mittee appointed  by  the  County  Council  and  the  Council  of  the 
Essex  Field  Club  respectively  : — 

{On  behalf  of  the  County  Council)  Mr.  E.  N.  Buxton,  J. P.,  Mr. 
E.  A.  Fitch,  F.L.S.,  Mr.  J.  H.  Burrows,  Mr.  S.  W.  Squier,  J. P., 
Mr.  F.  West  and  Mr.  W.  B.  Vv'hittingham.  {On  behalf  of  the  Club) 
Prof.  G.  S.  Boulger,  F.L.S.,  F.G.S.,  Mr.  F.  Chancellor,  J. P.,  Prof  R. 
Meldola,  F.R.S.,  F.C.S.,  Sir  Henry  E.  Roscoe,  M.P.,  F.R.S.,  Mr.  F. 
W.  Rudler,  F.G.S.,  and  Mr.  J.  C.  Shenstone,  F.R.M.S.  At  the 
first  meeting  of  the  Committee  held  on  July  20th,  Mr.  W.  Cole  was 
appointed  Secretary.  It  is  too  early  yet  to  report  any  of  the  work  of 
the  Committee,  which  it  is  hoped  will  be  of  considerable  assistance 
in  the  very  difficult  task  now  undertaken  by  the  County  Council. 


MONK    WOOD,    IN     LOUGHTON. 
A     FRAGMENT     OF     FOREST     HISTORY.' 

By  W.  C.  WALLER,  M.A. 

A  LMOST  anything  connected  with  Epping  Forest  seems  to  come 
within  the  catholic  embrace  of  the  Essex  Field  Club,  and  a 
note  or  two  concerning  Monk  Wood,  in  Loughton,  may,  perhaps,  not 
be  refused  a  place  in  the  Essex  Naturalist.  It  has  probably 
occurred  to  many  a  rambler  through  the  woodland  to  ask  himself,  as 
he  passed  from  the  stunted  growth  of  pollards  which  are  the  legacy 
of  lopping  rights,  into  the  great  shady  wood  with  its  carpet  of  russet- 
gold,  how  it  came  about  that  this  particular  spot  fared  otherwise  than 
the  rest  of  the  Forest.  He  may  have  asked  a  question  and  been  told 
that  "fuel-assignments"  used  to  be  made,  and  that  this  was  the  "assign- 
ment "  of  the  lords  of  the  manor,  who  dealt  more  gently  with  their 
woods  than  people  whose  notions  of  primogeniture  and  inheritance 
were  less  well  developed.  But  the  history  of  Monk  Wood  goes  back 
beyond  the  comparatively  modern  days  of  "  assignments "  and 
"  lopping  rights." 

Somewhere  about  the  beginning  of  the  thirteenth  century  one 

I  Authorities :    Harl.    MS.   4809.     D.  of  Lane.  :  Surveys  and  Depositions  ;   24  Eliz.     D.   of 
Lane.  ;  Misc.  Ree.  ;  xxv.  F.  17  a. 


MONK    WOOD,    IN    LOUGHTON.  175 

part  of  I,oughton  was  called  "  Luketon  Snarringe,"*  as  being,  or 
having  been,  the  fee  of  one  Cleoffrey  de  Snarring.  He,  we  may  say 
in  passing,  was  probably  an  under-tenant  of  the  great  Norman 
barony  of  de  Valoines  in  Essex,  as  in  Norfolk  ;  from  a  place  in  the 
latter  county,  now  called  Snoring,  he  seems  to  have  derived  his 
name.  It  appears,  however,  that  he  had  granted  at  any  rate  some 
portion  of  his  estate  to  three  owners,  who  held  a  certain  wood  in 
Luketon  Snarrynge  in  common,  though  their  shares  were  not  equal. 
But  at  this  point  it  will  be  well  to  let  two  of  them,  Geoffrey  Renitot 
and  Roger  Fitz-Ailmar,  speak  for  themselves  through  the  medium  of 
an  interpreter,  their  own  words  being  recorded  in  monkish  Latin  : — 

"  To  all  the  faithful  in  Christ,  Geoffrey  de  Renitot  and  Roger 
Fitz-Ailmer  send  greeting  in  the  Lord.  Be  it  known  unto  all  men 
that  Ralph  de  Assartis  and  we  ourselves  having  measured  of  our 
commonwood  in  the  parish  of  Loughton,  fifty-six  acres  and  a-half, 
and  Ralph  having  demised  his  share  to  the  Abbot  and  monks  of 
Stratford,^  we,  for  our  own  salvation  and  that  of  our  [kinsfolk], 
granted,  gave,  and  by  this  charter  have  confirmed,  to  God  and  the 
Church,  and  to  the  Canons  Regular  of  the  Holy  Cross  of  Waltham, 
all  our  part  of  the  aforesaid  wood  with  the  land  and  all  the  right  we 
had  therein,  or  could  have,  as  in  the  felling  and  carrying-away  of 
trees,  and  in  pannage  at  pannage-time,  with  everything  else  by  any 
right  pertaining  to  us,  to  be  had  and  held  by  the  said  church  and 
canons  in  free,  pure,  and  perpetual  alms,  free  and  quit  from  all 
secular  service  or  demand  from  us  and  our  heirs  for  ever.  And  it  is 
to  be  noted  that  of  the  aforesaid  wood  and  land,  fifty-six  acres  and 
a-half  by  measure,  our  share  was  a  fourth  part  in  all  the  advantages 
mentioned,  and  others  which  might  casually  accrue,  to  be  received 
in  common  between  the  said  Ralph  de  Assartis  and  ourselves.  And 
we  and  our  heirs  will  for  ever  guarantee  against  all  men  this  part  of 
the  wood  and  land,  with  the  appurtenances  thereof,  as  is  aforesaid, 
to  the  said  church  and  canons,  as  our  free,  pure,  and  perpetual  alms. 
And  for  this  grant,  donation,  and  the  confirmation  of  this  our  charter, 
the  aforesaid  canons  have  received  us  for  ever  in  the  prayers  and 
other  benefits  of  their  house.     These  being  witnesses,  &c." 

Not  content  with  this  joint  declaration  of  their  gift,  Geoffrey  and 
Roger  proceeded  to  execute,  each  of  them,  separate  deeds,  couched 
in  much  the  same  terms.  The  names  of  four  witnesses  are  appended 
to  the  charter  of  the  former,  viz.,  Nicholas  de  Barton.  (Barrington)  ; 

2  II  may  have  been  a  small  manor.     That  a  hill  on  the  southern  border  of  Monk  Wood  is 
still  called  "  Court  Hill,"  is  a  significant  fact. 

3  Unfortunately  no  cartular>'  of  the  Abbey  of  Stratford  Langthorne,  if  it  exist,  is  accessible- 
That  said  to  be  preserved  in  Trin.  Coll.,  Dublin,  is  a  fragment  of  three  pages  only. 


176  MONK    WOOD,    IN    LOUGHTON. 

William  de  Bosco,  Richard  Alcher  and  Gregory  de  Thayden.  The 
last  is  probably  identical  with  the  man  of  that  name  who  was  a 
Verderer  in  a.d.  1250. 

Nor  was  this  the  conclusion  of  the  whole  matter.  Following  on 
the  three  charters  just  recited  we  have  two  others,  from  which  we  learn 
that  both  Roger  and  Geoffrey  still  had  seventeen  acres  of  wood  and 
waste  left  to  them,  of  which  Roger's  share  was  three  acres  and  three- 
parts  of  a  rood  (rode),  and  this  they  also  made  over  to  the  canons. 
The  grant  made  by  Geoffrey  was  subsequently  confirmed  by  Edward, 
his  son.  A  pleasing  unanimity  has  marked  the  proceedings  up  to 
this  point ;  but  the  new  joint-possessors  do  not  seem  to  have 
succeeded  in  maintaining  it.  For,  on  the  Thursday  next  after  the 
Feast  of  Saint  Barnabas  the  Apostle,  in  the  twenty-fourth  year  of  the 
reign  of  King  Henry,  the  son  of  King  John  (June  14,  a.d.  1240) 
Henry,  Abbot  of  Waltham,  ard  Hugo,  Abbot  of  Stratford,  found  it 
desirable  to  meet  in  the  mother  church  of  Chelmsford  and  there  to 
compose  certain  differences  which  had  arisen  over  their  common  wood 
in  Loughton  Snarrynge.  The  result  of  their  meeting  is  recorded  in  a 
charter,  by  which  it  is  solemnly  provided  that,  when  either  Abbot 
wishes  to  fell  any  timber,  the  bailiff  of  the  one  shall  send  for  the 
bailiff  of  the  other,  and  the  two  shall,  by  common  consent,  fix  upon 
four  trees  of  equal  value,  of  which  the  Abbot  of  Stratford  shall  have 
first  choice  as  to  two,  and  the  Abbot  of  Waltham  take  whichever  he 
prefers  of  the  two  remaining.  Into  the  other  provisions  we  need  not 
enter  here. 

So  far  so  good,  says  a  logical  reader :  we  have  a  wood  and  we 
have  monks  ;  but  there  is  nothing  to  show  that  the  wood  was  called 
"  Monk  Wood  "  ;  nor  even  if  it  were  so  called,  that  it  was  the 
particular  wood  which  now  goes  by  that  name.  To  meet  these 
objections,  which  are  reasonable  enough,  we  must  carry  the  reader 
from  the  thirteenth  to  the  second  half  of  the  sixteenth  century,  when 
Elizabeth,  by  the  grace  of  God,  was  Queen,  and,  withal,  lady  of  the 
manor  of  Loughton,  alias  Lucton. 

From  a  Commission  to  survey,  dated  May  20,  1582,  we  learn  that 
"greate  spoyle  and  waste"  was  alleged  to  have  been  committed  in 
the  felling  of  a  parcel  called  "  Moncke  Wood,"  parcel  of  the  Manor 
of  Loughton,  lately  sold  to  Robert  Wroth,  Esq.  by  Thobie  Hough- 
ton, surveyor  of  woods  to  the  Duchy  of  Lancaster.  The  three 
commissioners  named  were  directed  to  repair  to  Mouncke  AVood, 
then  and  there  calling  before  them  Robert  \\'rothe  and  others.    Their 


MONK    WOOD,    IN    LOUGHTON.  1 77 

report  states  that  they  did  so  on  June  i,  and  "the  same  daie  at 
Eppinge,  did  by  the  othes  of  .  .  .  .,  twelve  substanciall  and  honest 
men,  neare  inhabytinge  to  the  said  mannor  of  Loughton,  make 
inquirie  of  the  same,  who,  uppon  viewe  as  well  made  by  them  of  the 
woodes  as  by  seekinge  further  to  understand  of  the  same  .  .  .  have 
made  presentment." 

The  presentment,  or  verdict,  consists  of  detailed  answers  to  five 
articles  of  enquiry  ;  and  as  they  are  brief  and  to  the  point,  we  give 
them  as  they  stand  : — 

(i.)  (i£U  silti  that  there  is  a  wood  uppon  the  waste  soyle  of  the 
said  mannor  called  Muncke  Wood,  containing  as  it  is  measured 
fifty-three  acres,  sixty-five  poles,  at  twenty-one  foote  to  the  pole  ; 
whereof  there  is  waste  ground  in  the  same  that  beareth  no  wood  by 
estimacion  fifteen  acres ;  which  said  wood  hath  been  sold  to  Mr. 
Wroth,  who  felled  the  same.  The  nature  and  kind  of  the  woodd  so 
felled  was  most  oke,  beach,  hornebeame,  and  birch.  The  oaken 
wood  was  lopte  and  some  shredde,  and  the  other  usual  wood  was 
most  lopte,  saving  there  was  felled  by  the  ground  of  the  said  usuall 
wood  to  the  nombre  of  500  younge  trees.  And  as  we  are  certifyed 
by  our  evidence,  it  hath  byn  felled  in  lyke  order  before  at  former 
sales.  The  said  wood  at  the  time  of  the  fellinge  thereof  was  fifteen 
years'  growthe. 

(ii.)  Wit  0ag  that  there  was  late  felled  within  the  said  wood  eight 
timbre  trees  for  making  of  a  pownde  at  Loughton  Hall ;  which  is 
informed  to  be  done  by  warrant  from  Mr.  Chancellor  of  the  Duchy. 
Of  crabtrees  and  hawthornes,  to  the  number  of  618  trees,  and  two 
hollies  being  vert.  And  as  we  are  informed  moste  parte  of  them 
were  dead  in  the  toppe  and  felled  by  carters  and  beaten  down  on 
the  fall  of  the  wood. 

(iii.)  cHe  sau  that  Robert  ^^'rothe,  Esq.,  paid  for  the  same  wood 
to  the  Queen  ^20.  The  charges  of  felling,  &:c.,  stood  him  in  ^^35  ; 
and  he  afterwards  sold  the  said  bargaine  of  wood  to  Phillip  Grenely 
for  ^120,  giving  him  one  year  and  a  quarter's  daie  for  paiment  of 
jCgo.  And  Phillip  Grenely  saith  uppon  oath  that  he  got  not  ^,{^20  by 
the  said  bargaine. 

(iv.)  oSit  say  that  the  verte  felled  in  Muncke  Wood  aforesaid 
was  felled  by  the  foresaid  Phillip  Grenely  between  the  Feast  of  S. 
Bartholomew  and  the  Feast  of  S.  Michael  last  past,  after  Mr.  Wrothe 
had  sold  the  bargain  ofwoode  to  him  ;  but  whether  the  doing  thereof 
is  to  be  accounted  waste  or  not,  we  knowe  not. 

(v.)  (Lite  san  that  the  said  Munckewoodd  hath  byn  three  times 
sold  within  the  mynde  of  man  :  that  is,  one  tynie  by  the  Abbot  of 
Stratford,  and  twice  in  the  Queene's  Majestie's  tyme  that  now  is. 

In  witness  of  this  our  Verdict  we  have  hereunto  sett  our  handes 
and  scales  the  xii.  June,  24  anno  R. 


178  THE    ESSEX    FIELD    CLUB. 

Two  points  are  to  be  specially  noted  in  the  foregoing  report. 
First,  the  area  (fifty-three  acres,  sixty-five  poles)  of  the  wood  ;  and, 
secondly,  the  fact  that  it  was  sold,  presumably  before  the  dissolution 
of  the  monastery,  by  the  Abbot  of  Stratford.  A  search  through 
one  or  two  Ministers'  Accounts  for  proof  that  Monk  Wood  was 
included  among  the  possessions  of  the  "  late  dissolved  monastery  of 
Stratford  Langthorne,"  proved  vain :  nor  does  it  seems  to  be  numbered, 
with  the  manor  of  Loughton,  among  those  ofWaltham  Holy  Cross.  But 
woods  were  apparently  entered  on  the  rolls  only  when  the  proceeds 
of  their  sale  came  into  the  accounts.  Of  a  great  felling  which  took 
place  in  or  about  a.d.  1488,  we  have  evidence  in  a  Forest  Roll  (4 
Hen.  Vn.),  according  to  which  a  certain  Christopher  Stubbes,  of 
Loughton,  was  presented  for  having  cut  down  100  loads  of  timber 
and  wood  in  Monk  Wood,  called  "le  King's  wast  soile",  and  for  the 
bark  of  the  same  received  viij.  s.  The  explanation  of  this  would 
seem  to  be  that  the  Abbot  had  sold  the  wood  to  Stubbes,  without 
first  obtaining  a  licence  to  fell. 

The  evidence,  however,  seems  sufl!icient  to  warrant  the  identifica- 
tion of  the  Abbots'  Wood  in  Luketon  Snarringe  with  that  now 
known  as  Monk  Wood,  in  Loughton. 


THE    ESSEX    FIELD    CLUB. 

Field    Meeting    at    Newport,    (Juendon,    &c. 

Monday,  March  30th,  1891. 

On  the  kind  invitation  of  Lieut.-Col.  A.  M.  Cranmer-Byng  a  meeting  was  held  in 
the  Newport  district,  which,  notwithstanding  the  cold  and  ungenial  weather,  was 
a  very  pleasant  gathering,  largely  attended  by  members  from  many  parts  of  the 
county. 

Some  members  went  down  to  Saffron  Walden  on  the  previous  Saturday,  for 
the  purpose  of  visiting  the  museum,  and  various  places  of  interest  in  and  about 
the  town.  All  assembled  in  Newport  at  half  past  ten,  waiting  there  until  about 
one  o'clock  for  the  later  arrivals,  and  spending  the  time  in  viewing  this  very 
interesting  village. 

It  was  formally  a  market  town  (and  known  as  "  Newport  Pond  "  from  a  piece 
of  water  at  the  S.  end,  now  drained),  standing  on  the  (Roman)  road  to  Can>- 
bridge.  It  was,  in  pre-railroad  days,  a  place  of  considerable  bustle  and  importanca. 
The  ancient  houses  are  well  worthy  of  examination,  including  the  "  Crown 
House  "    (from   the   crown    sculptured   over   the   door),  in  which  according  to 


THE    ESSEX    P^IELD   CLUB.  179 

tradition,  Mistress  Nell  Gvvynne  once  dwelt.  It  affords  a  good  example  of 
ornamental  raised  plaster  work,  but  the  date  of  the  building  (close  to  the  end  of 
the  17th  century)  hardly  accords  with  that  of  the  frail  beauty  of  the  "  Merry 
Monarch's  "  court.  It  was  formerly  an  inn,  with  the  sign  of  the  "  Horns,"  and  it 
is  said  that  Charles  II.,  the  Duke  of  York,  and  Nell  Gwj-nne  used  to  stop  there 
on  their  wa}'  to  Newmarket.' 

There  are  some  fine  carved  chimneys  in  the  village,  also  the  house  known  as 
"  Monks  Barn  "  in  the  main  street,  a  timber  framed  edifice  said  to  have  been  used 
in  the  latter  part  of  the  14th  century  by  Dominicans  who  received  rents  and  tithes 
there.  It  has  a  very  noteworthy  bay-window  in  the  upper  story,  facing  w-est, 
underneath  which,  and  forming  part  of  it,  is  a  bold  carving  out  of  solid  oak, 
depicting  the  Coronation  of  the  Blessed  Virgin,  but  this  may  have  been  inserted 
at  a  later  date  than  that  of  the  house  itself.  The  building,  with  its  "'herring- 
bone "  brick  nogging  and  studs,  well  deserves  a  careful  inspection.  The  "  Coach 
and  Horses,"  an  old  hostelry,  from  which,  according  to  tradition,  the  Duke  of 
Buckingham  and  the  Earl  of  Rochester  used  to  post  ;  and  many  very  picturesque 
cottages  and  other  buildings.  In  a  farm  yard  are  still  to  be  seen  vestiges  of  St. 
Leonard's  Hospital  for  lepers,  dating  from  "  Good  King  John's  ''  time. 

A  walk  was  taken  through  the  village  to  the  grounds  of  "  Shortgroves,"  a  man- 
sion of  Queen  Anne's  days  ;  in  the  park  are  some  unusually  fine  timber  trees,  and 
Cedars  of  Lebanon,  one  of  which  covers  with  its  branches  an  area  of  about  eighty 
yards  in  diameter.  On  the  roadside  towards  "  Shortgroves  "  is  a  very  large  block 
of  sandstone. 

The  Vicar,  the  Rev.  G.  F.  Tamplin,  M.A.,  and  Mr.  G.  E.  Pritchett,  F.S.A., 
acted  as  guides  to  the  church  of  St.  Mary  the  Virgin,  Perpendicular  and  Decorated, 
which  w.as  carefully  restored  in  1857  by  Mr.  Pritchett,  but  the  tower  was  re-built, 
because  of  its  dangerous  condition.  The  church  is  a  noble  structure,  consisting 
of  nave,  aisles,  transepts,  tower  porch  and  chancel.  The  mouldings  and  details 
are  good,  and  at  a  spot  near  the  pulpit  the  spectator  may  see  first,  second  and 
third  pointed  work.  In  the  parvise  over  the  S.  porch  is  a  remarkably  fine  oaken 
chest  of  unusual  size.  On  the  interior  of  its  lid  are  early  painted  panels  ;  it  is 
carved  and  moulded  elaborately,  and  it  has  many  old  locks.  How  the  chest  was 
got  into  the  parvise  is  a  mystery,  as  the  staircase  is  narrow,  and  the  window  too 
small  to  aJmit  the  great  box  without  considerable  disturbance  of  the  masonry. 

The  lectern  is  of  oak  and  of  early  type  ;  the  pedestal  is  hollow  ;  the  revolving 
portion  for  holding  the  chained  Bible  can  be  let  up  and  down  to  the  required 
height  and  is  secured  by  a  spring  let  into  the  woodwork.  There  is  an  inscription 
on  brass  let  into  this  lectern  which  reads  as  follows  :  "  In  the  year  l535  the  first 
complete  translation  of  the  Bible  was  published,  and  in  1535  came  out  the  king's 
command,  that  a  copy  thereof  should  be  set  up  in  every  church.  Then  the  people 
long  thirsty  for  the  Word  rushed  to  the  waters  of  life  and  drank  freel}'.  Shall  we 
have  known  more  and  felt  greater  mercy  and  shall  we  love  less."  The  west  tower 
is  very  lofty  and  has  four  octagonal  turrets  on  its  summit.  In  consequence  of  its 
having  been  shattered  by  lightning  and  having  a  faulty  foundation,  it  became 
unsafe.    It  was  rebuilt  in  1855,  re-using  the  original  material  and  the  Barnack  free- 

I  Mr.  Probert  says  (in  Trans.  Essex  Arch.  Soc,  v.  (ist  ser.)  p.  77)  that  he  has  seen  a  play 
in  which  the  scene  was  laid  at  the  "  Horns"  at  Newport,  the  King,  Nell  tiwynne,  &c.,  figuring 
as  characters  in  it.  He  adds,  "  Tradition  s.iys  that  they  used  to  come  with  pack-horses  by  the 
Great  North  Road,  via  Rickling,  and  the  lane  near  Wicken  Honhunt,  still  called  '  London  Lane  ; ' 
ihen  along  the  ancient  roid  at  the  foot  of  Uury  Field  in  Newport  ;  then  along  the  back  of  the 
Bury  water  House  and  so  emerging  opposite  the  Crown  House." 


loo  THE    ESSEX    FIELD    CLUB. 

stonework  so  as  to  reproduce  the  tower  as  nearly  as  possible  in  its  details  and 
dimensions.  This  tower  is  very  similar  to  that  of  Great  St.  Mary's,  Cambridge, 
and  may  have  been  construct^  originally  by  the  same  builders  ;  it  forms  a 
striking  feature  in  the  landscape  and  especially  so  when  seen  from  Shortgroves 
Park. 

Quitting  the  church,  the  ramble  was  continued  along  the  lanes  and  across  the 
fields  to  Quendon  Hall.  Although  there  were  gleams  of  bright  sunshine  the 
weather  was  very  cold,  with  a  keen  north  wind  blowing,  bringing  snow  storms  at 
intervals.  No  plants  were  in  blossom,  with  the  exception  of  a  few  primroses  in 
sheltered  nooks  here  and  there,  and  of  course  insects  were  absent.  In  the  hedge- 
rows Mr.  Crouch  and  others  found  a  few  Helices  : — Helix  aspersa,  H.  nemoralis, 
H.  kortensis,  H.  ru/escens  (deep  reddish-brown  in  colour),  H.  rotundata^  H. 
hispida  and  H.  cantiana.  Also  Hyalinia  {Zonites)  cellaria,  and  some  glassy  shells 
of  Vitrina  pellucida. 

In  the  park  we  were  met  by  our  kind  host,  Col.  A.  M.  Cranmer-Byng,  and  a 
very  pleasant  stroll  was  taken  in  the  finely  wooded  domain.  The  herd  of  deer  was 
much  admired  ;  it  was  stated  to  have  been  maintained  in  the  park  for  over  200 
years.  A  buck  and  doe  in  the  herd  are  pure  white.  Some  of  the  trees  in  the  park 
are  very  fine  ;  two  oaks  were  measured,  one  was  17  feet  3  inches,  and  the  other  20 
feet  2  inches  in  girth  about  3  feet  from  the  ground.  Col.  Cranmer-Byng  pointed 
out  a  tumulus  in  the  park,  which  appears  to  be  well  worthy  of  careful  examina- 
tion, and  some  very  curious  depressions  or  pits,  which  occasionally  make  their 
appearance  in  the  fields  without  warning,  and  are  consequently  dangerous.  Some 
discussion  took  place  as  to  their  nature,  whether  natural  swallow-holes  in  the 
chalk,  or  whether  they  owe  their  origin  to  excavations  of  the  nature  of  Dene-holes. 
The  hope  was  expressed  that  some  investigations  might  be  carried  out  in  order  to 
solve  the  question. 

Quendon  Hall  is  of  considerable  antiquity.  Although  portions  have  been 
pulled  down  and  altereJ,  it  still  has  a  striking  appearance.  The  present  south 
front  is  pretty  well  known  to  be  the  work  of  Wyatt,  but  it  is  not  in  character  with 
the  original  design  of  the  mansion.  A  long  and  wide  gallery  on  the  chamber 
floor  extends  the  whole  hngth  of  the  hall  front,  west  to  east,  and  the  rooms 
entered  from  this  gallery  have  glazed  double  doors  of  Georgian  character.  The 
hall  contains  mucn  fine  oak  panelling,  old  china,  and  good  paintings,  including  a 
portrait  of  Archbishop  Cranmer,  by  Holbein.  At  the  back  of  the  house  is  a  mag- 
nificent avenue  of  limes. 

At  the  mansion  the  party  (a  large  one)  received  a  most  cordial  welcome  from 
Colonel  and  Mrs.  Cranmer-Byng  and  members  of  the  family,  who  did  all  in  their 
power  to  make  the  visit  a  pleasant  one.  Luncheon  was  served  in  the  fine  dining 
hall,  and,  although  owing  to  want  of  time  the  Ordinary  Meeting  intended  to  have 
been  held  in  the  hall  was  postponed  until  evening,  on  the  motion  of  Mr.  Fitch,  as 
President,  a  most  hearty  vote  of  thanks  was  passed  to  our  kind  host  and  hostess 
by  acclamation.  Col.  Cranmer-Byng  replied,  and  shortly  afterwards  the  party 
left  for  a  walk  to  Rickling  for  the  purpose  of  seeing  the  very  interesting  church 
(All  Saints)  principally  of  very  early  date  (parts  being  supposed  to  be  Saxon)  but 
which  is  of  mixed  styles,  having  experienced  many  alterations  and  additions.  The 
Rood-screen  is  of  late  "  first-pointed  "  style  of  very  good  detail.  The  pulpit  dates 
from  pre-reformation  periods  ;  the  chancel  has  a  oaken  roof,  and  there  is  a  modern 
reredos  both  of  fine  Flemish  work.  On  the  quoins  about  the  chancel  and  on  its 
prieit's  south-doorway  are   incised  mediaeval  scrolls  and  lettering,  also  a  curious 


THE  e;ssex  field  clur.  i8i 

demi-figure  supposed  to  be  a  Mediaeval  caricature.  A  mural  monument  in  the 
vestry  is  dedicated  to  the  memory  of  Robert  Turner  who  "  dyed  the  second  day  of 
Februaf}',  1657,"  it  is  recorded  that  "  it  was  the  deceassed's  advise  to  the  Lyoeingf 
that  noe  man  should  suffer  no  ounces  of  blood  to  be  taken  from  him  !  "  There  are 
also  several  interesting  tombs,  including  an  Easter  tomb  on  the  north  side,  some 
I2th  centur}'  painted  glass,  &c.  The  whole  church  and  its  belongings  are  well 
worthy  of  a  visit  from  ecclesiologists. 

Tiie  President  and  many  members  from  Chelmsford.  Maldon,  &c.,  had  to 
hasten  back  to  catch  their  last  train  home,  but  the  remainder  of  the  party  lingered 
on  the  return  to  Newport  to  inspect  (under  the  guidance  of  the  rector,  the  Rev. 
A.  E.  ToUemache,  and  Mr.  Pritchett)  the  little  church  of  St.  Mary  (?)  Quendon, 
one  of  the  early  "first  pointed"  churches  of  Essex,  consisting  of  nave,  aisles,  chancel 
and  porch.  The  west  wall  is  of  unusual  thickness  and  has  one  large  and  lofty 
lancet  window  in  its  centre,  very  boldl}'  splaved  internall3^  Probably  this  wall 
carried  a  good  bell  turret  ;  it  had  one  of  the  most  ancient  bells  known,  but,  alas, 
it  went  to  the  melting  pot  when  the  church  was  "  restored,"  a  good  many  years 
ago  (1861).  A  singular  feature  about  this  west  wall  is,  that  it  is  not  nearly  at 
right  angles  with  the  north  and  south  walls,  being  about  2  feet  out  of  square,  so 
that  the  north  wall  is  shorter  than  the  south.  There  is  no  apparent  reason  for 
this  departure,  as  the  churchyard  is  not  cramped  in  any  way. 

The  chancel  is  a  rebuild  of  late  15th  century  work.  In  the  north  and  south 
angles  of  the  east  end  are  two  curious  twisted  pedestals,  which,  at  some  period, 
doubtless  carried  two  figures,  probably  representing  St.  Simon  and  St.  Jude,  to 
whom  the  church  may  have  been  dedicated,  but  there  seems  to  be  some  doubt  as 
to  this.  The  original  chancel  was  probably  apsidal.  On  the  occasion  of  the 
underpinning  of  the  north  wall  some  years  ago,  the  skeleton  of  a  man  was  found 
completely  covered  by  the  wall  ;  he  had  probably  been  buried  before  the  present 
quadrangular  chancel  was  built. 

To  the  great  regret  of  many  members  time  would  not  allow  of  the  remainder 
of  the  programme  being  carried  out,  and  the  interesting  and  beautiful  village  of 
Clavering,  with  its  fine  perpendicular  church,  the  embankments  and  moat  of  the 
demolished  Clavingbury  Castle,  and  the  little  village  of  Wicken  Bonant,  were 
reluctantl}'  left  for  a  future  visit  to  this  picturesque  district. 

On  returning  to  Newport  tea  was  taken  at  the  "  Rose  and  Crown  "  Inn,  but 
unfortunately  the  President  and  many  members  from  Chelmsford,  Maldon,  &c., 
had  to  leave  to  catch  the  train. 

After  tea  an  Ordinary  Meeting  (the  124th)  was  held.  Prof.  R.  Meldola,  F.R.S., 
in  the  chair. 

The  following  were  elected  members  :  Messrs.  Leonard  Brown,  Hugh  Cranmer- 
Byng,  ^V.  G.  Gimson,  M.D.,  W.  F.  Kelsey,  T.  F".  Sanderson,  F.  Kemp-Smith,  and 
Miss  Smoothy. 

On  the  motion  of  Prof.  Meldola  a  very  hearty  vote  of  thanks  was  accorded  to 
all  who  had  contributed  to  the  success  of  the  day's  meeting,  including  Mr.  L. 
Cranmer-Byng,  Mr.  G.  E.  Pritchett,  the  Rev.  G.  F.  Tamplin,  the  Rev.  A.  E.  ToUe- 
mache, and  others. 

Mr.  Walter  Crouch  e.xhibited,  on  behalf  of  Mr.  French,  of  Felstead,  two  shells 
of  a  distorted  form  of  Liinncra  palustris,  which  he  had  found  "  in  flood  debris  in  a 
meadow  just  below  the  water  mill  on  the  Chelmer  at  Felstead."  In  these  the 
columellar  of  the  last  whorl  is  widely  reflected  and  gaping,  so  that  the  interior  of 
the  shell  may  be  seen  from  the  anterior  end.     They  appear  to  be  recent  shells, 


152  THE    ESSEX    FIELD    CLUB. 

but  such  a  variety  or  monstrosity  does  not  seem  to  have  been  recorded  or 
described  ;  and  Mr.  Crouch  therefore  provisionally  named  it  as  Z.  palustris, 
mons.  aperta.  Mr.  Edgar  Smith,  F.L.S.,  of  the  British  Museum,  (Nat.  Hist.) 
to  whom  Mr.  Crouch  had  submitted  it,  wrote  "  I  have  had  a  good  hunt  for  any 
notice  of  such  a  growth  of  L.  paliistris  as  you  send,  and  cannot  find  either  figure  or 
description.  The  peculiar  form  of  the  front  part  of  the  aperture  calls  to  mind 
Z.  reflexa,  Say,  of  the  United  States,  the  name  being  suggested  by  the  slightly 
reflected  appearance  of  the  base  of  the  aperture  when  viewed  in  profile.  Of  course 
your  shell  is  much  more  reflexed  than  the  American  species." 

Mr.  Edward  Charlesworth,  F.G.S.,  then  delivered  a  short  lecture  on  his  obser- 
vations on  the  formation  of  flints,  illustrating  his  remarks  by  a  fine  series  of 
examples  of  flints  from  the  chalk  pits  near  Saffron  Waiden.  We  understand  that 
Mr.  Charlesworth  intends  publishing  a  full  account  of  his  observations  elsewhere, 
so  that  we  need  only  refer  to  the  summary  of  the  principal  facts  upon  which  he 
relies  already  printed  in  the  Essex  Naturalist,  (vol.  iii.  p.  225). 

Prof.  Meldola  briefly  discussed  some  of  the  points  in  Mr.  Charlesworth 's 
address,  and  a  vote  of  thanks  to  the  latter  gentleman  for  his  interesting  exhibits 
and  remarks  brought  the  meeting  to  a  close.  The  main  party  of  members  left  by 
the  Doncaster  express  train,  which  the  authorities  kindly  stopped  at  Newport,  but 
some  returned  to  Saffron  Waiden,  and  remained  there  until  Monday.^ 

2  The  veteran  Esse.x  antiquary,  Mr.  Joseph  Clarke,  F.S.A.,  who  accompanied  the  party  in 
his  carriage  the  major  part  of  the  day,  had  kindly  prepared  for  the  meeting  the  following  extracts 
from  the  scarce  pamphlet  "  Poor  Robin's  Perambulation  from  Saffron  Waiden  to  London,  per- 
formed July  1678,"  which  mentions  in  the  best  of  doggerel,  many  of  ttie  places  visited  during  the 
excursion.  Mr.  Clarke  says  :  "  Robert  Winstanley  ('  Poor  Robin  ')  was  the  second  son  of  Henry 
Winstanley,  a  stationer  of  Safiron  Waiden  (who  was  a  man  of  mark,  master  of  the  almshouse, 
churchwarden,  and  was  buried  in  the  church) ;  his  eldest  son  Henry  was  the  celebrated  builder  of 
the  first  Eddystone  lighthouse  and  was  drowned  in  its  fall.  Robert  was  the  author  of  several 
works  of  facetious  criticism  and  the  originator  of  thealmanac,  the  name  of  which  is  continued  down 
to  the  present  day  ;  in  his  time  it  was  a  skit  upon  and  ridicule  of  the  prognostications  of  all  his  con- 
temporaries. After  a  jolly  carouse  at  the  "  Rose  and  Crown  "  with  his  friends  he  went  to  Audley 
End  (then  a  considerable  village)  and  to  the  "  Black  Swan  "  (A'hich  he  ridicules  as  no  such 
thing).  After  passing  Hendell  and  Sparrows'  End  : — 
"To   Newport-pond   my   course    I    next  way         For  having  din'd  and  join'd  a  pint  or  two, 

bent,  Then  forwards  on  my  journey  I  did  go. 

And  in  at  the  sign  of  the  Black  Bull  *  went  ;  And  first  I  came  into  a  town  call'd  Rickling, 

Where  in  a  room  I  had  set  down,  Where  for  to  stay  awhile  I  made  no  stickling, 

When  in  came  my  old  friends  kind  Mr.  Brown,         But  presently  in  at  the  King's  Head  fell. 
And  Mr.  Woomwell,  two  who  love  their  friend,         Where  of  compounding  Dkk  I  first  heard  tell, 
With  true  and  hearty  love  unto  the  end.  To  whom  if  that  it  please  you  to  resort  ye. 

For  though  they  in  another  Town  do  live.  He  for  a  Hundred  pound  will  mortgage  forty — 

They  to  their  neighbour  some  kind  visits  give.  Shillings  a  year,  nor  do  you  think  I  jest, 

'Twas  twelve  o'clock.  Dinner-time  did  approach.         It's  very  true,  indeed,  probatum  est. 
When  men  whet  knives  on  wheels  of  Cart  or        Or  lend  him  lesser  sums,  which  if  you  do. 

Coach  ;  For  twenty  Shillings  he  will  pay  you  two, 

The  Cloth  was  laid,  and  by  the  scent  o'  th'  meat  Not  two  and  twenty  Shillings,  no  such  plenty. 
One  might  perceive  there  something  was  to  eat,  I  mean  he'll  pay  you  two  Shillings  for  twenty  ; 
And  so  it  proved,  for  from  the  pot  Pray  heed  him  then,  and  this  shall  be  your  por- 

Came  forth  a  rump  of  Beef  was  piping  hot  ;  tion 

And  from  the  spit  was  brought  a  Loyn  of  mut-         'Vou  shall  not  need  fear  bping  su'd  for  extortion. 

ton,  From  the  King's  Head   I  out  of  doors  scarce 

Would  satisfy  the  stomack  of  a  glutton  ;  went. 

For  like  a  Loyn  of  Beef  it  might  been  knighted;         But  was  in  Quendon-street  incontinent, 
To  which  our  Hostess  kindly  us  invited  ;  Of    many    a    handsome     Country-house    the 

Which  we  accepted  of,  and  to  delight  her,  station 

Told  her  none  could  deny  such  an  inviter  ;  It  seems  to  be  a  little  Corporation, 

For  she's  a  '\Vidow  of  such  excellent  carriage.  Yet  are  the  houses  not  so  neat  as  strong. 

Would  make  a  Man  most  happy  in  her  Marri-         And  doth  most  to  one  Gentleman  belong. 

age.  For  nothing  on  it  can  you  look  against, 

Being  young,  fresh,   fair,  of  a  most  pregnant         Unless  cause  there  is  ne'er  an  Ale-house  in't. 

wit.  Good  air,  brave  Woods,  and  fine  rich  Meadow- 

And  for  a  kind  good  Husband  sure  most  fit.  ground, 

•  Ci>\c  ill  his  MSS  rails  it  the  "  Red  Bull. "  with  painted  {,'hiss  in  the  windows  Simply  the  animal  may  have 
been  alt«ri'd  in  its  jiaint.  There  is  ii  token  in  the  S.  W.ilden  Museum,  and  several  have  been  found.  .lohii 
Riinham  a  bull.  Boyiic  asiTil)e.s  it  to  Newport.  Salop,  but  it  beloiii;s  to  tliis  village,  as  the  Ruuhanis  are  kiiuwii 
to  liavo  livixi  tliere. 


THE    ESSEX    FIELD    CLUB.  183 

Field  Meeting  in  IlAiNAni.r  Forest  District  and  Barkingside. 
Saturday,  June  20th,  1891. 

A  pleasant  afternoon  excursion  was  made  round  the  Hainault  Forest  district, 
under  the  direction  of  Mr.  Walter  Crouch,  P'.Z.S.,  one  of  the  V^ice-presidents  ;  and 
the  Rev.  W.  S.  Lach-Szyrma,  M.A.,  the  Vicar  of  Barkingside.  Over  sixty  mem- 
bers were  present,  the  drive  commencing  at  Woodford  Station  about  2.30,  and 
though  the  day  was  warm  and  fine  there  was  a  cool  breeze  which  tempered  the 
heat. 

The  route  taken  was  by  the  lower  portion  of  Snakes  (Sakes)  Lane,  and  over 
the  River  Roding,  through  Woodford  Bridge,  passing  the  lodges  and  entrance  to 
the  new  Claybury  Lunatic  Asylum.  On  the  left  hand  the  view  is  very  pretty 
over  the  valley  to  Woodford  Green  and  Buckhurst  Hill.  Thence  by  the  new  road 
through  a  belt  of  woodland,  a  remnant  of  the  Forest  of  Hainault,  disafforested  in 
185 1.  Attention  was  called  to  the  extensive  Asylum  Buildings  on  the  right,  now 
in  course  of  erection,  close  by  Toms  Wood,  and  extending  over  twenty  acres  ;  and 
to  the  view  on  the  left  towards  Grange  Hill  and  Chigwell  Row,  and  across  Fair- 
lop  Plain  (now  under  cultivation)  to  the  wooded  heights  of  Havering.  The  view 
extends  southward,  over  South  Essex  into  Kent,  and  in  front  the  spire  of  Ilford 
Church,  with  Shooter's  Hill  as  a  background.  The  drive  was  continued  by  Toms 
Wood  Hill  and  Lane,  past  Fairlop  Place,  to  Fullwell  Hatch  (named  from  an  old 
mansion  which  formerly  stood  here,  owned  by  Adam  Fullwell  ;  in  the  time  of 
Dorothy  Barley,  the  last  Abbess  of  Barking).  Here  is  the  "  Old  Grey  Goose," 
with  its  motto,  "  Live  and  Let  Live,"  and  opposite,  the  "Old  May  Pole  Inn," 
where  no  doubt  the  May-pole  stood,  and  the  May  dances  took  place  in  the  olden 
days. 

The  party  was  here  joined  by  the  A'icar  of  Barkingside  and  his  family,  and 
proceeded  to  Fairlop  Plain,  where,  close  by  the  site  of  the  famed  "  Fairlop  Oak," 
blown  down  in  1820,  a  paper  by  Mr.  W.  Crouch  on  "  Hainault  Forest "  was  read 
bv  him  from  the  box-seat  of  the  private  carriage  of  Mr.  Green,  of  Hainault  House. 
This  was  compiled  mainly  from  parliamentary  reports  and  acts,  and  other  original 
documents  ;  a  contribution  towards  what  the  writer  regretted  was  still  a  much- 
needed  work,  viz.,  a  well-digested  history  of  the  Forest  of  Essex.  In  this,  after  a 
slight  sketch  of  the  "  Forest  of  Essex  "  and  "  Waltham  Forest,"  a  more  detailed 
account  was  given  of  the  portion  known  as  "  Hainault  Forest,"  which  was  mostly 
crown  land  ;  of  the  old  perambulations  of  1301  and  1640  ;  of  the  three  Forest 
Courts  ;  the  Verderers  for  petty  offences  ;  the  Court  of  Swainmote  for  jury  trials, 
and  the  Court  of  Justice  Seat,  held  by  the  Lord  Chief  Justice  in  Eyre,  till  abol- 
ished in  1777  ;  and  of  the  various  attempts  at  enclosure  and  the  litigation  which  cul- 
minated in  the  act  for  disafforesting,  passed  August,  185 1.  The  subsequent  spoli- 
ation, settlement  of  claims  for  rights  of  pasturage,  estovers  for  fuel,  vicarial  tithes, 
and  poor  widows'  rights  were  then  described  ;  and  a  short  notice  of  the  ancient 
Fairlop  Oak  was  given,  illustrated  by  a  number  of  engravings  of  the  famous  tree, 
some  from  Mr.  Crouch's  and  some  from  Mr.   Furbank's  collections.      In  conclu- 


And  doth  with  evei^-  sort  of  Grain  ahound.  Of  seven  ribs,  three  on  each  side,  and  one  mid- 
The  young  men  there  do  bear  the  Bell  away  iron. 

From  all  the  Towns  about  at  Foot-hall  play.  But  ere  they  laid  them  on  they  did  them  Salt, 

Unto  a  Farmer's  house  I  went  out-right,  A  Shoving-horn  to  draw  down  juice  of  Malt. 

Who  entertained  me  like  to  a  Knight  :  Yet  this  much  of  his  Beer's  strength  I  do  know 

And  though  at  Newport  I  had  din'd  before,  'Twould   well  go  down  without    helps   there- 
Yet  here  with  him  1  must  eat  one  bit  more,  unto  ;  " 
Some  ribs  of  Pork,  new  kill'd,  broil'd  on  a  Grid- 
iron 


184  THE    ESSEX    FIELD    CLUB. 

sion,  Mr.  Crouch  pointed  out  tliat  "to  enjoy  the  woodlands  _vet  left  we  must 
mount  higher  up  into  the  belt  of  the  forest  by  Grange  Hill  to  Crabtree  Wood,  or 
a  piece  by  Hog  Hill,  and  there  as  of  old  the  ladies  can 

Like  Robin  Hood,  still  feel  themselves  the  free, 
And  draw  their  beaux  beneath  the  greenwood  tree." 

Mr.  W.  Cole  added  a  few  remarks  on  some  points  in  the  history  of  the  forest.  [Mr. 
Crouch's  and  Mr.  Cole's  notes  will  be  printed  in  full  in  a  later  number  of  the 
E.N.]. 

The  accompanying  view  of  Fairlop  Oak  is  from  an  old  print  published  at  the 
beginning  of  this  century,  the  block  of  which  has  been  kindly  presented  by 
Mr.  Crouch.     (See  Plate  V.) 

A  slight  sketch  was  also  given  by  Mr.  Crouch  on  the  surroundings,  especially 
relating  to  the  Claybury  Hall  estate  (230  ft.,  O.D.),  and  the  new  Middlesex 
Lunatic  Asylum,  illustrated  by  a  copy  of  the  architect's  (G.  T.  Hine  of  Notting- 
ham) designs  and  ground-plan  and  some  views  of  the  old  hall,  which  will  still 
remain  as  a  prominent  feature  of  the  park.  The  old  bridle-path  through  the 
great  gate  across  to  the  side  of  Toms  Wood  has  since  been  closed,  and  a  footpath 
formed  further  south. 

The  Vicar  discoursed  on  fairs  in  general,  and  "Fairlop  Fair"  in  particular, 
and  the  eccentric  Mr.  Day — "good  Day"  as  he  was  dubbed — who  dined  his 
friends  each  year  on  beans  and  bacon  beneath  the  old  oak. 

The  drive  was  then  continued  by  Oak  Row  to  Mossford  Green,  and  a  visit 
paid  to  Gaysham  Hall,  where  Mr.  Crouch  read  some  notes  on  the  estate,  and 
some  good  old  panelling,  &c.,  was  seen.  In  1360  it  was  the  property  of  Thomas 
de  Sandwich,  proveditor  of  the  household  to  Edward  the  Black  Prince,  who  held 
it  under  the  Abbess  and  Convent  of  Barking,  with  about  160  acres  of  land.  It 
was  subsequently  owned  by  Sir  William  Denham,  Clement  Sisley  (who  built 
Eastbury  House),  and  the  Breame  family,  aisd  was  sold  in  1609  to  Gabriel  Wight, 
in  whose  family  it  has  been  handed  down,  and  formed  part  of  the  estates  of  the 
Hibbit-White  family,  but  was  sold  soon  after  the  death,  in  1867,  of  Mr.  John 
Wight-Wight  of  Blakeley  Hall,  who  died  intestate. 

Lysons  tells  us  that  the  old  Manor  House,  which  was  built  of  timber  and  very 
spacious,  was  pulled  down,  but  Mr.  Crouch  doubted  this  very  much,  and  con- 
sidered that  the  present  house  is  really  a  portion  of  the  old  building.  Due  thanks 
was  rendered  to  Mr.  George  Brown  and  his  family  for  allowing  the  house  to  be 
inspected. 

Returning  to  Trinity  Church,  Barkingside  (built  1840),  on  Mossford  Green, 
the  church  was  inspected,  and  a  visit  was  paid  to  the  school-room,  where  quite  an 
interesting  collection  of  various  objects  had  been  arranged.  The  Vicar  exhibited 
many  historical  relics,  and  some  rare  linguistic  books,  &c.  A  useful  collection  of 
trade  products,  raw  materials  in  process  of  manufacture,  minerals,  &c.,  the  pro- 
perty of  Mrs.  Denham,  and  now  employed  as  a  school  museum,  was  also  arranged 
for  inspection  on  the  tables. 

The  beautiful  grounds  and  greenhouses  of  Great  Gearies  were  then  visited,  by 
special  invitation  of  Mrs.  Whitbourn,  and  the  choice  collections  of  Cypripediums 
and  Orchids  were  shown  and  explained  by  the  head  gardener,  Mr.  Douglas,  who 
is  himself  a  member  of  the  Club. 

The  members  then  drove  to  Little  Gearies,  and  were  most  kindly  and  hospit- 
ably received  by  Mrs.  Edenborough  and  her  family,  cur  member,  Mr.  Edenborough, 
being  away  from  home  through  illness.     After  tea,  most  charmingly  served  on  the 


THE  LOCAL  (ESSEX)   MUSEUM  -Gv///V///.'^. 

It  cannot  be  too  emphatically  stated  or  too  well  known  that  the 
institution  is  for  the  benefit  of  the  whole  county,  and  not  exclusively 
for  that  of  Chehnsford  or  any  particular  district.  It  must,  of  course, 
have  a  home,  and  the  proposed  buildings  are  to  be  erected  at 
Chelmsford  simply  because  Chelmsford  is  a  convenient  centre  at 
and  from  which  the  important  educational  work  that  is  contemplated 
can  be  best  carried  out.  Express  care  has  been  taken  in  the 
amalgamation  scheme  to  guard  against  the  county  town  having  a 
paramount  or  more  than  fair  share  in  the  management.  The  insti- 
tution is  to  be  essentially  and  really  a  county  one,  and  it  is  designed 
for  the  assistance  of  every  student,  whether  a  member  of  the  Club  or 
not,  desirous  of  improving  himself  in  natural  knowledge,  and  in 
contributing  to  the  general  well-being  of  Essex.  The  total  amount 
of  capital  required  for  the  Museum  scheme  is  ^4,000,  and  the 
estimated  annual  expenditure  is  ^400.  Active  work  can  be  com- 
menced in  the  temporary  premises  when  one-fourth  of  the  required 
capital  has  been  obtained. 

The  Council  appeals  strongly  to  the  public  spirit  of  the  inhal^i- 
tants  of  Essex,  and  generally  to  all  those  interested  in  science  and 
in  its  practical  applications,  to  give  the  financial  support  necessary  to 
launch  and  to  maintain  the  Museum,  and  to  help  forward  the  useful 
and  interesting  work  which  will  grow  up  around  it. 

The  property  of  the  Club  will  be  placed  under  the  care  of  the 
following  Trustees  : — 

The  Right  Hon.  Lord  Rayleigh,  D.L.,  D.C.L.,  LL.IX,  F.R.S.  ; 
Lord  Brooke,  M.P.  ;  Sir  T.  Fowell  Buxton,  Bart.,  D  L.,  I'.R.C.S.  ; 
The  Yen.  the  Archdeacon  of  Essex;  W.  M.  Tufnell,  Esij.,  j.l'., 
D.L.;  Professor  Meldola,  F.R.S.,  F.R.A.S.,  F.C.S.  ;  and  C.  P. 
Hope,  Esq.,  M.A. 

Copies  of  .\PPEAL  and  pamphlet  of  papers  relating  to  the  pro- 
posal may  be  had  from  the  //ofi.  Secretaries,  Mr.  W.  Cole,  Buck- 
hurst  Hill,  Essex,  and  Mr.  E.  I)urr.\nt,  90,  High  Street,  Chelm.s- 
ford,  who  will  be  glad  to  give  further  information  to  encjuirers. 

SunscRiF'Tioxs  either  to  the  CAi>rr.\i.  I-"u\i),  or  promises  of 
annual  donations  to  the  M.ainten.anck  Fund,  may  be  sent  to 
Messrs.  Sparrow,  Tufnell  &  Co.,  Bankers,  Chelmsford,  or  to  the 
National  Bank,  Old  Broad  Street,  London,  or  to  the  Treasurer  of 
the  Club,  Mr.  A.  Lockyer,  Mornington  Lodge,  W'anstead,  Essex. 


A     Sf-.I.f-.CTlU.\     FROM     .MESiRS. 

Edmund  Diirrant  &  Co.'s  List  of  Publications. 


The    Ancient    Sepulchral    Monuments    of    Essex.        By 

FiiEU.  Chancellor,  F.R.I. B. A.     Imp.  410,  cloth,  illustrated,  £4.  4.?.  nett. 

Poems.  By  Alice  E.  Argent.  With  an  Introduction  by  the 
Right  Rev.  Bishop  Claughton.     Crn.  8vo,  cloth,  35.  6d.  nett,  post  free. 

Durrant's  Handbook  for  Essex.    A  Guide  to  all  the  Principal 

Objects  of  Interest  in  each  Parish  in  the  County.  By  MlLLEK  CHRISTY, 
F'.L.S.     With  Map,  2s.  6//.  nett,  poat  free. 

"  One  of  the  very  best  Guide  Books  in  existence." — Evening'  Ncivs. 

The  Birds  of  Essex.     A  Contribution  to  the  Natural  History  of 

the  County.  With  numerous  Illustrations,  two  Plans,  and  one  Plate  (form- 
ing Vol'.  II.  Special  Memoirs  of  Essex  Field  Club).  By  MiLLER  CHRISTY. 
Demy  8vo,  scarlet  cloth,  15.?.  nett,  post  free. 

A  History  of  Felsted  School.  With  some  Account  of  the 
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The    Trade    Signs    of   Essex.       A    Popular   Account   of  the 

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Daily  Rays  of  Light  for  Sick  and  Weary  Ones.     Compiled 

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The  Limits  of  Ritual  in  the  Church  of  England.     By  Rev. 

R.  li.  Baktlett,  M.A.,  late  Fellow  and  Tutor  Trinity  College^  Oxford  ; 
Bampton  Lecturer,  1888.  Reprinted  by  permission  from  Contemporary 
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Royal  Illustrated  History  of  Eastern  England.     By  A.  D. 

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Domesday  Book  relating  to  Essex.  Translated  by  the  late 
T.  C.  Chise.\hale-Marsh.  410,  cloth,  2\s,  nett.  Only  a  few  copies 
unsold. 

John  Noakes  and  Mary  Styles.     A  Poem  in  the  Essex  Dialect. 

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Edition,  i2ino,  boards,  6(/. 

The  Symmetry  of  Flowers.    By  John  Gip.p.s.    iSmo,  .sewed,  4^/. 
Forms  and  Services  used  in  the  Diocese  of  St.  Alban's. 

Published  by  authority.     JJsts  on  application. 


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ANNUAL  SUBSCRIPTION— Members,  4s.  6d. ;  Non-Members,  9s.    Post  Free. 

N0S.9-11,V0L.V.]  Price,  Is.  6cl.  [SEPT.-NOV.,  1891. 

Essex  Naturalist: 


BEING    THE 


JOURNAL 

OF    THE 

ESSEX    FIELD    CLUB, 


EDITED    V,\ 

WILLIAM     COLE, 

Hotiornry  Secretary . 


Conlfiits 

The  Essex  Field  Club.     Meeting  at  Barking  Side,  &c.     (Concbidcd)       1S5 

On  Cabinets  of    Natural  History  Specimens    for  Circulation   Among  the   Village 

Schools  of  Essex.     By  F.  W,  Rudler,  F.G.S 186 

Epping  Forest  Rubi.     By  J.  T.  Powell     189 

Notes  on  the  Glacial  Formation  near  Chelmsford.     By  H.  W.  Monxkton,  F.G.S.      ...     191 
British  Annelids,  with  especial  reference,  to  the  Earthworms  of  Essex.     By  Rev. 

Hii.DERic  Friend,  F.L.S 193 

Geology  and  Scenery  of  the  Club's  Voyage  from  Maldon  to  Chelmsford,  August  8th. 

1891.     By  T.  V.  HcLMES,  F.G.S 197 

MoUusca  Occurring  in  the   Neighbourhood  of  Bishop's  Stortford  :  Additions  and 

Corrections.     By  E.  G.  Ingold 202 

Notes:   Original  and  Selected.     Late  Nesting  of  Rooks  at  Felstead  ;  Grey  Phalarope  and 

Common  Skua  at   B^.^dwc-ll  ;  Oysters  and   Mussels  in  the  Crouch   in  1891  ;  A   Hunt  for 

'■  Swallow-iails "  ;  Mclantpyruin  an'ense  in   Essex;    Laburnum   Seeds  Poisonous;    New 

Well  at   Felsle.-id  ;  "Hill  Gravels   North  of  the  Thames";  The   "  Fault  "  at   Wickham 

Bishop  ;  Ancient  Pottery  at  Felstead  ;  Luminous  Appearance  of  the  Crouch  River       .  .     202-205 
The  Essex  Field  Club.     Ramble  from  Chelmsford  to  Maldon  ;  Geological  Ramble  around 

Ch>;lmsford      205-210 

On    the  occurrence  of   ^Vestleton    Beds  in  part    of  N.W.    Essex.     By    J.    French, 

with  Remarks  by  W.  H.  l).\LTi.N  and  H.  W.  MoNCKTDN    210 

Spotted  Eagle  at   Elmstead  and  Leigh:  an  addition    to  the   Essex  Fauna       218 

Notes  on  the  Mollusca  of  the  Thames  Estuary,  with  a  List  of  Species  Observed. 

By  A.  J.  Jenkins    220 


The  authors  alone  are  responsible  for  the  statements  and  opinions  contained  in  their 

respective  papers. 


PUBLISHED    BY    THE    CLUB,    BUCKHURST    HILL,    ESSEX. 
E.   DCRRAXT   &   CO.,  90,    HIGH    STREET,   CHELMSFORD. 

F.nt.  St.itioners'  Hall.] 


CoMMiNlC.ATlO.NS  (iW  AnVERTISK.MK.NTS  should  he  addressed  : — 

The  Editor  of  "THE    ESSEX    NATIJRALIST," 

7,  Knighton  Villa=,  Biirkhiirst   Hill,  Essex. 


THE    LOCAL    (ESSEX)    MUSEUM, 
LIBRARY,  AND  LABORATORY. 


The  attention  of  Members  of  the  Essex  Field  Club,  and  of  all  those 
interested  in  the  practical  study  of  Natural  Science,  and  its  applica- 
tions in  industries,  and  as  a  means  of  general  education,  is  earnestly 
called  to  the  Statement  and  Appeal  for  Funds  for  the  establish- 
ment of  the  Museum  now  being  circulated  by  the  Council. 

The  scheme  has  long  been  under  consideration,  and  it  has  been 
fully  explained  at  meetings  of  the  Club  and  in  the  Essex 
Naturalist.     Its  principal  features  are  as  follows  : — 

With  the  object  of  cstal)lishing  at  Chelmsford  (chosen  as  being 
the  County  Town,  and  also  as  a  central  position  in  Essex)  a  Local 
and  Educational  Museum,  the  club  has  agreed  to  amalgamate  with 
the  Essex  and  Chelmsford  Museum,  under  the  title  of  "  The  Essex 
Field  Club,"  conditionally  on  the  sum  necessary  for  founding  the 
new  Museum  being  raised.     The  main  objects  in  view  are  : — 

(«)  The  formation  of  authentic  collections  to  illustrate  the  Geology,  Miner- 
alogy, Botany,  Zoology,  Ethnology,  Pre-historic  Archceology  and 
Technology,  &c.,  of  ESSEX  and  the  adjacent  sea  and  rivers, 
together  with  an  educational  series  of  specimens  and  preparations  to 
be  employed  for  illustrative  and  teaching  purposes.  Specimens  that 
are  not  of  Essex  origin  will  be  admitted  so  far  only  as  they  serve  to 
demonstrate  the  structure  and  relationship  of  the  local  types. 

(/^)  The  formation  of  a  Local  and  Scientific  Library,  tD  include  (in  addition 
to  standard  scientific  works),  topographical,  antiquarian,  and  other 
books,  manuscripts,  maps,  parliameniar}'  and  official  papers,  pictures, 
jirinis,  &c.,  which  in  any  way  relate  to  the  county  of  Essex. 

(r)  The    establishment    of    a    I,abo:"atory   and    Class-rooms,    with    fittings, 

taratus,  and  instruments  suitable  for  the  preparation  of  specimens 
the  Museum,  and  for  the  practical  study  and  teaching  (either  in 
the  Museum  or  in  selected  local  stations  throughout  the  county)  of 
the  subjects  named  in  paragraph  («),  and  for  promoting  their  practi- 
cal application  in  Agriculture,  P'orestry,  Arboriculture,  Gardening, 
Fisheries,  Manufactures,  Industries,  and  general  education.  The 
laboratory,  class-rooms,  instruments,  &c.,  will  be  under  the  control 
of  the  Council,  who  may  permit  students,  investigators,  and  others  to 
use  them,  and  may  also  lend  instruments  and  preparations  out  of  the 
Museum  buildings  for  purposes  in  furtherance  of  the  above  objects. 

\_Co)tliii!ird  oti  page  3  of  Wrapper. 


THE    ESSEX    FIELD    CLUB.  1 85 

I:i\vn  under  the  trees,  the  members  inspected  Mr.  Edenborough's  large  collection 
of  old  watches  and  other  plate,  arranged  in  the  billiard-room. 

Then  on  the  lawn  an  Ordinary  Meeting  (the  125th)  was  held,  the  chair  being 
taken  by  Prof.  Meldola,  in  the  unavoidable  absence  of  the  President.  The  fol- 
lowing were  elected  members  of  the  Club  : — Messrs.  Thos.  Bird,  James  Round, 
M.P.,  D.L.,  &.C.,  H.  S.  Tabor  and  J.  Lichlenstein  ;  the  Rev.  J.  G.  Hughes,  Rev.  H. 
M.  Milligan,  B.A.,  and  Mrs.  Ferry,  Mrs.  Musselwhite  and  Miss  Maud  Mussel- 
white. 

Cordial  votes  of  thanks  were  accorded  to  Mrs.  Edenborough  and  to  the  con- 
ductors, Rev.  W.  S,  Lach-Szyrma  and  Mr.  Crouch,  for  their  kind  exertions  in 
making  the  meeting  a  success,  and  announcements  of  meetings,  &c.,  having  been 
made,  the  meeting  closed. 

The  party  then  proceeded  to  \'alentines,  where  they  were  kindly  received  by 
Mrs.  Ingleb}',  assisted  by  Miss  and  Mr.  Holcombe  Ingleby.  The  house  was  built 
by  a  son-in-law  of  Archbishop  Tillotson,  about  1690,  who  often  came  here  for 
retirement.  The  "  Bishop's  Walk  "  of  yew  trees  is  in  the  grounds,  which  consist 
of  some  si.xteen  acres,  and  are  exceedingly  beautiful,  and  the  rhododendrons  being 
yet  in  bloom  added  to  the  charm.  A  very  enjoyable  ramble  was  made  in  the  cool 
evening  through  the  grounds  and  round  the  spacious  lake.  Mrs.  Ingleb}^  who  is 
known  so  well  and  deservedl}'  for  her  good  works  in  this  poor  district,  pointed  out 
some  of  the  chief  features  of  the  house  and  the  fine  collection  of  Norse  drinking 
vessels  and  carved  household  goods,  whilst  her  son,  Mr.  Holcombe  Ingleby, 
showed  the  fine  library  of  the  late  Dr.  Ingleby,  his  father,  who  was  a  well-known 
Shakesperian  scholar  and  literary  man,  and  also  subsequently  escorted  some  of  the 
party  round  the  grounds.  Some  remarks  on  the  house,  and  the  old  vine  which 
formerly  existed  here,  were  read  by  Mr.  Lach-Szyrma. 

Some  notes  were  also  given  by  Mr.  Crouch,  with  reference  to  Sir  Charles 
Raymond,  Bart.,  who  lived  here  till  the  death  of  his  wife  in  1778.  He  also 
owned  the  manors  of  Wyfield  and  Cranbrook,  and  built  the  mansion,  Highlands, 
where  he  resided  till  his  death  in  1788.  It  was  he  who  built  in  1785  the  triangular 
tower  on  the  latter  estate,  which  was  then  called  Rajmond's  Folly,  but  now  Ilford 
Castle.  He  intended  it  for  a  Mausoleum  for  his  family,  but  it  was  never  conse- 
crated, and  he  was  buried  in  Barking  Church,  where  there  is  a  monument  to  his 
memory,  erected  by  his  two  daughters. 

The  old  Manor  House  of  Wyfield  (of  which  Mr.  Crouch  exhibited  a  drawing) 
was  standing  in  1800,  but  soon  afterwards  pulled  down.  It  is  interesting  to  note 
that  in  1598  it  belonged  to  John  Tedcastle,  whose  fine  brass,  with  effigies  of  him- 
self and  wife,  is  still  in  Barking  Church  ;  and  curiously,  with  the  date  of  his  death 
«o/  inserted  in  the  blank  space  he  left  for  it. 

The  members  found  it  difficult  to  tear  themselves  away  from  the  place,  so 
pleasing  in  the  cool  evening,  but  at  last  a  start  was  made,  and  the  programme 
finished  by  driving  through  Beehive  to  Clay  Hall,  where  a  short  history  of  the 
Manor  was  given  by  Mr.  Crouch,  and  the  chapel,  cellar,  and  other  remains 
viewed.  This  important  Manor  was  held  by  the  Abbess  of  Barking,  but  was 
leased  for  150  years  to  the  Colte  family.  It  was  afterwards  held  by  Sir  Christo- 
pher Ilatton,  of  the  same  name,  and  inheritor  of  the  estates  of  his  more  famous 
cousin  (the  Lord  High  Chancellor),  who  married  Mistress  Ales  Fanshawe,  and  a 
qnaintl\-  worded  love  letter  of  his  was  read.  The  date  is  about  1601,  and  it 
begins  "  Sweete  Mres.  Ales."  Then,  after  signing  himself,  "  Yrs,  in  all  harty 
affection,"  he  drops  into  rhyme  in  a  postscript  :— 

N 


1 86  ON    CABINETS    OF    NATURAL    HISTORY    SPECIMENS 

"  Thus  have  I  rudely  rigcle  this  paper  saile, 

Soone  maye  hee  waufted  bee  with  happie  gaile  ; 
Nor  needs  it  piratts  feare,  for,  though  it  <lie, 
Loves  endles  trafique  in  this  breast  doth  lie." 

This  Hatton-Fanshawe  alliance  is  mentioned,  though  incorrectly,  and  with 
altered  surroundings,  in  the  Ingoldsby  Legend  of "  Bleeding  Heart  Yard  "  : — 

"  One  Alice  Hatton,  ne^  Fanshawe — a  name 
Which  you'll  recognise,  reader,  at  once  as  the  same. 
With  that  borne  by  Sir  Christopher's  erudite  dame." 

Here  he  built  a  chapel,  which  was  consecrated  in  1616,  but  is  now  used  as  a 
stable.  One  of  the  large  carved  oak  cantilevers  of  the  chapel  roof,  a  stone  tablet 
in  the  granary,  with  shield  of  arms,  and  inscription  of  a  later  owner,  Sir 
Thomas  Cambell,  1664  (who  married  Mar}',  daughter  of  Viscount  Fanshawe),  and 
the  chapel  with  its  niches  and  oval  windows  were  seen  by  the  kind  permission  of 
Mr.  James  Lamb. 

We  may  gain  some  idea  of  the  grandeur  and  size  of  Clay  Hall,  which  was 
one  of  the  most  important  estates  in  this  end  of  Essex,  from  the  MSS.  of  Smart 
Lethieullier  of  Aldersbrook,  recording  the  principal  houses  near  Barking,  about 
1750.  He  calls  it  "  A  noble  seat  finely  situated,  and  commanding  a  pleasant 
prospect.  No  less  than  thirty  rooms  were  standing  within  a  few  years  past,  and 
it  is  now  entirely  pulled  down,  and  a  small  farmhouse  built  in  its  stead."  It  is 
probable,  however,  from  the  inscription  on  the  tablet  mentioned  above,  that  the 
mansion  had  been  added  to,  or  rebuilt,  by  Sir  Thomas  Cambell  about  a  century 
before. 

The  return  drive  was  made  by  St.  Swithin's  Farm  and  Redbridge,  through 
Wanstead  to  Snaresbrook  Station,  thus  ending  a  most  interesting  and  successful 
meeting. 


ON  CABINETS  OF  NATURAL  HISTORY  SPECI- 
MENS FOR  CIRCULATION  AMONG  THE 
VILLAGE  SCHOOLS  OF  ESSEX. 

By  F.  W.  RUDLER,   F.G.S.,  M.A.I. 

Ci<rator  0/ the  Museum  of  Practical  Geology  ;  formerly  Professor  of  Xatural  ScieJice  in  the 
University  College  of  IVales. 

T  ^ /"HEN  the  Essex  Field  Club's  scheme  for  founding  a  Central 
Museum  and  Scientific  Institution  at  Chelmsford  shall  be 
accomplished,  there  is  one  simple  way  in  which  it  may  readily  extend 
its  influence  throughout  the  county,  and  thus  lay  claim  to  wide 
sympathy  and  support.  This  is  by  establishing  a  system  of  lending 
small  collections  to  schools  and  rural  institutions.  A  number  of 
small  cabinets,  cheaply  but  strongly  made,  and  filled  with  attractive 
specimens,  well-arranged  and  clearly-labelled,  should  be  issued  from 


FOR    CIRCULATION    AMONC.    THK    \11.LAGK    SCHOOLS    OF    KSSKX.     187 

the  central  museum,  and  allowed,  under  proper  restrictions,  to  circu- 
late on  loan  among  the  village  schools  of  Essex. 

The  means  of  scientific  instruction  by  object-lessons  would  thus 
be  carried  into  remote  parts  of  the  county,  to  the  great  benefit  of. 
those  least  likely  to  be  able  to  visit  the  Central  Institution.  As 
Matthew  Arnold  said,  with  reference  to  a  different  subject,  "  We 
must  take  this  instruction  to  the  students,  and  not  hope  to  bring 
the  students  to  the  instruction." 

In  Liverpool  the  circulating  system  is  worked  with  marked  suc- 
cess, but  is  confined  to  schools  within  the  boundaries  of  the  city. 
The  scheme  originated  with  the  Rev.  Henry  H.  Higgins,  who  has 
devoted  the  best  years  of  his  life  to  the  development  of  the  great 
Natural  History  Museum  which  adorns  his  city.  A  memorandum, 
embodying  the  suggestions,  was  originally  drawn  up  by  Mr.  Higgins 
in  1884,  and  issued  by  the  Liverpool  Museum  Committee^  The 
scheme  was  duly  accepted,  and  a  few  months  afterwards  Mr.  T.  J. 
Moore,  the  curator,  presented  a  report,-  giving  details  of  the  construc- 
tion of  the  cabinets  and  the  nature  of  their  contents,  illustrated  by 
three  photographs  showing  the  cabinets  laid  open  for  inspection. 
The  work  of  periodically  distributing  these  collections  to  the  schools, 
and  exchanging  them  for  others,  has  developed  upon  Mr.  J.  Chard, 
an  enthusiastic  assistant  at  the  Museum-  ;  and  at  the  Liverpool 
Meeting  of  the  Museums  Association  last  year  he  read  a  paper  on 
the  progress  of  the  scheme.'' 

It  is  satisfactory  to  note  that  the  scheme  has  been  singularly  suc- 
cessful. "That  the  showing  of  specimens  does  interest  the  children 
is  abundantly  proved  by  experience,"  says  Mr.  Chard.  "  The 
promise  to  exhibit  a  cabinet  to  the  children,  and  give  a  lesson  upon 
it,  never  fails  to  secure  a  large  attendance."  Surely  there  is  no 
reason  why  the  success  in  Liverpool  should  not  be  repeated  in 
Essex.  That  the  children  in  East  Anglia — even  the  children  of 
agricultural  labourers  in  rural  parishes — are  capable  of  appreciating 
scientific  instruction,  if  proi)erly  and  agreeably  presented,  was 
amply  demonstrated  years  ago  by  the  notorious  success  of  Prof. 
Henslow's  botanical  lessons  in  the  national  school  of  Hitcham. 
"No  one,"  said  the  professor  on  one  occasion,  "who  had  heard  the 

1  "Proposed  Circul.iting  Museum  for  Schools  and  other  Educational  Purposes."  By  the 
Rev.  H.  H.  Higgins,  M..-\.,  Chairman  of  the  Museum  Sub-Committee.     (Jan.  1884.) 

2  ■' Report  on  the  Progress  of  the  Circulating  Museum  Collections."  By  Thomas  J.  Moore, 
Curator.  (June,  1884.) 

3  "On  Circulating  Cabinets  for  Schools  and  other  Educational  Purposes."  By  John  Chard, 
Assistant  in  the  Liverpool  Museum.  Report  of  Proceedings  at  First  .\nnual  General  Meeting  of 
the  Museums  .\s>ociation,  1890,  p.  54. 

N     2 


l88         ON    CABINETS    OF    NATURAL    HISTORY    SPECIMENS,    ETC. 

lamentations  uttered  [by  the  children  of  the  village  school]  upon  my 
announcing,  at  our  last  lesson  before  Easter,  the  necessity  of  six 
weeks'  absence  at  Cambridge  duties,  could  possibly  have  doubted 
the  great  interest  the  children  take  in  these  exercises."* 

Nor  is  it  only  in  schools  that  cabinets  of  Natural  History  objects 
would  be  valued  as  useful  loans  ;  there  is  no  question  that  they 
would  also  be  much  prized  as  attractive  objects  at  village  soirees  and 
other  social  gatherings,  where  adults  would  have  an  opportunity  of 
inspecting  them.  Their  educational  value  would  obviously  be  much 
increased  if,  when  on  loan  at  any  centre,  arr  intelligent  person  in 
the  locality  would  undertake  to  give  a  demonstration  or  lecturette  on 
their  contents. 

It  will  probably  be  found  desirable  that  the  number  of  specimens 
in  any  single  loan  collection  should  be  small  (perhaps  not  more  than 
twenty)  but  that  the  objects  themselves,  though  not  necessarily  ex- 
pensive, should  be  large  and  attractive,  so  as  to  impress  the  observer 
by  appealing  to  the  eye.  Above  all,  they  should  be  accompanied  by 
full,  descriptive,  and  bold  labels.  The  selection,  arrangement,  and 
labelling  of  the  collections  could  only  be  satisfactorily  carried  out  by 
scientific  assistants,  experienced  in  museum  work.  The  Central 
County  Institution  is  therefore  evidently  marked  out  as  the  place 
where  the  cabinets  should  be  prepared,  and  whence  they  should 
issue.  The  scheme  would  tend  to  gain  for  the  Institution  respect 
and  sympathy  in  all  parts  of  the  county,  even  from  those  who  might 
never  come  within  its  walls  ;  while  it  would  probably  be  the  means 
of  obtaining  from  remote  sources  donations  of  local  objects  of 
interest. 

But  there  is  no  shutting  our  eyes  to  the  fact  that  such  a  scheme 
would  naturally  entail  some  expense.  Money,  which  in  this  sordid 
world  unfortunately  measures  all  things,  will  assuredly  measure  the 
extent  to  which  extraneous  work  of  this  character  can  be  accom- 
plished. The  longer  the  purse,  the  wider  the  work.  But  the  cost 
of  procuring,  arranging,  and  distributing  a  few  small  cabinets  will, 
after  all,  be  but  small.  May  we  not  say  that  it  will  be  utterly  insig- 
nificant in  comparison  with  the  good  which  it  is  likely  to  effect  in 
the  schools  of  the  county  ! 

Every  village  school  is  verily  a  "  workshop  of  humanity" — the  little 
place  where  the  teachers  are  busy  in  shaping  the  intellect  and  charac- 
ter of  those  who  in  the  course  of  a  very  few  years  will  be  doing  the 

4  Memoir  of   the    Rev.     Tolin   Stevens  Henslovv."      By   the    Rev.    Leonard    Jenyns,    M..\ 
London,  1862,  p.  109. 


EPPING    FOREST    RUBI.  1 89 

work  of  the  world.  The  circulating  museum,  if  properly  used,  may 
become  an  unspeakable  boon  in  educating  and  edifying  the  children  ; 
in  drawing-out  their  observational  faculties  and  building-up  their 
reasoning  powers.  If  the  Essex  Field  Club's  Museum  will  aid  in 
such  a  work,  every  educational  realist  will  admit  that  it  will  not  be 
simply  benefiting  the  children  and  teachers  in  this  or  that  village — it 
will  be  indirectly  elevating  the  entire  county. 


EPPING  FOREST  RUBI. 

By   J.    T.    POWELL. 

PART  II.— ADDITIONS  AND  CORRECTIONS. 

HP  WO  more  seasons  among  the  Forest  brambles  have  resulted  in 
several  additions  to  the  list  given  in  the  Essex  Naturalist 
for  1889  (Vol.  iii.,  p.  20),  as  well  as  some  revision  of  that  list. 

I  have  again  been  greatly  indebted  to  Prof.  Babington  for  his  aid 
in  determining  difficult  forms,  and  more  particularly  this  year  have  I 
been  helped  by  the  Rev.  W.  Moyle  Rogers,  F.L.S.,  one  of  our  best 
batologists,  who  has  not  only  named  the  specimens  sent  to  him 
through  the  Watson  Botanical  Exchange  Club,  but  has  in  the  kindest 
manner  rendered  me  invaluable  personal  assistance. 

Mr.  Rogers  refers  to  R.  rho7}ibifolius,  Wei  he,  a  bramble  which 
occurs  abundantly  about  Walthamstow  and  Snaresbrook,  and  which 
I  formerly  placed  under  R.  rhamtiifolius.  We  have  also  plenty  of 
the  robust  rhamnifolius  of  the  English  authorities.  A  form  near 
villicaulis  Mr.  Rogers  identifies  as  R.  pyramidalis,  Kalt.  This  occurs 
sparingly  at  and  near  High  Beach.  The  bramble  previously  recorded 
as  R.  sertijiorus,  P.  J.  Miill,  is  believed  by  the  same  authority  to  be 
a  hybrid,  probably  rusticanus  x  pyra/nidaiis,  in  which  case  the  name 
sertiflortis  must  be  cancelled.  A  very  distinct  form  of  macrophyllns 
has  been  named  by  Prof.  Babington,  R.  amplificatus^  Lees.  This 
occurs  at  Leppitt's  Hill,  Buckhurst  Hill,  and  near  High  Beach. 
The  professor  has  also  given  the  name  R.  plinthostylus,  Genev.,  to  a 
bramble  from  Hawk  Wood,  Chingford,  which  I  had  included  under 
Koehleri.  R.  spretigelii,  Weihe,  recorded  in  1886  by  Mr.  J.  G. 
Baker,  I  have  found  to  be  one  of  the  most  widely-spread  of  the 
Forest  Rubi. 

An  elegant  little  bramble,  entered  in  the  1889  list  as  a  small-leafed 


lyo  EPPING    FOREST    RUBI, 

form  of  radii  I. x^  is  now  referred  by  Mr.  Rogers  with  some  licsitation 
io  R.  echi/iatus,  Lindl.  He  says  :  "Under  R.  echiiiafi/s,  I-indl.,  I 
think.  A  remarkable  and  very  beautiful  variety."  In  this  case  the 
name  radula  will  have  to  be  omitted.  It  illustrates  the  extreme  dif- 
ficulty of  classifying  some  of  the  forms  of  this  most  perplexing  genus 
to  note  that  this  not  uncommon  bramble  has  been  variously  named 
radula,  rosaceiis  and  echinatus.  It  may  ultimately  require  a  name  to 
itself.  Another  bramble,  one  of  the  largest  and  most  showy  I  have 
yet  collected,  is  in  a  similar  case.  Mr.  Moyle  Rogers  says  of  it : 
"  This  handsome  plant  seems  just  intermediate  between  R.  echinatus, 
Lindl.,  and  R.  rosaceus,  W.  &:  N.,  but  with  mature  stems  very  dif- 
ferent from  both."     (Watson  Club  Report). 

Another  bramble  found  about  Walthamstow  has  been  named 
R.  emersistylus,  P.  J.  Miill,  by  Prof.  Babington,  who  has  also  referred 
one  of  the  commonest  forms  under  hirtus  to  R.  saxicolus,  P.  J.  Miill. 
Another  form  of  the  same  group  he  is  disposed  to  place  under  R. 
kaltenbachii.  I  think  we  have  two  of  the  three  varieties  of  R.  coryli- 
folius,  but  will  await  the  confirmation  of  the  authorities  before 
recording  them. 

It  will  be  seen  that  there  is  work  yet  to  be  done  among  the  Rubi 
of  the  forest,  and  that  the  list,  though  growing,  is  not  complete. 

The  following  are  the  additions  : — 

R.  rhombifolius,  Weihe. 

R.  pyramidalis,  Kalt. 

R.  amplificatus,  Lees. 

R.  sprengelii,  Weihe. 

R.  plinthostylus,  Genev, 

R.  emersistylus,  Lees. 

R.  saxicolus,  P.  J.  Miill. 

The  following  two  species,  given  in  ray  former  list,  should  be 
omitted. 

R.  radula,  Weihe.,  and  R.  sertiflorus,  P.  J.  Mull. 


191 


NOTES    ON    THE    GLACIAL    FORMATION    NEAR 
CHELMSFORD. 

By  HORACE  VV.   MOXCKTON,   F.G.S. 
[Kca.i  at  the  Field  Mcctins  on  July  nth,  iSgi  \ 

npHE  sections  which  we  shall  see  this  afternoon'  illustrate  very  well 
tlie  Glacial  formation  of  this  part  of  Essex.     It  consists  of — 

(i)  The  Great  Chalky  Boulder  Clay. 

(3)  The  Glacial  Sands  and  Gravel. 

In  Norfolk  these  sands  and  gravel  are  underlain  by  a  second 
Boulder  Clay  ;  but  here  they  rest  directly  on  the  London  Clay,  a 
marine  formation  of  Eocene  age,  very  much  older  than  the  Glacial 
Period. 

The  origin  of  the  Boulder  Clay  has  given  rise  to  a  great  deal  of 
controversy.  At  one  time  it  was  supposed  to  be  due  to  a  series  of 
great  waves  raised  by  hurricanes  and  storms  which  swept  over  the 
continents,  carrying  mud  and  stones  of  all  sorts  with  them ;  but  that 
theory  has  long  been  abandoned,  and  all  geologists  now,  I  think, 
agree  that  both  the  Boulder  Clay  and  the  materials  of  which  the 
accompanying  sands  and  gravel  are  formed  were  brought  into  this 
part  of  the  country  during  the  Glacial  Period  or  Great  Ice  Age  by 
the  agency  of  ice.  There  is,  however,  a  great  difference  of  opinion 
as  to  the  manner  in  which  the  ice  did  the  work  of  transport.  Sir 
Charles  Lyell  favoured  the  view  that  the  Boulder  Clay  was  formed  of 
mud  and  stones  melted  out  of  floating  ice  when  nearly  the  whole  of 
England  north  of  the  Thames  and  Bristol  Channel  lay  submerged 
beneath  the  sea  ("Antiquity  of  Man,"  4th  ed.,  1873,  p.  273);  but 
many  geologists  now  attribute  the  transport  of  the  material  of  which 
the  (ilacial  beds  are  formed  to  the  agency  of  land-ice,  either  in  the 
form  of  a  vast  sheet  which  covered  a  great  area,  or  to  more  or  less 
local  glaciers.  The  Chalky  Boulder  Clay  is  supposed,  according  to 
the  land-ice  theory,  to  have  been  pushed  or  drawn  along  under  the 
ice,  or  to  have  been  carried  enclosed  in  the  ice  and  deposited  where 
we  now  see  it  when  the  ice  melted  ;  whilst  the  sands  and  gravels  are 
supposed  to  be  due  to  glacial  streams  or  rivers  flowing  over,  through 

'  The  sections  visited  were  in  the  gravel  pits  at  Rainsford  End,  Writtle  Mill,  and  Rolstons, 
all  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Chelmsford  and  Writile.  See  the  account  of  the  Excursion, 
fost. 


192      NOTES    ON    THE    GLACIAL    FORMATION    NEAR    CHELMSFORD. 

or  under  the  ice,  and  to  floods  caused  by  the  melting  of  greater  or 
lesser  portions  of  the  ice. 

The  materials  of  which  the  gravel  is  composed  are — 

(i)  Flint  pebbles  more  abundant  at  Rolstons  than  at  Rainsford 
End,  probably  derived  for  the  most  part  from  pre-glacial 
pebble  gravel,   such   as   that   which  still  caps  the  hill  at- 
Writtle  Park. 

(2)  Sub-angular  flints,  the  brown  colour  of  which  shows  that  they 

have  not  been  derived  directly  from  the  Chalk,  but  from 
older  gravels. 

(3)  Black  flints,  not  much  worn  or  rolled,  derived  from  the  Chalk. 

The  nearest  point  at  which  the  Chalk  crops  out  is  twenty- 
five  miles  distant.  These  flints  have,  therefore,  travelled 
at  least  twenty-five  miles,  and  must  have  been  carried 
embedded  in  ice,  for  they  would  have  been  rolled  and 
water-worn  had  they  been  brought  all  the  way  by  water. 

(4)  Pebbles  of  quartz  of  a  white  or  pink  colour,  derived  either 

from  older  pebble  gravels  or  from  the  Triassic  beds. 

(5)  Pebbles  of  red  and  white  quartzite  from  the  Triassic  beds  of 

the  north.  The  nearest  point  at  which  these  beds  now 
reach  the  surface  is  near  Leicester,  ninety  miles  N.W.,  so 
that  these  pebbles  have  been  carried  at  least  ninety  miles, 
no  doubt  by  ice.  The  presence  of  these  pebbles  in  a 
gravel  proves  it  to  be  either  Glacial  or  formed  of  debris 
from  Glacial  Gravel. 

(6)  Blocks  of  white  quartz  and  of  various  old  rocks,  and  frag- 

ments of  Lias,  Oolite,  &c.,  probably  nearly  all  brought  by 
ice  from  the  north. 

(7)  Small  pieces  of  chert,  originally  from  the  Lower  Greensand, 

but  derived  at  secondhand  from  older  gravels. 

The  Chalky  Boulder  Clay  is  here  mainly  composed  of  Chalk,  and 
contains  pebbles  of  chalk,  chalk  flints,  pebbles,  and  fossils  from 
Oolitic  or  Liassic  strata,  the  whole  having  come  from  the  north. 

The  thickness  of  the  Glacial  beds  is  very  variable,  and  they  rest 
on  a  very  uneven  surface  of  London  Clay,  Chalk,  &c.,  often  filling 
deep  Pre-glacial  valleys,  as  at  Littlebury,  near  Saffron  Walden,  for 
instance  (see  Whitaker  on  "  A  Deep  Channel  of  Drift  in  the  Valley 
of  the  Cam,  Essex,"  Quart.  Journ.  Geol.  Soc,  1890,  p.  333,  and 
Essex  Nat.,  vol.  iii.,  pp.  140-142,  and  vol.  iv.,  p.  T17),  or  banked 
up  against  Pre-glacial  hills  which  in  places  rise  above  them,  as  at 
Writtle  Park.  There  are  some  patches  of  gravel  and  brick-earth  in 
this  neighbourhood  which  are  believed  to  be  newer  than  the  Glacial 
beds,  but  in  none  of  them,  nor,  indeed,  in  any  beds  newer  than  the 


r.RlTISII    ANNELIDS.  I93 

London  Clay  and  Bagshot  Sand,  have  I  been  able  to  discover  any 
trace  of  marine  remains,  excepting  fossils  derived  from  older  forma- 
tions ;  nor  have  I  seen  any  reason  to  believe  that  the  sea  has  flowed 
over  this  part  of  Essex  either  during  or  since  the  great  Ice  Age. 

AVTE.—Ur.  W.  H.  Dalton,  F.G.S.,  finds  fault  with  my  state- 
ment that  the  "Glacial  Drift  of  Essex  consists  mainly  of  local 
material"  (compare  Essex  Nat.,  vol.  v.,  pp.  109,  133);  and  I 
therefore  take  this  opportunity  of  pointing  out  that  of  the  above 
classes  of  materials,  No.  i  may  well  have  come  from  the  Eocene 
beds,  or  Pre-glacial  gravels  of  the  immediate  neighbourhood  ;  Nos. 
2  and  3  from  the  chalk  or  older  gravels  of  North  Essex ;  and  Nos.  4 
and  7  from  the  Pre-glacial  pebble  gravel  (Westleton  shingle)  of  North 
Essex,  leaving  only  classes  5  and  6,  which  have,  no  doubt,  come  from 
a  distance. — H.  W.  M.,  4  November,  i8gi. 


BRITISH   ANNELIDS. 

WITH  ESPECIAL  REFERENCE  TO  THE  EARTHWORMS  OF  ESSEX. 
By  REV.  HILDERIC  FRIEND,  F.L.S. 

TN  these  days  of  detailed  research,  when  every  department  of 
natural  history  is  being  carefully  explored,  and  every  secret  process 
in  the  development  of  life  investigated,  it  is  curious  that  so  little 
attention  has  been  paid  to  our  indigenous  annulosa,  and  especially 
the  ubiquitous,  easily  obtained,  and  readily  studied  earthworms. 
Many  naturalists  seem  to  be  still  under  the  impression  that  we  have 
but  one  species  of  Earthworm  in  the  British  Isles,  the  life-history  of 
which  is  so  thoroughly  well  known  that  nothing  more  remains  to  be 
done  in  the  matter  of  its  study.  No  delusion  could  be  greater.  If 
we  limit  ourselves  entirely  to  genuine  earthworms,  or  Lumbrici,  we 
shall  find  at  least  a  dozen  well-worked  species ;  and  it  is  perhaps  not 
too  much  to  prophesy  that  the  number  will  shortly  be  raised  to  a 
score  or  more.  As  yet,  some  of  the  most  interesting  portions  of 
the  island  (not  to  say  the  British  Isles)  have  not  been  examined 
even  in  the  most  casual  way,  while  even  those  counties  whose  worm- 
fauna  has  been  examined,  may  yet  yield  numerous  other  species 
or  varieties  when  our  researches  have  been  more  thorough  and 
extensive. 


194  BRITISH    ANNELIDS. 

Let  me  first  claim  the  reader's  indulgence  for  a  moment  while  I 
attempt  a  brief  description  of  the  class  of  animals  to  which  the 
earthworm  belongs.  If  we  admit  that  every  member  of  the  animal 
kingdom  must  belong  either  to  the  vertebrates  or  the  invertebrates 
— just  as  every  plant  must  be  a  phanerogam  or  a  cryptogam — then  we 
know  that  worms  are  invertebrates,  because  they  are  boneless.  Now 
the  invertebrate  animals  fall  into  a  number  of  sub-kingdoms,  the 
names  of  which  I  need  not  detail.  One  of  these  divisions,  however, 
must  include  worms,  and  to  it  the  name  of  Annulosa,  or  Articulata, 
is  applied.  The  latter  term,  invented  by  Cuvier  to  represent 
this  sub-kingdom  of  animate  nature,  is  now  usually  replaced  by 
the  former  ;  and  the  Annulose  or  articulated  animals  are  again 
subdivided  into  smaller  groups.  One  of  these  bears  the  name 
of  Annelids,  the  members  of  which  are  normally  distinguished 
by  the  possession  of  a  jointed  body  and  a  double  nerve-chain  on  the 
ventral  or  under  surface  of  the  body.  In  addition  to  the  earth- 
worms, there  are  also  included  in  this  class  the  leeches  and  freshwater 
worms  on  the  one  hand,  and  the  marine  worms  on  the  other. 

Not  one  of  these  groups  is  well  known.  There  are  numerous 
freshwater  worms  in  our  streams  and  stagnant  waters  whose  life- 
history  has  never  been  carefully  worked  out  by  any  British  naturalist 
trained  in  the  new  school  of  biology,  while  the  distribution  of  the 
leeches  is  almost  unknown.  Some  attention  has  been  given  of  late 
years  by  the  marine  biologist,  to  the  curious  and  surpassingly 
interesting  annelids  found  on  our  shores,  but  the  results  of  their 
researches  are  not  in  the  hands  of  the  public.  Under  these  circum- 
stances it  seems  eminently  desirable  that  something  should  be  done 
to  put  us  on  a  level  with  our  continental  and  American  fellow- 
workers  in  this  department  of  science. 

While  I  shall  hope  eventually  to  deal  with  each  of  the  groups 
included  among  the  annelids,  it  will  be  necessary  for  the  present  to 
confine  attention  entirely  to  that  group  which  is  at  once  the  most 
widely  distributed  and  the  most  easily  worked — the  Earthworms  or 
Oligochsetes.  This  group  of  animals  may  be  described  as  pre- 
eminently domestic.  By  this  I  mean,  that,  wherever  man  is  found, 
there  will  the  worms  be  also  ;  w^hereas  they  are  almost  entirely  absent 
from  our  broad  moorlands  and  bleak  mountains,  except  where  the 
cattle  graze,  and  the  collie  seeks  up  the  sheep.  Their  distribution  is 
very  wide.  The  following  hints  will  afford  the  collector  all  the 
information   he    needs  for  starting    him   in  his  pursuit,   experience 


RRITISH    ANNELIDS.  1 95 

being  very  quickly  acquired   by  the   rieUl-worker  after  he  has  made 
one  or  two  excursions. 

1.  Ciardens  and  cultivated  soil,  especially  if  "fat,"  will  always 
yield  a  good  supply.  The  species  usually  found  here  has  been 
ahva}"s  termed  the  earthworm  ( Lumbriciis  terrestris),  but  we  shall 
find  that  this  old  aggregate  term  needs  revision,  and  the  various 
species,  forms  and  varieties,  rearranging.  The  worms  found  in  these 
situations  vary  immensely  in  colour,  size,  shape  of  hinder  extremity, 
and  in  other  particulars,  and  a  good  series  should  be  secured. 

2.  Lawns,  grass  plots,  pastures,  and  the  paths  through  the  same, 
are  also  very  productive.  In  the  garden  or  field  digging  can  be 
resorted  to ;  not  so  very  frequently  on  the  lawn.  Here,  however, 
other  methods  can  be  adopted.  Those  naturalists  who  do  not  retire 
before  midnight  can  carry  a  bull's-eye  on  to  the  lawn  before  going 
to  rest,  and  thus  secure  a  good  supply.  Others  prefer  to  spread 
an  old  carpet  on  the  short  sward.  Nothing,  in  any  place,  succeeds 
better  than  this.  1  have  taken  my  heaviest  "  bags  "  by  the  side  of 
a  stream  where  an  old  piece  of  sacking  has  been  thrown,  while  my 
friends  have  often  told  me,  when  it  was  too  late  to  benefit  by  it, 
what  numbers  of  worms  had  accumulated  under  their  carpets  which 
had  been  spread  on  the  grass.  The  species  differ  in  many  cases 
from  those  dug  from  the  rich  soil. 

3.  Manure  heaps,  lumps  of  compost,  decaying  leaves,  lawn 
grass  in  a  state  of  decay,  quitch  and  rubbish  mounds  on  the  borders 
of  fields  and  occupation  roads  will  abundantly  repay  a  careful 
examination.  Here,  especially  in  very  old  manure  and  thoroughly 
rotten  vegetable  matter,  the  brandling  will  lurk,  while  the  angler's 
gilt-tail,  the  red  worm,  and  others  will  abound. 

4.  Next  away  to  the  stream  or  pond,  to  any  spot  in  fact  where 
water  is  found,  only  let  clay  and  iron  be  absent.  Mineral  waters  do 
not  seem  to  be  required  by  worms  to  keep  them  in  health,  and  clay 
is  not  necessary  to  keep  them  cool.  So  far  as  my  experience  goes 
it  is  useless  to  look  for  worms  here,  unless  there  be  some  unusual 
factor  at  work  to  entice  them.  In  every  other  case  the  pond,  ditch, 
stream,  gutter,  will  yield  a  golden  harvest.  The  stones  should  be 
overturned,  the  tufts  of  grass  pulled  up  by  the  roots  and  carefully 
examined,  and  the  soil  and  debris  dug  up  to  the  depth  of  a  foot  or 
so  for  different  species.  The  curious  little  square-tail  will  haunt  the 
grass  roots  ;  the  turgid  worm,  the  mucous  worm,  and  the  green  worm 
will  probably  be  found  under  the  stones,  and  frequently  fine  speci- 
mens of  the  ruddy  worm  will  occur  as  well. 

5.  Nor  should  the  woodlands  be  neglected.  Under  some  species 
of  tree  no  worms  seem  to  thrive,  while  under  others  they  multiply 
amazingly.  It  is  as  well  to  begin  by  the  hedgerow  where  leaves  and 
vegetable  mould  have  accumulated,  then  work  further  in  towards  the 
denser  parts  of  the  copse  or  forest.  Usually  the  humid  spots  are  the 
best ;  but  I  have  often  found  worms  some  inches  under  the  soil  in 


196  ISRITISH    ANNELIDS. 

drier  places,  coiled  up  in  a  state  of  quiescence,  ana  perfectly  clean 
within  and  without. 

6.  I  need  mention  only  one  other  favourite  habitat.  In  passing 
through  pasture  land  it  is  well  to  overhaul  the  dry  droppings,  the 
stones  or  boulders  which  are  large  enough  to  keep  the  grass  from 
growing,  and  the  decaying  timbers,  old  logs,  unbarked  trees,  and 
other  similar  harbourers  of  uncanny  creatures.  Here  will  be  found 
the  purple  worm,  the  green  worm,  the  red  head,  marsh  worm,  and 
gilt-tail,  with  perhaps  one  or  two  others. 

It  will  be  seen  that  there  are  few  places  where  worms  may  not  be 
sought  with  some  reasonable  hope  of  discovering  sufificient  to  afford 
one  occupation  for  many  days  to  come.  It  will  perhaps  be  well  to 
indicate  here  how  worms  should  be  prepared  for  future  use.  The 
process  is  simple.  The  collector  should  carry  with  him  a  tin  box 
or  two  containing  a  sufficient  quantity  of  soft,  damp,  clean  moss,  to 
fill  the  receptacle  loosely.  It  would  be  well  for  the  beginner  to  have 
a  separate  box  for  each  locality,  duly  numbered  or  labelled,  so  that 
he  might  have  a  means  of  learning  what  worms  were  peculiar  to 
certain  habitats.  After  keeping  the  worms  a  short  time  in  the  moss, 
to  clean  and  scour,  they  should  be  carefully  removed  one  by  one, 
with  as  little  rubbish  as  possible,  and  put  into  an  old  tumbler  half 
filled  with  water.  When  all  the  worms  from  the  tin  are  transferred 
to  water,  a  little  common  salt  should  be  dropped  in  if  it  is  intended 
to  preserve  them  for  future  use.  This  causes  them  to  empty  their 
canal  of  excrement,  which  would  otherwise  greatly  interfere  with 
section  cutting.  Let  the  worms  now  be  transferred  to  another  glass 
of  pure  water,  leaving  the  refuse  behind.  If  it  is  necessary  to 
examine  the  worms  alive,  in  order  to  note  their  colours  and  other 
external  characteristics  before  they  are  changed  by  the  preservative 
medium,  let  a  little  methylated  ether  be  dropped  into  the  water. 
This  quiets  without  paining  them,  and  soothes  any  slight  irritation 
caused  by  the  salt.  They  can  now  be  examined  on  a  plate,  sketches 
or  drawings  taken,  the  colours  imitated,  and  the  worm  transferred  to 
weak  spirits.  This  will  kill  the  creature  while  it  is  still  in  a  comatose 
or  unconscious  state — for  of  all  things  in  the  world  a  naturalist  must 
avoid  giving  even  a  worm  a  needless  pang — and,  finally,  it  can  be 
placed  in  strong  spirits  for  permanent  preservation. 

i^To  be  continued.^ 


197 


THE  GEOLOGY  AND  SCENERY  OF  THE  CLUB'S 
VOYAGE  FROM  MALDON  TO  CHELMSFORD, 
AUGUST  8th,   1891. 

By  T.  V.   HOLMES,  F.G.S. 

\_Read  August  Sth,  iSgi.'] 

TT   is   now  three   years  since   our  very  pleasant  voyage   on    the 
-*■      Blackwater  estuary,  from   Maldon   to  the  sea  off  Mersea,  took 
place.     On   that  occasion  we  sailed  (or  were  becalmed)  on  a  broad 
sheet  of  water  having  low  shores  composed  of  London  Clay,  gravel 
or  alluvium.     During  our    voyage    to-day  we   are    towed   along   a 
narrow  stream,  the  banks  of  which  are  bright  with  flowers,  through  a 
rich  valley,  bordered  by  hills  of  considerable  height.     At  Maldon  we 
leave  behind  us  the  broad  tract  in  southern  and  south-eastern  Essex 
which  is  wholly,  or  almost  entirely,  free  from  Glacial  Drift,  and  enter 
the  district  in  which  that  formation  covers  almost  the  whole  of  the 
surface,  except  that  occupied  by  the  valleys  of  the  various  rivers  and 
streams.     In  these  valleys  the   underlying  beds  appear,  that  which 
everywhere  exists  beneath  the  Glacial  Drift  and  the  Valley  Deposits 
during  our  course  to-day  being  the  London  Clay.     Indeed,  could  we 
prolong  our  voyage  up  the  Chelmer  as  far  as  Dunmow,  or  ascend  the 
other  streams,  which,  when    united    with    the    Chelmer,   form    the 
Blackwater,  as  far  as  Braintree  or  Coggeshall,  we  should  still  find 
London   Clay  in   the  sides  of  the  river-valleys,  and   Glacial   Drift 
capping  the  plateaux  between  them.     In  this  district  the  Glacial 
Drift  generally  consists   of  gravel  covered  by  Boulder  Clay,  as  we 
saw  during  our  excursion  to  Rainsford's  End  and  Writtle  on  the  nth 
of  July.     Sometimes,  however,  the   gravel   is  absent,  sometimes  the 
Boulder  Clay ;  and  more   rarely,  as  in  the  new  railway  cutting  at 
Maldon,  a   little   Boulder  Clay  may  be  seen  underlying  the  gravel. 
The  full  thickness  of  the  London  Clay  in  Essex  is  perhaps  450  feet, 
but  of  course  this  is  only  attained  where  it  is  capped  by  the  conform- 
able Bagshot  Beds.     Where  it  is  covered  by  the  highly  unconformable 
Glacial  Drift,  as  between  Chelmsford  and  Maldon,  or  is  exposed  at 
the  surface,  as  between   Brentwood  and   Rayleigh,  its  thickness  is 
much  less.      Thus,  beneath   Valley   Gravel,    near    Maldon    railway 
station,  were   130   feet    of   London    Clay,    there  being    21    feet    of 
gravel.     And   at    Maldon  Waterworks    the  London   Clay  is  said  to 


198    THE  GEOLOGY  AND  SCENERY  OF  THE  CLUB'S  VOYAGE 

be  234  feet  thick.  On  the  other  hand,  at  the  waterworks  at 
Moulsham,  near  Chehiisford,  the  surface  beds  consisted  of  63 1  feet 
of  Glacial  Drift,  which  rested  upon  86^  feet  of  London  Clay.  The 
river-gravel  and  alluvium,  which  occupy  the  flat  ground  close  to  the 
streams,  are  the  work  of  the  rivers,  and  are  consequently  confined  to 
their  valleys.  Rivers  are  perpetually  tending  to  change  their 
courses,  to  eat  into  the  bank  on  one  side  and  to  deposit  gravel,  sand, 
or  loam  on  the  other.  The  nature  of  the  material  deposited  in  this 
way  at  any  given  spot  depends  partly  on  the  force  of  the  current, 
partly  on  the  nature  of  the  rocks  higher  up  the  stream.  These 
valley-beds  between  Maldon  and  Chelmsford  probably  seldom 
exceed  twenty  feet  in  thickness,  and  average  less.  They,  in  all 
probability,  rest  everywhere  upon  the  London  Clay. 

As  we  leave  Maldon,  a  broad  flat  of  river-gravel  appears  on  the 
northern  bank  of  the  Blackwater  between  Heybridge  and  Langford, 
and  a  small  patch  surrounds  the  railway  station.  It  is  slightly 
higher  in  level  than  the  alluvium  of  the  marshes.  Old  river-gravel 
has  always  been  a  favourite  site  for  human  habitations,  whether  towns, 
villages,  or  isolated  dwellings,  while  houses  on  marshes  are  extremely 
rare.  As  we  ascend  the  river,  few  patches  of  gravel  of  any  size  are 
seen,  while  the  alluvium  of  the  marshes  occupies  a  belt  of  ground 
bordering  the  stream,  and  having  an  average  breadth  of  rather  more 
than  half  a  mile  throughout  our  voyage.  It  forms  excellent  pasture 
land. 

As  already  stated,  the  higher  ground  on  each  side  consists  of 
London  Clay  capped  by  Glacial  Beds,  the  latter  being  hereabouts 
almost  wholly  gravel.  Between  Chelmsford  and  Maldon,  on  the 
southern  bank,  this  Glacial  Gravel  covers  a  considerable  area,  and 
the  overlying  Boulder  Clay  is  seen  only  here  and  there  in  small 
patches.  Between  Little  Baddow  and  Chelmsford  this  gravel  is 
shown  on  the  map  of  the  Geological  Survey  (i  N.E.)  as  coming 
down  to  the  level  of  the  alluvium  on  both  sides  of  the  stream.  Mr. 
Whitaker,  however  (Geology  of  London,  vol.  i.,  p.  316),  is  inclined  to 
think  that  the  wash  of  sand  and  gravel  down  the  slopes  may  have 
proved  deceptive.  No  doubt  there  is  glacial  sand  and  gravel  low 
down  on  these  slopes,  where  it  is  depicted  as  being,  but  it  is  not 
where  it  was  originally  deposited.  The  material  belongs  to  the 
(ilacial  Period,  but  all  of  it  below  a  certain  level  has  been  washed 
down  the  hillsides  during  the  ages  in  which  the  Chelmer  was  cutting 
its  way  downwards  to  its  present  level,  and   thus   forming  the  valley 


FROM  MALDOM  TO  CHELMSFORD,  AUGUST  8tH,  1891. 


199 


which  now  divides  the  (ilacial  gravel  of  the  plateau  of  Tiptree  Heath 
from  that  of  Danbury. 

IJeacon  Hill,  between  \\'ickham  Bishop  and  Clreat  Totham  on 
the  right,  and  Danbury  on  the  left,  are  noticeable  as  hills  of  some- 
what unusual  height  for  this  part  of  Essex.  At  the  County  Asylum 
of  Wickhani  Bishop  a  well  of  unusual  interest  was  sunk  about  a 
dozen  years  ago.  The  base  of  the  London  Clay  was  found  at  a 
depth  of  295  feet  from  the  surface,  then  the  \\'oolwich  and  Reading 
Beds  were  pierced,  and   at  343   feet   a   fault  was    crossed  and   the 


Diagram  to  illvstrate  the  effect  of  the  Fault  at  the  Wickha.m  Bishop  Well. 

W.— Well.     F.— Fault.     L.  C— London  Clay.     W.  B.— Woolwich  Beds.     T.  S.— Thanet  Sand. 

C— Chalk. 


London  Clay  again  bored  through  and  its  base  reached  at  383  feet. 
Mr.  W.  H.  Dalton  described  this  well  and  the  fault  in  our 
"Transactions"  (vol.  ii.,  pp.  15-18,  pi.  i),  and  there  gives  a  diagram 
showing  a  reversed  fault,  or  one  inclining  to  the  upthrow,  and  not, 
as  usual,  to  the  downthrow.  The  late  Searles  Wood,  on  the  other 
hand,  in  his  note  on  the  subject  in  our  "  Transactions "  (vol.  iv., 
June,  1885),  prefers  to  account  for  the  peculiar  section  in  the  well  l)y 
the  supposition  that  there  is  a  very  singular  S-like  fold  in  the  strata, 


200    THE  GEOLOGY  AND  SCENERY  OF  THE  CLUB's  VOYAGE 

and  thinks  a  fault  unnecessary.  For  my  own  part  I  am  inclined  to 
favour  Mr.  Dalton's  explanation  as  the  more  probable  one  ;  for  the 
Tertiary  rocks  of  Essex  afford  no  evidence  of  being  contorted  any- 
where, and,  on  the  contrary,  appear  to  be  singularly  free  both  from 
contortions  and  from  faults  of  any  magnitude,  such  as  abound  in 
mountain  districts.  It  is,  indeed,  almost  impossible-  to  imagine  the 
existence  of  a  contortion  of  this  kind  in  strata  so  soft  and  of  so  late 
a  date  as  those  of  Essex.  But  a  reversed  fault  may  exist  anywhere, 
and  a  small  one  at  Loam  Pit  Hill,  Lewisham,  in  Woolwich  Beds, 
which  I  noted  there  three  years  ago,  is  figured  in  Whitaker's  "  Geology 
of  London,"  vol.  ii.,  p.  333.  As  regards  the  fault  at  Wickham  Bishop, 
my  reason  for  giving  a  diagram  to  illustrate  its  effects,  instead  of 
referring  the  reader  to  Mr.  Dalton's  section,  is  that  the  latter,  being 
without  shading,  is  not  so  intelligible  to  the  non-geological  eye  as  a 
shaded  drawing  ;  and  the  increased  slope  here  given  to  the  fault 
also  tends  to  make  the  result  more  obvious. 

But  the  question  of  most  interest  for  us  at  this  moment  is  whether 
the  fault  in  question,  or  any  others  known  to  exist,  have  had  any 
noticeable  influence  on  the  scenery  of  this  district.  That  faults  may 
have  a  very  powerful  influence  on  the  scenery  of  a  locality  is  evident 
to  all  who  have  studied  the  geology  of  a  place  like  Settle,  in  N.W. 
Yorkshire,  where  massive  limestones  of  great  thickness  have  been 
thrown  against  beds  of  a  totally  different  kind.  But  in  Essex,  though 
many  faults  doubtless  exist  of  which  we  have  no  evidence,  nothing  is 
known  of  faults  of  any  great  importance,  nor  is  there  anything  in  Essex 
geology  which  can  be  accounted  for  only  by  their  aid.  Besides,  the 
Tertiary  rocks,  with  the  (llacial  and  other  drifts,  which  form  the 
surface  of  the  country  are  all  alike  soft,  and  give  no  indication  of  the 
range  of  a  faulted  line  such  as  we  get  when  hard  and  massive  rocks 
are  brought  side  by  side  with  softer  beds.  It  is  obvious,  indeed,  here 
in  central  Essex,  that  w^here  the  London  Clay,  uncovered  by  other 
strata,  forms  the  surface,  we  have  gently  undulating  country,  while  a 
gravel-covered  area,  whether  at  a  high  or  low  level,  has  a  flattened 
contour — flatter  even  than  that  of  the  districts  covered  by  Boulder 
Clay.  But  if  we  enquire  what  explanation  can  be  given  of  the 
unusual  height  of  the  plateau  of  Danbury  on  our  left,  and  of  the 
rid^e  of  Tiptree  Heath  on  our  right,  what  answer  can  be  given  ?  The 
\\'ickham  Bishop  fault  does  not  appear  to  me  to  throw  any  light  on 
the  matter.  We  have  no  evidence  as  to  the  direction  in  which  it 
ranges,  nor  does  it  appear  to  be  of  any  great  size.     Nor  do  we  know 


FROM    MALDON    TO    CHELMSFORD,    AUOUS'l'    8tH,     1891.  20I 

of  any  important  fault  which  points  in  this  direction,  'j'he  only  one, 
indeed,  shown  on  the  (Geological  Map  which  may  possibly  continue 
to  exist  in  this  locality  is  that  which  throws  down  the  Chalk  on  its 
northern  side  to  a  depth  of  about  40  yards  at  the  Royal  Naval 
College,  Creenwich.  But  even  in  the  case  of  faults  of  much  greater 
size,  it  is  in  the  highest  degree  rash  to  prolong  them  in  any  direction 
without  evidence  of  their  existence.  To  illustrate  this  point  I  have 
brought  with  me  a  map  of  a  portion  of  the  Yorkshire  Coalfield,  which 
gives  a  fair  notion  of  the  average  state  of  things  there.  It  becomes 
at  once  evident  on  glancing  at  this  Yorkshire  map  that  where  faults 
exist  others  range  more  or  less  parallel  with  them,  and  are  crossed 
by  a  second  series  having  an  average  direction  nearly  at  right  angles 
to  that  of  the  first-named  group.  The  evidence  afforded  by  a  map 
hke  this  is  of  special  value  on  account  of  the  absence  of  drift,  the 
greater  facility  of  tracing  faults  at  the  surface  (as  compared  with 
Essex),  owing  to  the  interstratification  of  hard  and  soft  beds,  and  to 
the  information  obtainable  from  colliery  plans.  Yet  it  shows  how 
few  faults  preserve  an  independent  existence  for  a  distance  of  even 
six  or  seven  miles,  most  of  them  being  stopped  off  by  others  crossing 
them  in  a  much  shorter  distance.  And — to  return  to  Essex— we 
have  no  evidence  of  the  continued  existence  of  the  Greenwich  fault 
north  of  the  Thames,  while  the  distance  between  Greenwich  and 
Danbury  is  about  thirty  miles,  in  a  straight  line. 

If,  however,  we  turn  our  attention  from  faults  to  those  folds  in 
the  strata  which  Mr.  Ualton  has  so  thoroughly  worked  out  in  his 
paper  on  "  The  Undulations  of  the  Chalk  in  Essex"  (Essf:x  Nat.,  vol. 
v.,  pp.  1 13-1 17),  we  may  obtain,  I  think,  some  explanation  of  the 
unusual  height  of  Danbury  and  Tiptree  Heath  for  this  part  of  Essex. 
It  is  well  known  that  where  beds  are  thrown  into  synclinal  folds  they 
are  usually  better  preserved  than  where  they  form  anticlinal  curves. 
Outlying  hills  are,  therefore,  usually  found  where  the  strata  lie  in  a 
trough  or  basin,  and  consequently  dip  towards  the  centre  of  the  hill, 
not  away  from  it.  Now,  if  we  draw  a  straight  line  along  the  axis  of 
Tiptree  Heath,  across  Danbury,  and  prolong  it  in  a  south-westerly 
direction,  we  find  that  it  passes  through,  or  close  to,  the  equally 
lofty  Bagshot  outliers  of  Stock,  Billericay  and  Warley,  each  attaining 
a  height  of  more  than  300  feet.  Beyond  Warley  we  soon  reach  the 
broad  flat  of  old  river-gravel  and  alluvium  which  covers  so  much 
ground  north  of  the  Thames.  But  if  we  prolong  our  line  southward 
of  the  Thames  we  find  ourselves  at  Shooters'  Hill  (420  feet),  the 

o 


202  MOLLUSCA    OCCURRING    IN    BISHOPS    STORTFORD. 

highest  ground  in  the  district  between  Greenwich  and  Dartford, 
which  certainly  lies  in  a  slight  synclinal  basin,  the  Blackheath  Pebble 
Beds  at  Woolwich  dipping  slightly  under  Shooters'  Hill  and  coming 
up  again  southward  of  it  at  Eltham.  It  seems,  therefore,  probable 
that  the  Bagshot  outliers  of  Warley,  Stock  and  Billericay,  with  the 
heights  of  Danbury  and  Tiptree  Heath,  may  owe  their  preservation 
in  a  considerable  degree  to  their  position  on  a  long  line  of  synclinal 
fold. 


MOLLUSCA    OCCURRING   IN   THE   NEIGHBOUR- 
HOOD OF  BISHOP'S  STORTFORD. 

ADDITIONS    AND    CORRECTIONS. 

By   EDWIN    G.    INGOLD. 

O INCE  my  paper  on  the  above  was  published  in  the  Essex  Natu- 
^^  RALisT  (vol.  iv.,  pp.  215-217),  I  have  been  able  to  add  two 
species  to  the  list  of  local  Mollusca ;  and  I  find  it  necessary  to  make 
corrections  in  the  determination  of  some  species  in  my  collection, 
at  the  instance  of  the  referee  to  the  Conchological  Society. 

The  additions  to  the  previous  list  are  : — 
Ancylus  lacustris,  L.     River  Stort;  uncommon. 
Helix  hortensis,  Miill.     Hedgerows  ;  common. 

The  corrections  necessary  to  be  made  are  : — 

For  Paludina  contecta  read  P.  vivipera,  L. 

Delete  Zonites  aliiarius^nd  Z.  excavatns  (the  supposed  specimens 
of  the  former  were  a  variety  of  Z.  cel/ariiis,  and  the  latter  a  variety  of 
Helix  hispid  a). 

For  Helix  conciutia  read  Helix  hispida,  L. 

For  Pupa  timbilicata  read  Pupa  margin ata,  Drap. 

All  the  remaining  species  in  my  list  are,  I  believe,  correctly 
named,  and  I  regret  that  any  mistakes  should  have  occurred. 


NOTES— ORIGINAL    AND     SELECTED. 

Late  nesting  of  Rooks  at  Felstead. — Mr.  J.  French,  writing  on  October 
28lh,  said  : — ''  Some  Rooks  of  about  five  or  six  weeks  old  have  been  observed 
since  October  2Cth  in  this  village  (Felstead).  Nothing  is  known  of  their  nest,  or 
whether  they  are  first  or  second  broods.     It   is  believed  to   be  an  uncommon 


NOTES--ORl(;iNAI,    AND    SFJ.I'XTED.  203 

phenomenon."  And  again  Mr.  French  wrote  on  Nov.  i6th  :  "  A  nest  of  Rooks  of 
about  a  fortnight  old  is  now  perched  upon  a  tall  elm  tree  in  the  village  of  Fel- 
stead.  The  nest  is  evidently  an  object  of  much  interest  to  many  Rooks,  who  daily 
visit  it — partly  perhaps  on  account  of  the  untinielj'  season,  and  partly  perhaps  on 
account  of  the  experimental  situation  of  the  nest  ;  this,  with  one  exception, 
being  the  only  nest  which  has  produced  young  ones  on  that  clump  of  trees, 
although  experiments  have  been  made  annually  for  more  than  ten  years.  Its 
exposed  situation  has  always  proved  disastrous  to  the  nest,  and  I  have  invariably 
noticed  that  the  twigs  have  been  completely  blown  away  before  sitting  commenced. 
The  one  exception  is  the  nest  which  produced  the  Rooks  late  in  the  summer  of 
this  year,  of  which  I  have  sent  a  notice.  It  escaped  observation  until  quite 
recently.  The  thick  foliage  as  against  the  bare  twigs  of  March  seem  to  act  as  a  pro- 
tection, as  the  great  storm  of  last  Wednesda}'  did  not  affect  this  nest." 

Grey  Phalarope  and  Common  Skua  at  Bradwell-on-Sea. — Mr.  R.  G. 
Owen,  of  Trent  College,  Nottingham,  writes  that  single  specimens  of  these  un- 
common birds  were  sent  to  him  from  Bradwell  in  the  last  week  in  October. 

Oysters  and  Mussels  in  the  Crouch  in  1891. — ■"  The  oyster  spat  this  year 
has  been,  contrarj*  to  early  prognostications,  a  very  poor  one.  Mussels  are  found 
everywhere  in  great  abundance.  Were  they  to  confine  themselves  to  their  recog- 
nised quarters,  viz.,  the  mussel  banks  some  miles  from  the  mouth  of  the  river, 
little  cause  would  be  felt  for  complaint.  The  oyster  layings  are,  however,  infested 
with  the  mussels  bunched  together  with  rock,  shells,  and  weed,  which  causes  them 
to  gather  large  quantities  of  mud  in  their  vicinity.  If  disregarded  this  would 
speedily  choke  the  oj'sters,  and  consequently  much  time  has  to  be  spent  in  lifting 
them  up  from  the  deposit.  The  oyster,  unlike  the  mussel,  has  no  power  to  change 
its  position.  The  latter  is  capable  of  erecting  itself  on  edge  and  going  forward 
with  a  slow  laborious  irotion.  If  thrown  into  a  lake  separately  mussels  are  some- 
times taker,  in  bunches  of  many  together.  As  an  instance  of  the  rapidity  with 
which  these  animals  collect  mud,  a  bushel  of  mussels  was  put  down  upon  a  clean 
sandy  foreshore,  and  at  the  end  of  two  months  they  were  found  13'ing  on  the 
surface  of  two  feet  of  mud.  The  season  for  mussels  is  from  July  to  October." — 
Essex  County  Chronicle. 

A  Hunt  for  "  Swallow-tails." — "On  Saturda3^the  members  of  the  Felstead 
School  Natural  History  Society  made  an  excursion  to  Wicken  Fen,  Cambridge, 
which  is  about  the  only  piece  of  wild  fen  of  any  extent  left  in  England,  and 
almost  the  only  known  home  of  the  beautiful  swallow-tail  butterfly  in  this  coun- 
try. The  party,  which  numbered  between  thirty  and  forty,  was  conducted  by  the 
Rev.  E.  Gepp,  Hon.  Sec.  of  the  Society,  and  accompanied  by  Mr.  J.  F.  Martin  and 
Mr.  F.  H.  Meggy.  The  spoils  of  the  day  included  about  twenty  specimens  of  the 
swallow-tail  i^Papilio  machaon'),  the  hog's  fennel  (^Peucedanum  paluslre),  on  which 
the  caterpillar  of  the  swallow-tail  feeds,  the  marsh  fern  {Lastna  l/ie/yfiteris'),  great 
spearwort  (^Ranunculus  lingua),  flowering  rush  (^Bu/omus  uml/ella/us),  &.c.  Return- 
ing by  water  to  Clay  Hithe,  full  justice  was  done  to  a  substantial  meal  prepared 
there,  after  which  the  party  entrained,  and  reached  Felstead  about  seven  p.m., 
immensely  pleased  w  iih  the  day's  expedition." — Esse.v  County  Chronicle,  July  icih, 
1891. 

Melampyrum  arvense  in  Essex. — I  have  received  from  Mr.  F^dwin  E. 
Turner  a  specimen  of  .Melampyrum  arvense.  It  was  found  at  Faulkbourne  near 
the  Fairstead  Road.  This  is  an  uncommon  plant,  only  being  recorded  for  two 
localities  in  our  count}-. — J.  C.  She.nstone,  Colchester. 

O   2 


204  NOTES ORIGINAL    AND    SELECTED. 

Laburnum  Seeds  Poisonous. — Lieut.-Col.  A.  C.  Arkwrighl,  Thoby  Priory, 
Mountnessing,  writes  as  follows  : — "  As  it  does  not  seem  to  be  generally  known 
how  poisonous  laburnum  seeds  are,  I  think  my  experience  may  be  of  some  use  as 
a  warning  to  others.  On  the  evening  of  Friday,  Sept.  25th,  some  clippings  of  a 
laburnum  tree  were  thoughtlessly  placed  where  some  young  stock  could  reach 
them,  and  on  Saturday  morning  nearly  the  whole  herd  had  apparently  been  feast- 
ing on  the  seed  pods.  All  were  in  a  partly  dazed  state.  Three  were  lying  on  the 
ground  motionless,  and  while  the  remainder  were  being  driven  to  the  homestead 
six  more  dropped.  Up  to  the  present,  in  spite  of  all  remedies,  one  has  died,  two 
are  lying  in  a  hopeless  state,  and  four  more  are  prostrate  and  in  a  critical  condition. 
Every  muscle  of  those  affected  seems  paralysed.  The  warning  may  be  of  some 
service  to  others." 

New  Well  at  Felstead. — A  well  section  has  just  been  exposed  at  Felstead, 
which  is  in  some  respects  interesting  and  worthy  of  note.  The  section  is  as  fol- 
lows : — 

Feet. 
Surface  soil  and  Boulder  Clay  '.......         S 

Brick  Earth i 

Boulder  Clay,  verj'  chalky  and  compact  .....         8 

,,  darker         ........         2 

Very  sandy,  buff-coloured  clay  ......  3 

Dark  earth,  resembling  garden-soil,  with  minute  fragments  of 

flint  and  chalk  (not  bottomed)  ......         2 

21 

It  will  thus  be  seen  that  the  whole  section  consists  of  Drift  deposits,  and  there 
is  no  trace  in  the  depth  reached  of  the  underlying  London  Clay.  The  two  feet  of 
"  darker  "  Boulder  Clay  yields  fragments  of  Gault  Shale,  but  in  other  respects  the 
rock  to  that  depth  is  quite  normal. 

The  veiy  sandy,  buff-coloured  clay  I  take  to  be  the  equivalent  of  Glacial  gravel 
and  sand.  The  dark  earth  at  the  bottom  resembling  garden  soil  is  a  puzzle.  It 
certainly  has  no  possible  relation  to  London  Clay,  and  could  not  have  been  imme- 
diately derived  therefrom.  On  the  other  hand,  in  being  apparently  destitute  of 
sand  it  has  no  relation  to  its  overlying  bed,  and  cannot  be  conceived  to  have  any 
relation  to  it.  The  minute  particles  of  chalk  and  flint  seem  to  imply  its  near  rela- 
tion to  a  Boulder  Clay  ;  but  how  it  was  formed  and  deposited  in  its  present  place 
there  seems  to  be  no  evidence  to  show. 

The  well  is  about  i^  miles  north-east  of  Felstead  village,  and  near  the  railway 
arch  on  the  Braintree  Road. — J.  FRENCH,  Felstead,  September  14th,  1891. 

"  Hill  Gravels  North  of  the  Thames."— Messrs.  H.  W.  Monckton  and  R. 
S.  Herries  have  a  paper  under  the  above  title  in  the  last  part  of  the  "  Proceedings, 
Geologists' Association  "  (vol.  xii.,  pp.  108-114),  which  contains  matter  of  interest 
10  Essex  geologists.  Sections  of  these  gravels  at  Billericay,  Norton  Heath,  the 
Epping  Hills,  Coopersale  Common,  &c.,  are  described,  the  latter  showing  a  par- 
ticularly good  exposure  of  AVestleton  Beds. 

The  "  Fault  "  at  Wickham  Bishop. — With  reference  to  a  proposal  recently 
before  the  County  Council  that  the  asylum  site  at  Wickham  Bishop  should  be 
sold,  in  spite  of  a  satirical  remonstrance  from  some  members  that  the  Council 
would  thereby  be  parting  with  a  potential  coal-field,  Mr.  W.  H.  Dalton,  F.G.S., 
writes  as  follows: — "With  respect  to  the  proposed  re-sale  of  the  land  acquired 
some  3'ears  ago  at  Wickham  Bishop  as  a  site  for  an  additional    Lunatic   As^dum, 


THK    ESSEX    FIELD    CLUK.  205 

there  is  to  be  considered,  not  only  the  possibility  of  the  area  being  underlain  by 
Coal  Measures  (an  idea  first  suggested  by  myself  in  1877,  and  to  which  recent 
discoveries  give  a  considerable  degree  of  support),  but  the  probability  of  the  land 
being  ultimately  required  for  the  purpose  of  some  public  building,  if  not  that  for 
which  it  was  primarily  secured.  The  well  sunk  by  the  county  authorities  proved 
waterless,  because  (as  I  told  the  engineers  soon  after  they  commenced  operations) 
the  spot  selected  is  on  a  line  of  ancient  disturbance  of  the  strata,  which  are  faulted 
and  crushed,  so  that  the  same  beds  are  penetrated  twice  over  in  the  boring.  This 
movement  has  closed  all  the  water-bearing  fissures  in  the  chalk  in  its  immediate 
vicinity,  but  has  not  injured  the  yielding  powers  of  that  rock  at  short  distances 
away  from  the  line  of  fault.  The  direction  of  this  line  is  precisely  determined  by 
the  boring  at  Messrs.  Thorn  and  Swermore's  brewery  at  Messing,  confirming  the 
previous  hypothesis  of  the  line  coinciding  with  the  trend  of  the  hill.  At  Messing, 
the  crushing  has  been  less  severe,  and  a  sufficient  supply  was  obtained. 
Consequently,  a  well  not  far  down  the  hill  to  the  N.W.  of  the  site  would  yield  an 
ample  supply,  and  the  only  difference  in  cost  of  pumping  would  be  the  trifling 
extra  '  duty'  arising  from  friction  in  an  oblique  instead  of  a  vertical  pipe.  If, 
therefore,  it  is  decided  to  sell  the  land,  it  should  be  as  a  magnificent  site  for  a 
large  building,  with  every  natural  advantage,  water  supply  included." — [This 
fault  was  described  by  Mr.  Dalton  in  our  "  Transactions  "  for  1881  (vol.  ii.,  pp.  15- 
18),  and  is  referred  to  by  Mr.  Holmes  in  the  present  number  of  the  E.N.  (ante,  p. 
199).— Ed.] 

Ancient  (?  British)  Pottery  at  Felstead.— A  very  ancient  piece  of  pottery 
has  recently  been  dug  from  a  gravel-pit  at  North  End,  near  Felstead.  It  isshaped 
by  hand,  and  although  fragmentary,  its  form  and  dimensions  can  be  made  out.  It 
is  a  round  dish  of  about  eight  inches  diameter  and  four  inches  in  height.  The 
pottery  is  of  coarse  earth  about  three-fourths  of  an  inch  in  thickness,  and  has 
mixed  with  it  an  abundance  of  pounded  flint,  the  particles  being  rather  larger 
than  a  pin's  head.  It  has  been  very  imperfectly  baked,  although  it  has  certainly 
been  subjected  to  a  considerable  heat.  It  is  now  in  possession  of  Mr.  A.  Skill,  of 
Felstead. — J.  FRENCH. 

Luminous  Appearance  of  the  Crouch  River. — "All  who  live  by,  or  have 
sailed  on,  the  sea,  are  familiar  with  the  luminous  appearance  of  its  waves  by 
night.  For  some  time  past  this  natural  phenomenon  has  been  more  than  usually 
noticeable  in  the  Crouch.  In  some  places  the  water  shines  as  far  as  the  eye  can 
reach,  and  at  other  times  only  when  the  waves  break  against  the  side  of  a  vessel 
or  when  the  oar  of  a  row-boat  dashes  into  the  water." — Essex  County  Chronicle, 
August  14th,  1891. 


THE  ESSEX  FIELD  CLUB. 

R.-VMBLE     I-KOM     CHELMSKOKD     TO     MaLDON. 
Saturday,  June  27th,  1891. 

THE  idea  of  the  projectors  of  this  meeting  was  to  explore  the  country  lying 
between  Chelmsford  and  Maldon,  which  is  of  a  very  varying  and  picturesque 
character,  and  presents  great  attractions  to  the  botanist.  The  rendezvous  was  the 
"  Saracen's  Head,"  Chelmsford,  where,  at  a  little  after  one  o'clock,  a  very  large 'com- 
pany of  members  and  friends  (including  students  of  the  botanical  class  of  the 


206  THE    ESSEX    FIELD    CLUB. 

Chelmsford  Museum)  assembled,  the  '•  Directors"  being  Mr.  F.  Chancellor,  J. P., 
the  President,  Mr.  E.  A.  Fitch,  F'.L.S.,  and  Mr.  Edmund  Durrant.  In  breaks 
and  other  vehicles  the  party  was  driven  along  the  Baddow  Road,  and  so  through 
the  fine  avenue  of  old  oaks,  elms  and  beeches  to  the  site  of  "  Great  Grace?," 
Little  Baddow,  where  Mr.  Chancellor  desciibed  the  interesting  features  of  the 
remaining  fragments  of  this  once  important  manor  house,  which  takes  its  name 
from  the  family  of  De  Gras,  the  ancient  owners.  An  account  of  the  former 
possessors  and  the  present  condition  of  the  building  ma}'  be  read  in  Mr.  Chan- 
cellor's magnificent  work,  "  The  Ancient  Sepulchral  Monuments  of  Essex," 
page  64.  The  fragments  still  remaining  consist  of  a  portion  of  the  south-east 
wing,  and  one  of  the  grand  old  chimney  shafts,  and  inside  one  of  the  old  square 
staircases  with  cut  newels  and  ballusters.     It  is  now  a  farm  house. 

The  weather  was  lovely,  and  the  ramble  through  Blake's  Wood  to  "  Old 
Riffhams  "  (where  Mr.  Charles  Smoothy  hospitably  received  the  party),  a  struc- 
ture also  anciently  a  manor  house,  which  was  probably  originally  a  wooden 
structure,  and  afterwards  encased  in  brickwork.  Mr.  Smoothy's  knowledge  of 
natural  history  is  well  known  ;  the  greater  part  of  his  collection  of  birds  (pre- 
sented by  himself)  is  on  loan  at  the  Chelmsford  Museum  ;  but  attention  was 
directed  to  a  Honey-Buzzard,  specimens  of  the  Long  and  Short-eared  Owls — all 
loc^l  specimens,  and  a  Golden-eyed  Duck,  and  a  Swan,  shot  in  company  with 
Mr.  Fitch  on  the  Blackwater,  and  a  Danbury  Raven  killed  by  mistake  for  a 
Carrion  Crow.  Close  by  the  house  in  Holly  Grove  were  shown  nests  of  the 
Kingfisher,  Flycatcher  and  Wren — the  last-named  without  a  dome,  under  an  old 
coat. 

The  ramble  through  the  Holly  Grove  was  a  delightful  experience,  the  abund- 
ance of  Foxgloves  and  the  pretty  White  Fumitory  {Corydalis  clavicnlata)  in 
full  bloom  being  noticeable  features  ;  while  the  abundant  flowers  of  the  Yellow 
Pimpernel  (^Lystmachia  nummiilarui)  in  the  damp  rides  was  a  welcome  sight. 
Dr.  J.  E.  Taylor  acted  as  botanical  "  Conductor,"  and  readily  imparted  infor- 
mation to  non-botanical  members  on  the  numerous  plants  found  in  the  woods. 
Then  over  Lingwood  Common  (from  whence  a  vast  panorama  of  lowland  Essex 
was  visible),  through  "  Bell  Hell  Wood,"  concerning  the  origin  of  the  name 
of  which  old  Holinshed  relates  a  wild  legend. 

Leaving  this  wood  the  party  passed  up  the  meadows  to  Danbury,  where, 
at  the  ancient  and  well-known  "  hostelry  called  the  '  Griffin,'  near  Baddow  " 
(immortalised  in  these  words  in  the  introduction  to  "  Waverley  "),  a  cup  of  tea, 
enjoyable  after  the  long  ramble,  and  more  substantial  viands,  awaited  the  pedes- 
trians. The  "  Griffin  "  is  also  mentioned  several  times  in  Strutt's  romance  of 
"  Queenhoo  Hall." 

Danbury  is  a  village  of  great  interest.  It  has  been  commonly  described  in 
local  guide  books  as  the  "  highest  land  in  Essex  "  ;  but  this  is  an  en  or,  as  par;s 
of  Epping  Forest  exceed  it  in  height,  and  the  highest  elevations  in  Flssex  are 
found  in  the  north-west  parts  of  the  county  (see  ante,  p.  172).  The  Club  visited 
Danbury  on  .August  13th,  1881  (Proc.  E.  F.  C,  vol.  ii.,  liii.),  and  in  the  report  of 
tie  meeting  on  that  occasion  much  information  about  the  village  and  church 
will  be  found.  The  Early-English  church  (St.  John  the  Baptist)  stands  within 
the  bounds  of  Danbury  Camp,  figured  in  Morant's  "  Essex,"  and  more  accurately 
by  Mr.  F.  C.  J.  Spurrell  in  EssE.X  Natur.alist  (vol.  iv.,  138).  The  ancient 
and  interesting  features  of  the  church  were  pointed  out  by  Mr.  Chancellor, 
notably  the  three  cross-legged  wooden  effigies  of  Crusaders,  presumably  the  St. 


THE    ESSEX    FIELD    CI.U15.  207 

Clere  family  (Jemp.  Edward  I.)  figured  in  Chancellor's  "  Ancient  Sepulchral 
Monuments  of  Essex,"  plates  33  and  34.  Several  members  climbed  up  to  the 
top  of  the  tower  to  view  the  fine  landscape,  extending  over  a  great  part  of 
Essex. 

On  the  pleasant  greensward  in  front  of  the  picturesque  old  church  (both  in 
the  very  centre  of  the  camp)  the  party  then  gathered  together,  augmented 
by  a  scattered  fringe  of  curious  visitors,  to  be  photographed  by  Mr.  Spalding, 
and  to  hear  Dr.  Taylor  deliver  one  of  his  delightful  scientific  "  lay  sermons." 
Considerable  regret  was  felt  that  time  did  not  allow  of  a  more  extended  treat- 
ment of  his  subject,  which  was  : — 

"  The  Origin  of  our  Native  Plants." 

For  the  purpose  of  illustration,  the  specimens  gathered  during  the  ramble 
were  laid  upon  the  table  in  front  of  the  lecturer.  Many  of  them  were  quite 
"  common  objects  of  the  country,"  Horsetails  (^Equisetuni)^  Bracken-fern,  Bryonia^ 
Black  Bryon}'  (^Tamus),  Spurges,  Ranitnculi,  Po/yga/in,  &c.,  &c.,  but  they  served  as 
texts  for  the  discourse.  Where,  asked  Dr.  Taylor,  did  our  common  wild  flowers 
come  from  ?  It  is  very  certain  they  did  not  originate  in  the  British  Islands.  We 
have  not  a  single  flowering  plant  which  is  peculiar  to  this  country.  The  only 
original  flora  of  England  exists  in  the  fossil  state.  Our  oldest  flowering  plants 
are  found  in  the  pipeclays  of  Bournemouth,  and  they  are  allied  to,  if  not  iden- 
tical with,  the  flora  which  now  characterises  Australia  and  New  Zealand.  But 
there  were  some  common  flowerless  plants,  such  as  the  horse-tails  and  brackens, 
which  had  a  high  geological  antiquity  in  this  country.  In  the  Upper  Old  Red 
sandstones  of  Kilkenny,  in  Ireland,  which  were  deposited  in  a  large  fresh  water 
lake  before  the  commencement  of  the  Carboniferous  epoch,  there  were  found 
fossil  ferns,  club  mosses  (J^ycopodhini)^  and  plants  allied  to  the  quillworts 
Qlsoetei)  ;  and  if  we  rambled  around  Windermere  Lake  at  the  present  time  we 
should  find  in  the  woods  the  royal  flowering  fern,  or  Osmurida,  which  could  hardly 
be  differentiated  from  the  fossil  ferns  imbedded  in  the  Kilkenny  sandstones. 
There  also  are  found  growing  miniature  groves  of  the  wood  hovselTiW  (^Eqidsetum 
syhaticufri),  whilst  in  the  shallow  waters,  where  the  green  meadows  border  the 
lake,  would  be  found  abundance  of  living  quillworts  (^hoetes)^  so  that  in  this 
respect  our  famous  English  lake  as  regards  its  flowerless  vegetation  resembled 
that  which  existed  in  Ireland  in  Devonian  times.  Our  bracken  fern,  so  abun- 
dant on  all  commons  and  heaths,  and  by  our  hedgerows,  could  hardly  be  distin- 
guished from  the  abundant  fossil  fern  (JiletJioptris)  found  in  the  Coal  Measures, 
and  there  was  hardly  anj'  doubt  it  was  its  lineal  descendant.  Bracken  ferns 
identical  in  all  but  a  trifling  particular  with  our  own,  were  as  abundant  in  the 
wild  bush  of  Australia  as  on  our  English  commons.  Their  wide  geographical 
distribution  proved  the  enormous  geological  antiquity  of  these  common  plants. 
The  bracken  was  found  not  only  in  Australia,  but  in  New  Zealand,  in  all 
the  great  Atlantic  islands,  near  the  Cape,  in  the  northern  parts  of  the 
United  States,  and  even  near  the  equator.  No  fern  in  all  the  world  was 
so  widely  distributed.  Dr.  Taylor  gave  his  reasons  for  believing  that  the 
ancient  terrestrial,  flowerless  flora  of  our  planet  was  a  modification  of  aquatic 
plants  ;  and  showed  that  the  sperm  cells  of  mosses,  ferns  and  others  were  still  pos- 
sessed of  aquatic  locomotive  organs  which  were  very  possibly  lelicsof  their  ancient 
aquatic  mode  of  life.  Turning  to  the  floweringplants,  and  producing  a  specimen  of 
the  White  Bryony,  he  asked  what  it  was  doing  here.  We  had  only  one  species.  It 
belonged  to  an  abundantly  represented  tropical  order  of  plants — that  of  the 
Gourds  ;  and  it  was  as  singular  to  find  it  in  our  hedgerows  as  it  would  be  to 
find  a  Chinese  family  settled  in  an  English  village.  The  same  thing  might  be 
said  of  the  Black  Bryon)^  which  belonged  to  another  tropical  order — that  of  the 
Yams.  Our  English  Spurges  were  dwarfed  representatives  of  gigantic  tropical 
relations,  such  as  the  indiarubber  and  gutta-percha  trees.  Even  our  common  and 
too-abundant  nettles  were  herbaceous  modifications  of  the   family  to  which  they 


208  THE    KSSKX    FIKLD    CLUH. 

belonged,  which  in  warm  countries  grew  to  the  height  of  forest  trees.  It  might 
be  that  these  slenderly  represented  British  plants  were  relics  of  the  ancient 
tro[)icaI  flora  of  Eocene  times.  Similarly  on  the  tops  of  our  British  mountains 
would  be  found  an  abundance  of  flowering  plants  met  wiih  onlj'  in  similar  situa- 
tions in  Switzerland,  but  which  grew  at  the  sea  level  in  Arctic  regions — such  as 
pinks,  gentians,  saxifrages,  and  others — and  he  drew  attention  to  the  fact  that 
nearly  all  our  early  spring  flowers,  which  appeared  before  the  warmth  of  the 
summer,  belonged  chiefly  to  Arctic  and  Alpine  orders.  There  was  much  reason 
to  believe  that  these  cold-loving  plants  came  over  to  Great  Britain  during  the 
Glacial  Period,  and  had  remained  ever  since.  The  lecturer  also  showed  that  in 
the  south  of  Ireland  and  Cornwall  there  were  flowering  plants  which  were 
outliers  of  the  Spanish  flora,  which  had  spread  thither  when  the  intervening 
sea  bed  was  dry  land.  He  then  turned  to  the  fact  of  the  recent  formation 
ot  the  German  Ucean,  proving  that  the  depression  of  its  bed  had  probably 
taken  place  since  the  appearance  of  man  upon  the  earth.  Probablj'  since  then 
also  the  chalk  downs,  which  formerly  stretched  right  across  from  Dover  into 
Picardy  in  France,  had  been  breached  through,  so  as  to  allow  the  waters  of 
the  German  Ocean  and  the  English  Channel  to  form  the  Straits  of  Dover. 
When  England  and  Ireland  were  a  continuous  western  prolongation  of  Europe, 
the  common  European  plants  would  naturally  spread  over  them.  It  was  in  this 
way  that  our  daisies,  buttercups,  primroses,  cowslips,  dandelions,  campions, 
roses,  grasses,  and  other  abundant  wild  flowers  came  to  us.  Dr,  Taylor  also 
dwelt  upon  the  ups  and  downs  of  floral  life  as  related  to  the  great  climatic 
and  geographical  changes  which  had  taken  place  in  Europe  since  the  Pliocene 
Period,  or  the  time  when  the  crags  cf  Suffolk  and  Norfolk  had  been  formed.  Our 
plants,  said  the  doctor,  like  the  great  English  people,  have  come  here  from  various 
directions.  Some  of  the  plants  that  lived  in  cold  climatic  conditions  adapted 
t'lemselves  to  our  changed  climate  by  appearing  only  in  the  early  spring, 
others  by  surviving  only  on  mountain  heights.  "  Saxon,  Dane,  and  Norman 
are  we,"  wrote  Tennyson  ;  and  the  same  might  indeed  be  said  of  our  British 
flowering  plants. 

Dr.  Taylor  having  been  warmly  thanked  for  his  interesting  lecturette,  the 
ramble  was  continued  along  the  Rodney  Road  towards  "Cherry-tree  Cottage"  ; 
then  through  ■'  Fir-tree  "  and  "  Pheasant-house  "  woods  (where  a  huge  nest  of 
the  wood  ant  (^Formica  rufa)  was  seen),  which  include  a  large  variety  of  forest 
trees,  notably  some  fine  beeches  ;  and  where  the  curious  Butcher's-broom,  the 
only  woody  monocotyledonous  plant  in  Britain,  is  abundant.  Then  across 
Woodham  Walter  Common,  covered  with  oak  scrub,  and  the  home  of  the 
Lily  of  the  Valley,  Buckbean,  Wood  Pimpernel,  many  ferns  and  other  inter- 
esting plants.  The  Deptford  Pink  and  Golden  Saxifrage  have  been  found 
there,  while  the  Badger  once  made  the  Common  its  home.  Abundant -patches 
of  the  Sundew  (^Drosera  rotundifolid)  were  found  among  the  Sphagnums  on  the 
boggy  hill-sides,  and  two  specimens  were  found,  each  of  which  had  captured 
by  means  of  its  glutinous  tentacled  leaves,  a  poor  little  blue  butterfly  (^Lyavna 
icarus)  ;  one  of  the  insects  was  already  dead,  the  other  was  still  struggling  in  the 
clutches  of  its  relentless  captor.' 

But  the  special  train  was  to  leave  Maldon  at  8.45,  and  the  hasty  walk 
rendered  necessary  to  reach  the  station  in  time  precluded  any  extended  botanical 
or  other  observations;  nor  could  the  other  items  on  the  programme  be  carried 
out — the  visit  to  Woodham  Walter  Church,  and  the  Hall,  interesting  as  being 
the  last  place  in  England  where  the  Royal  Hawks  were  kept  by  the  Duke  of  St. 
Albans,  Hereditary  Grand  Falconer,  and  Lord  of  this  Manor,  being  unavoidably 

I  As  recorded  in  our  "  Journal  of  Proceedings"  (vol.  i.,  p.  xxiii.)  I  have  on  two  occasions  in 
in  Epping  Forest  seen,  on  Drosera,  butterflies  thus  entrapped — the  species  being Safyrus janira, 
an  insect  measuring  two  inches  across  the  wings. — W.  Cole. 


THE    KSSKX    KIKI.D    CLUIi.  209 

lefi  for  another  occasion.  It  was  evident  to  everyone  present  at  the  meeting  that 
had  time  permitted  the  district  so  rapidly  traversed  would  have  furnished  many 
interesting  specimens  both  to  the  entomologists  and  botanists.  The  New 
London  Road  was  reached  at  last,  leading  the  party  over  Wintersleet  Hill  to 
the  ancient  town  of  Maldon,  already  so  well  explored  by  the  Club— but  some 
missed  the  train  after  all  ! 


Geological    R.-vmble   akound   Chelmsford 

(In  conjunction  luith  the  Geologists'  Association). 

Saturday,  July  iith,  1891. 

Conductor— HOKXCV.    W.    MONCKTON,    F.G.S. 

The  party  started  from  Chelmsford  Station  soon  after  2.30  on  Saturday  afternoon, 
and  walked  along  the  Roxwell  Road  to  the  water  tower  and  reservoir  of  the 
Chelmsford  Waterworks,  which  were  inspected  under  the  guidance  of  Mr* 
Chancellor.  The  spring,  roofed  over,  from  which  the  water  is  pumped,  attracted 
considerable  notice.  A  gravel-pit  in  an  adjoining  field  was  then  visited.  It  was 
found  to  show  a  very  good  section  of  well-stratified  sand  and  gravel,  overlain  in 
two  places  by  patches  of  Boulder  Cla}'.  One  of  these  patches  filled  a  great 
hollow  in  the  underlying  gravel,  and  the  manner  in  which  this  hollow  had  been 
formed  and  the  clay  deposited  in  it  became  the  subject  of  a  most  interesting 
discussion,  in  which  the  Rev.  E.  Hill,  F.G.S.,  the  author  of  a  paper  on  Boulder 
Clay,  read  at  the  Geological  Society  on  the  24th  June  last,  and  Mr.  F".  C.  J. 
Spurrell,  a  well-known  authority  on  River  Gravels,  took  part. 

A  short  paper,  "  Notes  on  the  Glacial  Formation  near  Chelmsford,"  was  here 
read  by  Mr.  Monckton  (see  pp.  191-193). 

Leaving  this  pit  the  party  crossed  the  River  Can,  and,  passing  through 
Admiral's  Park,  walked  to  another  gravel-pit  close  to  the  bridge  over  the  River 
Wid,  at  Writtle.  Here,  again,  the  section  shows  Glacial  Gravel  overlain  by  a 
clayey  bed,  which  is  probably  partly  decomposed  Boulder  Clay,  and  partly 
brick-earth  of  a  more  recent  date.  On  a  heap  of  gravel  in  the  pit  several  large 
blocks  of  white  quartz  were  seen,  and  Mr.  Thomas  Leighton,  F.G.S.,  found  a 
block  of  mica-schist  containing  garnets. 

The  paitythen  passed  through  the  picturesque  village  of  Writtle  (noticing 
the  two  masses  of  pudding-stone  at  the  gates  of  Writtle  Brewery),  and  visited  the 
Rolstons  pit,  which,  not  having  been  worked  lately,  did  not  show  as  good  a  section 
as  usual.  A  considerable  thickness  of  White  Chalky  Boulder  Clay  was  seen  to 
rest  on  a  somewhat  uneven  floor  of  Glacial  Gravel  (see  Woodward's  "  Geology  of 
England  and  Wales,"  2nd  edition,  1887,  p.  506,  fig.  89).  The  Boulder  Clay  was 
found  to  contain  many  s.r.all  concretions  of  carbonate  of  lime  termed  "race."  A 
few  remarks  on  the  formation  exhibited  in  this  pit  were  made  by  the  Rev.  Edwin 
Hill,  F.G.S. 

After  thoroughly  examining  this  section,  the  members  assembled  in  a  group, 
and  were  photographed,  after  which  they  returned  to  Chelmsford  along  the  edge 
of  Hylands  Park  and  through  Widford.  On  crossing  the  Wid,  the  party  composed 
of  members  of  the  Botanical  Class  of  the  Chelmsford  Museum  was  overtaken. 
The  class,  under  the  guidance  of  Mr.  E.  Durrant  and  J.  E.  Taylor,  F.L.S.,  had 
spent  the  afternoon  in  searching  for  wild  flowers  on  Waterhouse  Farm  and  the 
back  lane  to  WidforJ.     On  their  return  to  Chelmsford,  the  united  party  found  an 


2IO  ON    THE    OCCURRENCE    OF    WESTLETON    BEDS 

excellent  tea  provided  at  the  Saracen's  Head  Hotel.  Mr.  E.  A.  Fitch,  the 
President  of  the  Essex  Field  Club,  took  the  chair,  and  Mr.  T.  V.  Holmes,  Vice- 
president  of  both  the  Essex  Field  Club  and  the  Geologists'  Association,  the  vice- 
chair.  After  tea  Mr.  Holmes  proposed  and  Mr.  Fitch  seconded  a  vote  of  thanks 
to  Mr.  Monckton,  which  was  cordially  responded  to  ;  and  Mr.  Monckton  having 
returned  thanks,  the  party  broke  up— some  returning  by  the  7.50  train  to  London, 
whilst  others,  on  the  invitation  of  Mr.  Durrant,  visited  the  Church  and  the 
Mussum. 


ON  THE  OCCURRENCE    OF  WESTLETON  BEDS 
IN    PART   OF   NORTH-WESTERN   ESSEX. 

By  J.   FRENCH  ;    with  Remarks  by  VV.  H.  DALTON,  F.G.S., 
and  H.  W.  MONCKTON,  F.G.S. 

[Read  Noz'cmber  7th,  iSgi.] 

TI^OR  some  years  my  attention  has  been  drawn  to  certain  pebbly 
gravels  used  for  road  metal  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Stebbing. 
These  gravels  are  so  greatly  unlike  those  excavated  in  my  own 
neighbourhood  (Felstead),  that  I  had  made  enquiries  of  Road 
Surveyors  and  others ;  but,  beyond  their  remarks  that  they  were 
obviously  sea-shingle,  no  information  could  be  afforded  as  to  their 
place  in  the  Drift  series.  On  reading  in  the  Essex  Natur.\list 
(vol.  iv.,  pp.  100-102)  the  summary  of  Prof.  Prestwich's  article 
on  the  Westleton  Beds,  I  gathered  that  there  was  some  probability 
of  getting  light  thrown  on  these  pebbly  gravels ;  and  through  the 
kindness  of  Mr.  W.  H.  Dalton,  I  was  put  in  possession  of  the 
original  text,^  together  with  some  hints  and  warnings  from  Mr. 
Dalton,  which  have  proved  very  useful  in  conducting  my  observa- 
tions. 

In  addition  to  Prof.  Prestwich's  article,  I  find  that  Mr.  S.  V. 
Wood,  junr.,  had  previously  described  a  Drift  Gravel  as  earlier  and 
underlying  his  "  Middle  "  series  at  Danbury  Hill  and  Tiptree  Heath. 
The  Geological  Survey  Map  and  Memoir,  illustrating  Sheet  47, 
except  in  one  doubtful  case,  provisionally  group  all  the  gravels 
underlying  the  Boulder  Clay  into  one  series.  It  will  be  the  object 
of  the  present  paper  to  show  that  in  the  area  observed  the  series  is 
sometimes  divisible  into  two  parts,  and  also  to  substantiate  in  many 
particulars  Prof.  Prestwich's  observations  and  inferences. 

The  tract  of  land  to  which  I  would  direct  attention  lies  between 
Bulford  Station,  near  Braintree,  on  the  extreme  east,  and  Dunmovv 
High  Wood  on  the  extreme  west.     Its  southern  border  nearly  agrees 

(Juart.  Journ.  Geol.  Soc,  vol.   xlvi.,   pp.   84-181  (1890). 


IN    PART    OF    NORTH-WESTERN    ESSEX.  2[T 

with  the  line  of  railway.  The  area  is  bounded  to  the  north-east  by 
the  Blackwater  as  for  as  Shalford,  and  a  line  drawn  from  that  point 
through  Stebbing  Mount  to  Dunniow  High  Wood  completes  the 
northern  limit  of  the  area  of  observation. 

(Ireat  changes  have  occurred  at  Braintree  since  I'rof.  Prestwich 
visited  the  spot  and  drew  his  sections,  presumably  in  1849.  Those 
sections  are  now  all  concealed.  New  sections  have,  however,  been 
opened  at  higher,  at  the  same,  and  at  lower  elevations,  and  these  are 
in  the  main  confirmatory  of  those  he  drew.  It  is  to  be  regretted 
that  the  section  in  Black  Notley  cutting  (of  which  he  has  given 
such  an  instructive  illustration,  Plate  vii..  Fig.  6)  is  now  covered  by 
talus,  and  there  is  no  present  equivalent  in  that  neighbourhood  ;  that 
is  to  say,  no  section  at  Braintree  now  shows  the  \V'estleton  Beds 
overlaid  by  the  Middle  Glacial  Gravel.  They  are  generally  sharply 
overlaid  by  Boulder  Clay. 

The  section  shown  by  the  Black  Notley  cutting  I  have  used  as  a 
standard  of  comparison  with  other  beds.  These  gravels  and  sand 
vary  greatly  in  their  composition,  but  not  to  such  an  extent  as  to  be 
mistaken  for  the  Glacial  deposits  of  the  district.  Moreover,  the 
variations  have  proved  valuable  in  cases  where  the  section  was  small 
and  only  one  particular  variety  of  sand  or  shingle  was  exposed.  The 
sand  is  sometimes  ferruginous,  sometimes  of  a  rich  yellow  colour, 
and  in  this  case  contains  almost  always  abundant,  though  minute, 
scales  of  mica.  Sometimes  it  is  quite  white,  like  silver  sand.  It  is 
generally  finely  comminuted,  and,  with  the  pebbly  gravel,  contains  but 
little  clay.  The  gravel  is  well  described  in  Prof.  Prestwich's  paper 
{I.e.  p.  133).  (jenerally  it  is  made  up  about  half  of  Quartz  pebbles 
and  half  of  Flint,  both  ivell  rounded.  It  has  but  very  few  sub-angular 
flints,  and  none  sharply  angular  ;  and  only  a  small  proportion  of  the 
stones  in  number  are  larger  than  a  pullet's  egg.  Moreover,  the 
pebbles  are  enclosed  in  a  matrix  of  yellow  or  iron-coloured  sand, 
which  has  but  a  small  admixture  of  clay.  In  this  respect  the  gravel 
differs  radically  from  the  Middle  Glacial  Gravels  of  the  district. 

The  Middle  Glacial  Gravels  are  well  developed  at  Felstead  and 
Great  Waltham,  and  generally  just  south  of  the  area  under  con- 
sideration ;  and,  however  much  these  gravels  may  vary  in  more 
widely  separate  localities,  they  certainly  do  not,  for  the  few  miles  in  or 
near  the  tract  under  consideration,  show  a  great  amount  of  variation. 
Gases  occur  where,  as  Prof.  Prestwich  points  out,  they  are  hopelessly 
mi.xed  up  with  the  Westleton  series  ;  but  sufficient  instances  remain 


212  ON    THE    OCCURRENCE    OF    WESTLETON    BEDS 

where  no  such  mixing  occurs,  and  where  the  one  cannot  easily  be 
mistaken  for  the  other.  Briefly,  they  may  be  described  as  being 
made  up  of  angular  and  rounded  rocks,  chiefly  flint,  and  the  angular 
often  in  excess.  Besides  the  flint,  there  is  a  motley  collection  of  various 
hard  rocks — Quartz  and  Quartzite,  Sandstone,  &c., and  some  Volcanic 
(Crystalline).  The  latter  I  have  never  found  in  Westleton  Beds. 
Prof.  Prestwich's  distinction  of  the  Glacial  Gravel  is  that  of  the 
presence  of  dark  brown  ovate  pebbles  of  quartzite  out  of  Triassic 
beds.  This  distinction  I  have  not  been  able  to  apply,  but  it  is 
doubtless  due  to  the  narrowness  of  the  field,  or  to  imperfect 
observation. 

We  will  now  take  the  sections  in  detail : — 

From  Bulford  Station  to  Braintree  Station,  the  line  of  rails 
entirely  rests  upon  Westleton  shingle,  the  embankments  filling  up 
the  valleys  near  both  stations  being  made  up  of  Westleton  rock 
derived  from  Black  Notley  cutting,  which  lies  intermediate  between 
the  two.  This  cutting  is  from  20  to  30  feet  deep,  and  the  Westleton 
Beds  are,  perhaps,  of  twice  that  thickness.  I  infer  this  from  the 
exposure  of  London  Clay  made  on  the  other  bank  of  the  small  river 
flowing  to  the  west  of  the  cutting.  It  is  capped  with  Boulder  Clay, 
which,  as  before  stated,  in  all  visible  sections,  is  sharply  divided  from 
the  Westleton  Beds,  and  has  no  intermediate  member.  The  want  of 
this  intermediate  member  (Middle  Glacial  Gravel)  is  apparent  at 
Braintree  particularly,  and  more  or  less  in  the  whole  area  under 
observation.  In  fact,  it  is  partly  due  to  this  that  we  have  exposures 
of  Westleton  at  all.  Most  of  them  are  made  for  gravel  pits,  and 
these  are  not  workable  to  a  great  depth.  Therefore,  if  the  upper 
gravel  be  Glacial,  and  this  much  exceeds  1 5  feet,  we  have  no  know- 
ledge of  the  underlying  bed,  as  it  is  rarely  pierced,  except  in  the  case 
of  wells,  which  we  shall  note  later. 

At  Braintree,  the  Westleton  Beds  have  been  very  much  disturbed 
on  the  southern  side  of  the  town.  The  disturbance  was  most  likely 
due  to  river  erosion  in  Post-glacial  times,  either  leaving  a  cliff  on 
the  side  of  the  hill,  or  producing  a  landslip  of  some  magnitude. 
The  facts  are  as  follow  : — In  Hunnable's  gravel  pit,  which  lies  on 
the  slope  of  the  hill  at  about  midway  from  its  summit  to  the  river 
flat,  Mr.  Kenworthy  obtained  clearly-worked  flint  implements  and 
bones.  These  were  overlaid  by  15  feet  of  undisturbed  shingle, 
palpably  Westleton,  and  this  again  by  5  feet  of  Brick-earth.  The 
explanation  seems  to  be  that  they  were  covered  by  tahts  from  a  cliff. 


IN    PART    OF    NORTH-WESTF.RN    ESSEX.  2T3 

or  that  an  enormous  mass  of  gravel  had  slipped  over  the  relics.  As, 
however,  the  brick-earth  is  not  of  a  kind  agreeing  with  ordinary  rain- 
wash,  but  appears  to  have  been  formed  ///  si/it,  the  latter  supposition 
(unless  we  refer  them  to  Pre-glacial  interment)  seems  to  be  the  only 
one  admissible. 

This  section  is^  I  believe,  at  a  greater  elevation  than  any  treated 
of  by  Prof.  Prestwich  at  Braintree.  As  a  disturbance,  therefore,  has 
probably  occurred  at  that  elevation  in  Post-glacial  times,  should  it 
not  rather  modify  his  statement  as  to  the  gravels  at  lower  elevations, 
"round  which  the  glacial  beds  wrap"  {/.c.  p.  134) — the  more  so  that 
no  true  Boulder  Clay  is  found  in  the  valley  there  ? 

The  Westleton  series  extends  to  the  summit  of  the  hill,  but  at 
places  on  the  top  it  has  a  capping  of  about  two  feet  of  Boulder  Clay. 
The  total  thickness  of  Westleton  Beds  there  cannot  be  less  than 
eighty  feet,  as  stated  by  Prof.  Prestwich. 

The  Boulder  Clay,  trending  in  a  north-westerly  direction,  attains 
a  considerable  thickness  near  Panfield  Wood,  but  at  a  point  about  a 
quarter  of  a  mile  north  of  that  wood  it  has  thinned  out  somewhat, 
and  under  two  or  three  feet  of  Chalky  Clay  the  Westleton  Shingle 
appears  again.  It  is  here  of  the  ordinary  pebbly  character  and 
unaccompanied  with  sand  for  the  first  six  feet,  the  depth  of  the 
section. 

On  Clap-bridge  Farm,  south-west  of  Braintree  (marked  erroneously 
on  the  one-inch  map  as  "Mill-farm"),  at  an  elevation  of  about  fifty  feet 
from  the  river,  there  is  an  exposure  of  about  four  feet  of  Westleton 
pebbly  gravel.  No  Boulder  Clay  exists  here  now,  but  a  large  lump 
of  Lower  Tertiary  Sandstone  lying  near  the  surface  gives  evidence  of 
its  former  existence. 

In  the  cutting  for  the  goods-siding  at  Rayne  there  is  a  small 
section  of  Westleton  Gravel.  The  gravel-pit  marked  on  the  one-inch 
map  south  of  Rayne  station  is  not  free  from  a  suspicion  of  (ilacial 
admixture. 

Passing  on  to  Felstead  Station,  there  is  a  low  cutting  there  of 
not  more  than  six  feet  of  fine  shingle,  undoubtedly  of  ^\'estleton 
age.  Although  not  by  any  means  a  fine  or  typical  exposure,  it  is 
worthy  of  special  notice,  because  from  it  have  been  obtained  vege- 
table remains.  This  was  a  piece  of  wood  of  about  six  feet  in  length, 
and  flattened  into  a  thin  lamina  l)y  pressure.  At  some  i)arts  it  is 
said  to  have  had  the  consistence  of  coal,  but  other  i)arts  clearly 
showed  its    woody    fibre.     I   am    indebted  to    the  platelayers  and 


2  14  ON    THE    OCCURRENCE    OF    WESTLETON    BEDS 

signalman  for  this  information,  as,  unfortunately,  I  was  too  late  to  see 
the  specimen,  which  had  been  destroyed. 

There  can  be  no  doubt  on  examination  of  the  place,  as  to  its 
entombment  being  contemporary  with  the  laying  down  of  the  shingle. 
This  piece  of  ancient  flotsam  seems  to  be  our  only  representative  of 
the  Cromer  Forest  Bed  series.  In  further  support  of  the  antiquity 
of  this  exposure,  I  may  mention  another  section  shown  in  a  gravel- 
pit  about  one-eighth  of  a  mile  south  of  this  cutting,  and  at  a  less 
elevation  down  the  valley  slope.  That  gravel-pit  is  capped  in  part 
by  Boulder  Clay,  and  the  underlying  gravel  (Glacial)  is  partly  made 
up  of  blocks,  as  it  were,  of  the  Westleton  shingle  derived  from  the 
older  bed.  Cubes,  in  fact,  of  this  material  may  be  cut  out  completely 
and  compared  with  the  bed  where  it  occurs  in  situ,  and  from  which, 
probably,  it  was  originally  torn.  There  is  a  chalybeate  spring  rising 
near  this  place,  and  I  have  thought  whether  its  impurities  can  in  any 
way  be  traced  to  carbonaceous  matter  lying  in  the  Westleton  bed, 
from  which  it  undoubtedly  originates. 

Our  next  section  is  less  than  a  quarter  of  a  mile  west  of  Dunmow 
station,  and  is  a  small  exposure  at  the  foot  of  the  hill  on  which  the 
windmill  stands.  This  is  of  Westleton  shingle.  It  would  not 
appear  to  have  any  great  thickness  here,  because  the  London  Clay 
rises  nearly  to  the  surface  opposite  Dunmow  station. 

Passing  to  the  railway  cutting  a  mile  further  west  near  the 
"  High  Wood  "  we  have  the  most  instructive  section  to  be  found  in 
the  area.  It  occurs  at  the  commencement  of  the  cutting.  The 
gravel  there  abuts  rudely  on  a  boss  of  bright  yellow  Westleton 
sand,  which,  under  the  sun's  rays,  glitters  abundantly  with  scales  of 
mica.  The  false-bedding  of  the  gravels  is  abruptly  broken  off  at  its 
junction  with  the  sand,  and  forms  a  conspicuous  feature.  Unfor- 
tunately, the  Westleton  sand  passes  almost  immediately  under  the 
talus,  which  exists  continuously  throughout  the  cutting.  The 
gravel,  with  its  overlying  boulder  clay,  is  very  finely  developed. 
There  is  some  doubt  as  to  the  true  character  of  this  gravel.  Inas- 
much as  it  is  sharply  divided  from  the  Boulder  Clay,  a  character 
common  to  the  "  Westleton  "  over  a  wide  area  (.see  Prestwich  and 
Woodward),  it  resembles  \\'estleton  gravel,  but  in  its  uneven  lie  and 
total  unconformability  to  the  underlying  sand  it  resembles  Glacial 
gravel.  Unfortunately,  I  could  find  no  loose  heaps  about  to  assist 
me  in  further  determination. 

As  we  shall  meet  with  the  underlying  micaceous  sand  again,  and 


IN    PART    OF    NORTH-WESTERN    ESSEX.  2x5 

as  it  seems  a  characteristic  of  the  ^^'estleton  Beds,  it  is  worth  while 
here  to  ask  two  questions — (i)  Is  it  derived  from  the  waste  say  of 
the  Chillesford  Clay?  (2)  Has  it  ever  been  known  to  occur  in  the 
Glacial  series  ? 

In  passing  north-east  towards  Stehbing  Downs  we  pass  over  a 
ridge  of  some  elevation,  say  250  feet  above  O.D.,  and  more  than 
two  miles  across.  It  is  a  matter  of  speculation  as  to  whether  the 
Westleton  Beds  may  not  enter  largely  into  the  composition  of  this 
ridge.  Yet  again  it  may  be  due  to  a  fold  in  the  I>ondon  Clay. 
Towards  its  south-eastern  end,  at  a  point  one-eighth  of  a  mile  west 
of  "  Throws  "  Farm,  the  Drift  is  about  sixty  feet  in  thickness,  and  the 
London  Clay  two  hundred  feet.  (See  letter  from  Mr.  Hasler, 
Appendix.) 

The  sand-pit  at  Stebbing  Downs,  to  which  I  now  call  attention, 
has  furnished  some  good  evidence  as  to  the    Pre-glacial  age  of  the 
gravel  and  sand.    It  is  shown  as  "Sand-pit "  in  the  Geological  Map.    A 
nodule  of  clay  containing  shells  was  taken  from  there  a  few  years  ago, 
and   submitted  to  Prof.  Keeping,  of  Cambridge,  who  pronounced 
them  to  be  of  "  Crag  "  age.     Unfortunately  the  relic  has  since  been 
lost.-     The  exposure  there  is  now  very  fine,  and  is  as  under  : — 
Post-Glacial  drift         ....         8  feet. 
Westleton  Pebbly  gravel     .         .         .         4     ,, 
Finely  bedded  yellow  sand,  with  mica 

scales,  not  bottomed  .  .         .  8     ,, 

A  shallow  pit,  one  hundred  yards  to  the  north-east  of  the  above  pit, 
shows  only  Westleton  gravel  overlaid  by  dark  soil  of  about  one  foot. 

Westleton  gravel  appears  to  underlie  the  mount  and  stream  at 
Stebbing  Park.  A  small  exposure  shows  that  it  extends  to  the  level 
of  the  stream.  It  is  not  thus  shown  on  the  Drift  Map,  being 
included  in  the  London  Clay. 

About  a  mile  to  the  east  of  Bran  End,  near  the  letter  "  \V  "  in 
"White  House"  (one-inch  map),  there  are  two  gravel  pits  known  as 
"Blewitt's."  One  is  in  the  lane,  and  the  other  in  the  field  adjoining. 
That  in  the  lane  is  a  long  semi-circular  exposure,  showing  six  feet  of 
Westleton  shingle  overlaid  by  two  feet  of  Boulder  Clay.  The  pit  in 
the  field  shows  also  six  feet  of  Westleton  shingle  overlaid  by  four  feet 
of  a  purple  sandy  clay  of  uncertain  age.  A  depression  in  the  lane 
at  a  lower  elevation  shows  bright  yellow  sand  with  mica  scales. 

2  This  specimen  of  Crag  from  the  .Stebbing  pit  was  described  by  the  Rev.  Edward  Gepp  in  a 
note  in  our  "  Journal  of  Proceedings  "  for  April  26th,  1884  (vol.  iv.,  p.  xcvii.). — Ei). 


2l6  ON    THE   OCCURRENCE    OF    WESTLETON    BEDS 

The  next  section  is  that  of  the  gravel  pit  just  north  of  Cireat 
SaHng  Church.  This  exposure  is  very  fine  (see  figure),  and 
consists  of: — 

Brick-earth — Boulder  Clay     .         .         6  feet. 

Middle  Clacial  gravel    .         .         .   o  ft.  to  i  ft. 

Westlcton  shingle  .  .  12  ft.  (not  bottomed) 

The  peculiarity  of  the  Brick-earth  is  that  the  decalcification  of 
the  chalky  Boulder  Clay  is  incomplete,  leaving  a  nodule  of  Boulder 
Clay  unchanged  about  midway  in  the  section.  This  phenomenon  I 
believe  to  be  rare.  The  Middle  Glacial  gravel  thins  off  to  the  right 
and  left,  and  at  a  few  feet  distance  is  reduced  to  an  inch  in 
thickness. 

It  would  seem  as  suggested  by  Prof.  Prestwich  that  the  beds  may 
be  still  more  developed  in  the  Thaxted  direction.  The  most 
northerly  point  that  I  could  trace  was  the  pit  at  Park  Hall  Farm, 
Great  Bardfield.  I  saw  gravel  from  this  pit  which  could  be  at  once 
identified  as  Westleton,  but  was  unable  to  visit  the  spot.  Again,  I 
am  credibly  informed  that  sands  precisely  similar  to  those  at 
Stebbing  are  developed  at  Shalford  and  Wethersfield,  that  is  on 
both  sides  of  the  Blackwater  river  at  that  place. 

On  the  other  hand,  there  is  but  small  chance  of  examining  what 
is  perhaps  but  a  remnant  of  the  Westleton  beds  south  of  the  area  I 
have  drawn.  The  mid-glacial  and  overlying  beds  effectually  conceal 
the  Westleton  where  it  exists.  In  the  village  of  Felstead  the  drift 
deposits  attain  a  thickness  of  from  forty  to  fifty  feet.  Yet  it  is  well 
known  that  the  lower  stratum  of  gravel  varies  widely  from  the  mid- 
glacial  type.  It  is,  in  fact,  Westleton  shingle  or  sand,  and  is  the 
water-bearing  stratum  into  which  wells  are  sunk.  The  thickness 
varies  from  a  few  inches  to  six  or  ten  feet,  but  I  regret  that  I  cannot 
as  yet  speak  with  precision  of  any  well-section.  Apart  from  this 
general  remark,  which  applies  to  the  neighbourhood  around,  there 
does  not  appear  to  be  a  section  which  can  be  adduced  in  further 
illustration.-^ 

APPENDIX. 

[Letter  /rem  Mr.   R.   //as/er,  referred  to  above  (/.   2 1 5).] 

iMr.  J.  French,  Felstead. 

Dear  SrR, — The  well  for  Jubilee  Pump  in  this  village  is  twenty-eight  feet 
deep,  and  the  soil  twenty-five  feet  down  was  half  white  or  chalky  clay,  and  the 

3  Some  post-glacial  deposits  have  been  mentioned  in  the  above  article,  and  the  question  will 
naturally  be  asked  as  to  the  evidence  of  their  age.  As  they  are  all  curious  1  purpose  to  treat  of 
them  specially  in  another  paper. 


I\    PART    OF    NORTH-WESTEKN    ESSEX.  21 7 

Other  half,  stiff  yellow  clay  or  tile  earth,  then  the  lower  three  feet  into  drift.  My 
well  here  is  about  fift3--eijxht  feet  deep,  white  clay  at  twenty  feet  throu,<;;h,  yellovv 
about  thirty-five  feet,  and  then  same  as  above. 

Mr.  Richardson's,  at  the  cottages  here,  late  "  Flitch  of  Bacon  Inn,"  is  the 
deep  well.  As  nearly  as  I  can  remember  it  was  same  as  mine  TO  SAME  DEPTH  ; 
they  came  on  to  the  London  Clay  at  about  sixty  feet,  and  dug  eighty  feet  in  it, 
and  then  bored  about  120  feet  lower,  all  London  Clay  ;  had  just  decided  to  give 
up  that  day  when  they  came  on  a  thin  crust  of  rock,  which,  having  broken  through, 
there  came  in  upon  them  a  great  rush  of  water.  Yours  truly, 

Ltttle  Dunmow,  May  20th,  1891.  RoBEKr  IIasler. 

A'oUs  Oft  the  above  Letter. 

The  place  of  this  Artesian  Well  is  about  one-eighth  of  a  mile  due  west  of 
Throws  Farm,  Little  Dunmow. 

The  thickness  of  the  London  Clay  mentioned  is  a  near  approximation  to  the 
truth,  because  the  boring  was  compared  at  the  time  with  the  Saling  Well  men- 
tioned in  the  Survey  Memoir,  and  much  surprise  was  expressed  at  its  much 
greater  thickness.  The  thickness  at  Great  Saling  was  165  feet,  with  seventy-five 
feet  of  drift  over  it,  the  surface  level  being  290,  according  to  Mr.  Dalion. — 
J.  Frenxh. 

The  level  of  this  spot  (Little  Dunmow)  is  288  (new  Ordnance  Map,  Sheet  222), 
giving  the  base  of  the  London  Clay  at  X  28,  and  the  Chalk  (by  inference)  at  —  16. 
This  fairly  coincides  with  my  map  in  FssEX  Nat.,  vol.  v.,  p.  113,  being  a  little 
south  of  my  zero  line,  on  which  the  Chalk  is  at  sea  level. — W    H.  Dalton. 

REMARKS   BY   Mr.    W.   H.   D.ALTON,   F.G  S.,   AXD   Mr.   HORACE    IV. 
MONCKTON,  E.G..S: 

[At  the  reading  of  the  above  paper,  Mr,  Dalton  sent  some  observations,  and 
Mr.  Monckton  made  a  few  verbal  remarks  which  may  be  cunveniently  printed 
here : — ] 

"  Although  I  have  not  had  an  opportuuity  of  visiting  the  sections  described 
by  Mr.  French,  whose  paper  was  shown  me  by  Mr.  Cole  some  months  ago,  I 
am  quite  prepared  to  accept  his  correlation  of  these  Essex  beds  with  the  typical 
series  at  Westleton.  In  some  recent  investigations  in  the  Chelmsford  district, 
effecting  various  corrections  of  the  Geological  Survey  Maps,  I  have  found  two  in- 
dubitable outliers  of  the  Westleton  series  :  vtz.,  at  Writtle  Mill  and  Roxwell  Hoe 
Street,  whilst  the  Middle  Glacial  Gravels  in  several  places  are  clearly  derived  in 
large  part  from  the  denudation  of  Westleton  Beds,  which  were  probably  continuous 
across  the  county  originally.  The  occurrence  of  the  Lower  Boulder  Clay  in 
similarly  severed  patches  seems  to  indicate  that  the  principal  denudation  was  in 
the  Middle  Glacial  period.  Unfortunately  the  Westleton  Beds  and  the  Lower 
Boulder  Clay  are  now  both  so  fragmentary  in  Essex,  that  their  mutual  relation 
cannot  be  seen.  There  can  be  no  doubt  (from  the  Suffolk  and  Norfolk  series) 
that  the  Westleton  is  the  older  ;  but  whether  the  unconformity  below  the 
Westleton  is  more  serious  than  that  above  it,  is  not  determinable,  even  in  the 
principal  area  of  development  and  exposure." — W.  H.  Dalto.\. 

At  the  reading  of  the  paper  at  the  meeting  on  November  7th,  Mr.  Horace  W. 
Monckton  remarked  on  its  value,  and  on  the  interest  attaching  to  the  section 
near  Dunmow    High  Wood  : — "  Prof.   Prestwich  had  endeavoured   to  trace  the 

P 


2l8  SPOTTED    EAGLE    AT    ELMSTEAD    AND    I.EIGH. 

Westleton  Beds  from  Norfolk  and  Suffolk  through  Essex,  Middlesex,  Hertford- 
shire, etc.,  into  the  West  of  England  ;  but  there  were  several  breaks  in  their 
continuity,  and  one  of  the  most  serious  was  that  between  Broxted,  near  Braintree, 
and  Coopersale  Common,  near  Epping,  a  distance  of  nineteen  miles.  The  sections 
described  by  Mr.  French  served  to  shorten  this  distance  to  about  fifteen  miles,  and 
were  so  far  very  satisfactory.  It  should  be  noted  that  Prof.  Prestwich  says  of  the 
Westleton  Beds,  that  they  extend  from  Braintree,  by  Withersfield,  to  Dunmow 
and  Thaxted,  but  are  rarely  exposed  "  (Quart.  Journ.  Geol.  Soc,  vol.  xlvi.,  p- 
134)- 


SPOTTED  EAGLE  {AQUILA  N.^VIA)  AT  ELM- 
STEAD  AND  LEIGH  ;  AN  ADDITION  TO 
THE    ESSEX    FAUNA. 

OOME  time  since  I  recorded  the  fact  of  a  Crane  having  been 
^^  shot  in  the  parish  of  Ehnstead  near  Colchester  {see  Essex 
Naturalist,  vol.  ii.,  p.  271),  and  now  I  am  very  pleased  to  announce 
the  occurrence  there  of  a  Spotted  Eagle — but  with  this  welcome  cir- 
cumstance, that  the  bird  was  not  killed,  but  is  alive  and  apparently 
healthy.  If  these  captures  continue  Elmstead  will  become  celebrated 
in  ornithological  annals  as  the  harbourage  of  rare  birds.  Mr.  Pettitt, 
our  local  taxidermist,  purchased  the  specimen  from  a  gipsy,  who  had 
a  few  days  before  bought  it  of  the  captor,  a  farm-labourer  of  Elm- 
stead.  On  October  29th,  the  man  had  noticed  a  strange  bird,  in  an 
apparently  exhausted  state,  alight  in  a  field  in  which  he  was  working. 
He  immediately  gave  chase,  and  after  the  bird  had  taken  a  short 
flight  he  came  up  with  it  and  succeeded  in  taking  it  alive  and 
uninjured.  The  specimen  appears  to  belong  to  the  small  race  of  the 
species,  its  size  and  markings  corresponding  to  Mr.  Saunders'  de- 
scription of  this  variety. — Henry  Layer,  F.L.S.,   Colchester. 

It  was  stated  in  the  local  papers  that  on  Thursday,  November 
3rd,  a  "  Golden  Eagle  "  was  shot  at  Leigh  by  the  Rev.  R.  Stuart 
King.  Having  some  doubts  as  to  the  species,  I  wrote  to  Mr.  King, 
and  he  informs  me  that  the  bird  he  shot  was  the  Spotted  Eagle 
{Aquila  mevid).  It  was  first  seen  on  the  ground  in  the  Rectory 
meadow  at  Leigh,  and  upon  being  alarmed  by  a  lad,  it  flew  up  and 
settled  on  a  tree.  The  lad,  thinking  it  was  a  goose,  fetched  Mr.  King, 
who,  at  once  recognising  it  as  an  Eagle,  procured  a  gun  and  shot  it. 
Mr.  King  describes  it  as  a  young  bird,  the  spots  being  very  plainly 
marked.  The  measurements  were :  from  tips  of  wings  5  feet,  from 
beak  to  tail    2    feet   \  inch.      He  adds  :  "  The   bird  was  evidently 


SPOTTED    KAdI.E    AT    KLMSTEAD    AND    I.KIGH.  219 

weak  from  want  of  food,  and  was  very  light.  A  gale  from  the  N.E. 
had  been  blowing  for  two  days,  so  1  imagine  that  the  bird  had  been 
carried  out  of  its  course.  I  find  that  it  had  been  seen  two  or  three 
days  before  I  shot  it." — W.  Cole. 

[We,  of  course,  give  the  names  of  the  species  on  the  authority  of 
Dr.  Laver  and  Mr.  King.  The  Spotted  Eagle  appears  to  be  one  of 
our  rarest  birds,  only  six  examples  having  been  previously  recorded 
in  (ireat  Britain  and  Ireland  {viz.,  two  near  Youghal  in  1845  ;  two 
in  Cornwall  in  1861  ;  one  in  Lancashire  in  1874;  and  one,  in  1885, 
in  Northumberland).  Its  distribution  is  thus  summarised  by  Mr. 
Saunders :  — "  It  is  probable  that  the  specific  name  generally 
employed  was  originally  intended  for  the  small  form  which  breeds 
in  the  forests  of  Northern  Germany,  and  becomes  numerous  in 
Pomerania  and  the  Baltic  provinces  of  Russia ;  though  rare  on 
the  eastern  side  of  the  Gulf  of  Bothnia,  and  only  a  straggler  to 
Sweden  and  Lapland.  Southward  this  can  be  traced  through 
Poland  and  the  marshy  woods  to  the  west  of  the  Dnieper  down 
to  Bessarabia,  as  w^ell  as  to  the  Caucasus.  A  larger  form,  which 
slightly  intrudes  on  this  area,  occupies  the  forest  region  to  the 
eastward  and  southward  as  far  as  the  steppes ;  beyond  which  it 
extends  across  Turkestan  and  Central  Asia  to  Northern  China, 
and  to  some  parts  of  India,  Persia,  and  Asia  Minor.  It  nests 
in  Turkey,  the  districts  watered  by  and  south  of  the  Danube,  and 
suitable  localities  in  Italy  and  the  islands  of  the  Mediterranean  ; 
also,  sparingly,  in  north  Africa.  In  the  south  of  Spain  it  is  not 
common ;  but  I  frequently  saw  and  heard  it  in  the  Pyrenees. 
In  France  and  Belgium  it  is  rare,  except  on  the  wooded  south- 
eastern frontier  towards  Switzerland  and  Luxemburg.  In  winter 
both  races  migrate  entirely  from  their  northern,  and  partially  from 
their  southern,  haunts  in  Europe,  numbers  ascending  the  Nile 
valley  to  Abyssinia."  The  late  severe  storms  were  doubtless  the 
cause  of  these  distinguished  visitors'  presence  in  Essex.  Possibly  they 
were  blown  from  their  course  during  migration.  It  is  stated  that  the 
Elmstead  specimen  is  a  young  male,  in  good  plumage,  the  wings 
extending  nearly  six  feet  from  point  to  point.  Its  appetite  is  very 
keen,  it  having  disposed  in  three  days  of  a  large  barn-door  fowl,  a 
rabbit,  and  the  entire  pluck  of  a  sheep  !  If  Dr.  Laver  is  correct 
in  referring  the  specimen  to  the  small  form,  it  is  probably  quite 
new  to  the  British  fauna,  as  Mr.  J.  H.  (kirney  stated  that  all  the 
I'riiish  examples  he  had  seen  were  referable  to  the  larger  variety, 
which,  he  says,  is  the  A.  clnnga  of  Pallas.  The  Elmstead  specimen 
forms  the  subject  of  a  large  engraving  in  the  "Daily  Graphic  "  of 
November  i8th. — Ed.] 


NOTES  ON  THE  MOLLUSCA  OF  THE  THAMES 
ESTUARY,  WITH  A  LIST  OF  SPECIES 
OBSERVED. 

By  A.  J.  JENKINS,  Member  of  the  Conchological  Society. 
[Read  November  yth,  l8gi.\ 

T  N  bringing  before  the  Essex  Field  Club  the  following  account  of 
the  MoUusca  inhabiting  the  Thames  Estuary,  I  am  free  to 
acknowledge  that  the  list  is  by  no  means  complete.  When  asked 
by  your  Secretary  some  time  ago  to  prepare  an  account  of  the  various 
species  collected  by  myself  in  this  locality,"  I  was  hopeful  that  I  should 
be  able  to  increase  the  number  during  the  past  summer.  Unfortu- 
nately, pressure  of  work  during  fine  weather,  and  the  heavy  rainfall 
when  it  was  possible  to  steal  away  from  business,  have  frustrated 
these  bright  hopes  ;  consequently,  I  have  been  able  to  make  during 
1 89 1  but  few  additions  to  the  list  of  species  previously  observed. 
My  attention  has  generally  been  confined  during  the  past  two  years 
to  the  marshes  bordering  the  Thames  upon  either  side  of  the  river. 
I  have  collected  upon  many  occasions  at  Beckton,  over  the  marshes 
at  Rainham,  Purfleet,  Grays,  Thurrock,  and  Tilbury  as  far  as  Low 
Street  Station  upon  the  Tilbury  and  Southend  Railway.  I  have  not 
yet  paid  attention  to  the  land  shells  of  the  Essex  Marshes,  but  I  hope 
to  do  so  in  the  future. 

Parts  of  the  marshes  in  Kent  and  Essex  are  somewhat  incon- 
venient to  travel  over,  particularly  after  wet  or  foggy  weather,  when 
the  roads  are  rendered  almost  impassable  by  thick  tenacious  mud, 
and  the  coarse  grass,  reaching  to  the  knee,  is  saturated  with  moisture. 
They  are  also  intersected  with  numerous  wide,  deep,  and  in  many 
cases  swift  running  dykes  or  drains,  frequently  involving  the  neces- 
sity of  a  jump  to  avoid  a  detour  of  several  miles.  These  ditches  are 
connected  with  the  Thames  in  many  places  by  drains  and  sluices, 
and  the  river  overflowing  occasionally  at  high  tides,  the  water  in 
them  is  more  or  less  brackish.  On  the  other  hand  these  ditches  are 
interesting  to  the  naturalist,  being  the  abode  of  numerous  aquatic 
animals  and  plants  ;  in  many  places  the  dykes  literally  teem  with 
MoUusca,  and  with  Microscopic  Algae  and  Infusorian  life.  And 
although  the  pernicious  effects  of  the  refuse  from  manufactories,  and 
particularly  of  the  London  Sewage,  have  done  much  to  annihilate  the 

I  At  the  reading  of  the  paper  Mr.  Jenkins  exhibited  a  complete  series  of  all  the  species  and 
varieties  mentioned,  and  also  presented  an  almost  perfect  series  to  the  museum  of  the  Club.-  Eu. 


NOTES    ON    THE    MOI.LUSCA    OF    THE    THAMES    ESTUARY.         22  1 

animal  and  plant  life  of  large  tracts  of  marsh  land,  still  we  hope  that 
for  years  to  come  the  shores  of  the  estuary  will  afford  ample  scope 
for  collecting  and  observation.  Within  recent  years  the  establish- 
ment of  various  chemical,  gas,  and  sewage  works  and  factories  has 
caused  several  species  of  Mollusca  to  retreat  some  miles  lower  down 
the  river,  and  in  one  case,  that  of  Hydrobia  similis,  will  soon  have 
completely  exterminated  this  rare  and  local  form.  As  far  as  is  at 
present  known,  the  only  remaining  British  resort  for  this  shell  is  a 
small  narrow  ditch,  a  few  yards  only  in  length,  the  precise  locality  of 
which,  to  prevent  vandalism,  it  is  necessary  to  keep  a  secret. 

The  conversion  of  the  Thames  into  a  gigantic  sewer  has  almost 
abolished  "  shrimping  "  near  the  mouth  of  the  Thames,  at  Gravesend, 
and  the  shoals  of  fish  are  fast  retreating  seaward.  Last  year  a  ditch 
at  Beckton,  abounding  with  Hydrobia  Jeukinsi,  and  a  very  peculiar 
tumid  variety  of  the  same  shell,  was  completely  poisoned  by  the 
deposition  of  a  quantity  of  chemical  ballast.  In  the  "  Journal  of 
Conchology,"  vol.  vi.,  page  141,  Mr.  J.  T.  Marshall,  in  an  article  on 
the  Hydrobice  and  AssifninecE  from  the  Thames  valley,  mentioned  the 
fact,  that  "  for  some  years  Assi?fn?iea  grayana  has  been  migrating 
down  riverwards.  Many  years  ago  it  was  found  abundantly  in  the 
Greenwich  marshes  ;  but  when  Dr.  Jeffreys,  in  1868,  wanted  fresh 
specimens  for  the  purpose  of  illustrating  his  fifth  volume,  he  could 
find  only  two  specimens,  after  a  most  diligent  search,"  assisted  by  Mr. 
Marshall  ;  and  his  recorded  habitat  in  that  volume  was  "  banks  of  the 
Thames,  between  Greenwich  and  a  little  below  Gravesend,  making 
altogether  a  distance  of  about  twenty  miles." 

Mr.  Marshall  mentions  that  in  his  interleaved  copy  of  Jeffreys', 
the  following  note  occurs,  written  in  1872  :  "  This  habitat,  which  was 
correct  twenty  years  ago,  has  undergone  some  change  in  the  interval. 
At  that  time  Clark  and  Barlee  found  it  in  myriads  between  Green- 
wich and  Charlton  ;  but  at  the  present  time  neither  Mr.  Jeffreys  nor 
myself  can  find  it  there.  We  have,  however,  found  it  in  countless 
thousands  at  Abbey  Wood,  and  Erith,  on  the  raised  banks  of  the 
Thames,  which  now  seems  its  nearest  locality  to  London,  so  that  they 
appear  to  have  migrated  a  distance  of  about  ten  miles ;"  and  Mr. 
Marshall  adds  that  "  as  Mr.  Horsley  has  been  searching  for  this 
species  also  at  the  latter  stations  without  success,  it  must  have 
migrated  further  still,  if  the  sewage  outfall  works  of  recent  years  has 
not  altogether  exterminated  it." 

A  short  time  after  this  was  written  by  Mr.   ^Larshall,  the  Rev.  J. 


222  NOTES    ON    THE    MOIT.USCA    OF    THE    THAMES    ESTUARY, 

W.  Horsley  obtained  a  number  of  this  species  from  the  river  bank  at 
Gravesend  :  and  subsequently  we  collected  together  a  number  of 
living  Assimineas  with  Melampus  myosotis  at  the  Salt  Marsh  near 
Purfleet.  I  have  frequently  taken  dead  shells  from  the  same  habitat 
as  Hydrobia  similis,  and  also  below  Erith  ;  but  I  have  never'  found 
living  specimens  above  Greenhithe  and  the  Purfleet  Salt-marshes. 

The  marshes  between  Greenwich  and  Woolwich  were  for  some 
years  the  recorded  habitat  of  Hydrobia  similis  ;  but  it  has  long  since 
disappeared  from  that  locality,  together  with  the  original  colony  of  the 
new  Hydrobia  which  I  discovered  in  East  Greenwich  Marshes  in 
1883. 

It  thus  appears  that  in  a  period  of  about  a  quarter  of  a  century, 
several  species  have  been  forced  to  migrate  lower  down  the  river  from 
the  causes  above  mentioned.  The  same  causes  will  also  account  for 
the  total  extinction  of  rare  or  local  forms  not  sufficiently  vigorous  to 
reproduce  their  species  quickly,  or  to  adapt  themselves  to  new  habits 
and  environment. 

The  list  of  MoUusca  appended  to  this  paper  is  the  faithful  record 
of  two  years'  work  ;  but,  as  I  have  said,  it  is  by  no  means  complete, 
and  I  am  certain  that  members  of  the  Essex  Field  Club  in  collecting 
along  the  Essex  Marshes  will  be  able  to  add  to  it  considerably. 

Of  shells  peculiar  to  the  marshes,  eighteen  fresh-water  species,  six 
brackish-water,  and  nineteen  species  of  land  shells  have  been  recorded  ; 
or  a  total  of  forty-three  species.  Adding  those  collected  in  the  lanes 
and  hedgerows  in  close  proximity  brings  the  number  up  to  fifty-four 
species,  with  thirty-two  varieties. 

It  is  to  be  regretted  that  circumstances  have  not  at  present  per- 
mitted a  study  of  the  mouth  of  the  Thames  for  marine  forms  ;  neither 
has  there  been  time  for  collecting  land  shells  upon  the  Essex  Marshes. 
But  this  last  omission  is  less  to  be  regretted  ;  for,  on  reading  the  very 
interesting  account  of  the  "Land  and  Fresh-water  Mollusca  of  Wan- 
stead  and  the  neighbouring  districts  of  the  Becontree  Hundred,"  by 
Mr.  Crouch  in  vol.  iv.  of  the  Essex  Naturalist,  I  came  to  the  con- 
clusion that  in  all  probability  the  Terrestrial  Mollusca  that  are  most 
common  upon  the  Kentish  Bank,  are  also  likely  to  be  the  prevail- 
ing species  inhabiting  the  Essex  Marshes." 

I  have  little  to  say  respecting  the  land  and  fresh-water  shells  of 
this  district ;  but  will  take  the  opportunity  of  making  some  remarks 

2  I  was  also  pleased  to  find  that  the  pretty  little  inany-whorled  shell  PlanorHs  contortus,  which 
1  had  reason  to  believe  was  both  rare  and  local,  having  only  taken  four  shells  once  in  two  years, 
has  been  recorded  Ijy  Mr.  Crouch  as  common  in  quite  a  number  of  localities  in  the  Becontree 
Hundred. 


WITH    A    LIST    OF    SPECIES    OBSERVED.  223 

with  regard  to  the  brackish-water  species,  and  also  a  few  words  of 
explanation  of  the  difficulties  which  have  arisen,  by  reason  of  the 
discovery  of  the  new  Hydrobia,  which  is  now  generally  considered  by 
conchologists  as  worthy  of  specific  rank. 

Our  British  Hydrobiae  and  Assimineoe,  which  were  originally 
divided  by  I  )r.  Jeffreys  into  two  distinct  orders,  would  seem  to  occupy 
a  somewhat  anomalous  place  in  the  Molluscan  world.  They  are  not 
all  strictly  marine  in  habit,  neither  can  they  all  endure  long  immer- 
sion in  fresh  water.  To  me  they  appear  to  form  distinctly  a  con- 
necting link  between  the  fresh-water  and  the  marine  Mollusca. 

Take  the  Hydrobiai  for  instance,  of  which  family  H.  tilvcc  nearest 
approaches  to  the  purely  marine  species  ;  whilst  jenkinsi,  by  the 
readiness  with  which  it  adapts  itself  to  fresh-water  environment 
(during  which  it  will  remain  hardy  and  vigorous  for  prolonged 
periods,  reproducing  its  species  with  remarkable  fertility),  certainly 
serves  to  connect  the  two  groups.  H.  similis  also  does  not  object  to 
water  that  is  not  in  the  least  brackish  ;  indeed,  specimens  remained 
alive  in  tap  water  in  Aquaria  after  many  months  (but  I  could  not 
succeed  in  breeding  them  under  artificial  conditions).  Dr.  Jeffreys 
states  in  his  "  British  Conchology  "  that  in  France  they  inhabit  quite 
fresh  water.  Under  these  circumstances  it  is  rather  difficult  to 
properly  classify  this  family.  They  can  scarcely  be  all  designated  as 
fresh-water  Mollusca,  neither  does  it  seem  quite  right  to  include  them 
all  with  the  marine  shells  ;  possibly  the  best  way  out  of  the  difficulty 
would  be  to  constitute  them  an  intermediate  class. 

Hydrobia  ventrosa  has  a  persistent  habit  of  floating  shell  down- 
wards upon  the  surface  of  the  water  after  the  manner  of  the  fresh- 
water Physce.  H.  jenkinsi  and  H.  similis  may  occasionally  have 
recourse  to  the  same  habit,  but  not  habitually.  The  two  latter 
species  will  also  crawl  about  immediately  after  being  placed  in  a  saucer 
without  sufficient  water  to  cover  them,  and  the  former  will  extend  its 
researches  over  the  edge  of  the  dish  and  even  upon  the  table. 

H.  venirosa  is  very  timid  if  disturbed  in  this  way  ;  it  will  remain 
quite  dormant  for  a  long  time,  and  it  never  travels  out  of  the  reach 
of  water. 

A.  grayana,  Melampus  myosolis,  and  //.  ulvie  are  great  wan- 
derers also,  and  may  frequently  be  collected  many  yards  away  from 
the  water,  or  high  and  dry  upon  mud  flats,  and  crawling  upon 
wooden  piles  some  distance  from  tide  mark.  In  such  a  situation 
last  summer  I   collected  some  thousands  of  //.  u/vw  at  Lowestoft 


224  NOTES    ON    THE    MOLLUSCA    OF    THE    THAMES  .  ESTUARY, 

by  just  brushing  them  into  a  box  from  off  the  piles  of  a  landing 
stage. 

Upon  two  occasions  I  have  found  I/j'drol'ia  jefih'jisi  exisi'mg  with 
J/,  ventrosa  in  the  same  ditches,  but  generally  the  MoUusca  associated 
with  it  have  been  fresh-water  species,  viz. :  Bytliinia  tentaculata,  B. 
leachii,  Plafiorhis  nautileus,  P.  spirobis,  P.  complauatus,  and  the 
ubiquitous  Lininaa  peregra.  Once  I  found  a  single  living  H.  similis 
with  H.  jenkinsi  in  a  new  locality  upon  Erith  Marshes. 

I  have  found  Hydrobia  similis  associated  with  Limiicca  truncatula  ; 
and  I  think  it  has  at  one  time  been  accompanied  by  Assiminea 
graya?ta,  as  I  have  taken  numerous  dead  shells  of  the  latter  from  its 
habitat. 

A.  grayana  and  Melampiis  also  seem  to  inhabit  the  same  waters, 
and  upon  one  occasion  I  collected  H.  ulvce  from  the  same  ditch 
upon  Dartford  Marshes,  in  which  these  two  species  were  abundant. 
A  curious  dwarfed  variety  of  Littorina  rudis  occurs  in  the  brackish- 
water  ditches  upon  West  Tilbury  Marshes  along  with  Hydrobia 
venirosa,  and  the  latter  species  and  H.  similis  are  also  found  together. 

I  believe  that  H.  jenkinsi  is  the  most  abundant  Thames  marsh 
species  of  the  Hydrobiae,  and  its  habitat  extends  far  beyond  the 
others,  occupying  many  miles  of  ditches  from  the  commencement  of 
the  Plumstead  Marshes,  near  the  Arsenal  wall,  away  down  to  a  point 
midway  between  Dartford  Creek  and  Greenhithe,  and  from  Beckton 
nearly  to  Coldharbour  Point,  which  to  me  appears  to  be  the  full 
extent  of  its  distribution  in  Essex.  I  made  my  first  acquaintance 
with  this  interesting  Mollusc  during  the  early  summer  of  1883,  when 
I  collected  from  a  muddy  ditch  upon  the  marshes  near  East  Green- 
wich six  or  eight  specimens  of  a  small  operculated  Mollusc,  which 
did  not  agree  with  any  British  shell  with  which  I  was  at  that  time 
acquainted. 

The  animal  seemed  to  me  to  differ  entirely  from  the  genus 
Bythinia,  and  the  operculum,  in  particular,  was  quite  distinct,  and 
seemed  to  more  nearly  approach  that  of  the  Littorinidae.  I  made  a 
drawing  of  the  animal  and  its  shell,  and  sent  off  by  the  post  a 
number  of  specimens  to  several  conchologists  of  my  acquaintance, 
and  they  were  unanimous  in  pronouncing  them  to  be  Hydrobia 
similis,  Drap. 

Another  well  known  conchologist  to  whom  I  sent  specimens  of 
the  same  shells  from  East  Cireenwich  Marshes,  also  wrote  me  to  the 
effect  that  at  first  suspecting  them  to  be  H.  ventrosa  he  had  sent  them 


WlTEl    A    LIST    OF    SPECIES    OBSERVED.  225 

to  ail  authority,  who  had  pronounced  them  to  be  undoubtedly  H. 
simi/is. 

This  appeared  to  me  to  be  conclusive  evidence  that  the  shells 
were  certainly  the  Hydrobia  similis  of  Draparnaud,  and  from  that 
date  until  October  4th,  1889,  I  had  no  further  doubt  al)0ut  them, 
and  during  that  period  I  sent  out  many  exchanges  of  this  species  to 
various  correspondents. 

To  Mr.  J.  T.  Marshall,  of  Torquay,  belongs  the  credit  of  being 
the  first  to  positively  say  that  it  was  not  H.  similis,  although  also  for 
a  time  he  considered  these  shells  to  be  Jeffreys'  variety  ovata  of  H. 
veyitrosa.^  These  opinions  of  good  conchologists  must  be  my  excuse 
for  being  so  easily  misled  in  respect  of  this  shell.  Certainly,  if  I  had 
thought  that  there  was  the  least  doubt  as  to  its  identity,  I  should  have 
taken  care  to  submit  specimens  for  observation  and  comparison  to 
some  practical  conchologist  well  acquainted  with  the  family.  I  also 
regret  that  many  correspondents  have  at  various  periods  received  as 
an  exchange  these  Hydrobice  as  authentic  H.  similis.  I  feel  confident 
that  these  mistakes  originated  owing  to  the  great  difficulty  of  obtain- 
ing shells  of^.  similis,  and  also  Jeffreys' variety  ^z'rz/d'  of -^  vetitrosa, 
and  I  am  certain  that  at  that  time  the  real  Simon  Pure  was  to  be 
found  in  the  shell  cabinets  of  very  few  collectors.* 

As  the  dispute  waxed  warm  between  the  advocates  oi  H.  jenkinsi 
versus  H.  ventrosa,  var.  ovata,  I  felt  the  necessity  of  procuring  living 
examples  of  all  the  species  under  discussion,  and  made  frequent 
excursions  to  the  marshes  in  all  sorts  of  weather.  Having  supplied 
Mr.  Smith,  of  the  British  Museum,  with  living  examples  of  the  three 
species,  I  kept  a  number  in  Aquaria  under  my  own  observation  for 
many  months.  During  this  time  I  had  every  opportunity  of  noting 
their  difference  in  habit  and  capability  of  adapting  themselves  to 
water  which  was  more  fresh  or  more  brackish  than  that  to  which 
they  had  hitherto  been  accustomed. 

Close  examination  soon  convinced  me  that  Mr.  Smith  was  right 

3  This  statement  may  be  correct  so  far  as  the  particular  specimens  sent  to  Mr.  Marshall  by  his 
correspondents  as  //.  siiittlis  ("  Journ.  of  Conchology,"  vol.  vi.,  p.  140)  were  concerned;  but  it 
seems  to  be  clear  that  the  credit  of  positively  determining  the  Essex  and  Kent  specimens  as  con- 
stituting a  new  species  belongs  to  Mr.  E.  A.  Smith  and  Mr.  Walter  Crouch,  who  came  to  that 
conclusion  as  long  ago  as  February  2nd,  1889.     (Essex  Nat.,  iv.,  pp.  212-214.) — Ed. 

4  The  first  H.  jenkinsi  dcpo?<i\.e:d  in  the  collections  at  the  British  Museum  were,  we  believe,  the 
three  spec'mens  sent  on  29lh  January,  1889  (with  other  species  o^  Hydrobia)  by  Mr.  W.  Allen,  of 
Canning  Town,  to  Mr.  W.ilter  Crouch,  who,  noticing  the  carinated  whorls,  concluded  at  once 
that  they  were  new.  They  were  taken  on  P'ebruarj'  2nd  by  Mr.  Crouch  to  the  Museum,  and  Prof. 
Flowers'  acknowledgment,  dated  March  nth,  runs  thus:  "Three  specimens  of  a  species  of 
Hydrobia,  new  to  the  British  fauna,  from  Beckton,  near  North  Woolwich  "  (vide  E.  A.  Smith, 
"Journ.  of  Conchology,"  vol.  vi.,  p.  142  ;  Essex  Nat.,  vol.  iv.,  pp.  128  and  212  ;  and  "  Science 
Gossip,"  1891,  p.  163).  Subsequently  Mr.  Jenkins  sent  a  series  from  the  Erith  Marshes,  and  Mr. 
Crouch  a  set  of  thirty-six  examples  from  Beckton. — Ed. 


2  26         NOTES    ON    THE    MOLLUSCA    OF    THE    THAMES    ESTUARY, 

in  his  opinion  that  the  new  Hydrobia  was  a  distinct  species,  as, 
putting  aside  the  difference  in  the  form  and  contour  of  the  shell,  the 
tufts  and  carination  of  a  large  majority  of  the  specimens,  &c.,  the 
habits  and  external  appearance  of  the  creatures  were  quite  character- 
istic. Mr.  Marshall  frankly  acknowledged  in  his  "  Further  Notes  on 
British  Hydrobise  "  (Journal  of  Conchology,  vol.  vi.,  p.  224),  that 
having  always  taken  Jeffreys  for  granted,  he  "  had  not  examined  the 
animal."  I  at  once  sent  him  living  Hydrobiae  for  comparison.  About 
this  time  a  correspondent  of  mine  sent  me  a  solitary  shell  of  the  true 
variety  ovata,  Jeffreys,  of  H.  ventrosa  (which  had  been  authenticated 
by  Mr.  Marshall),  affording  me  the  opportunity  of  comparing  it  with 
specimens  oi  H.jenkinsi,  from  which  it  differed  considerably. 

The  examination  of  the  living  Hydrobiae  and  the  discovery  of  the 
real  variety  ovata  seemed  to  convince  Mr.  Marshall,  and  soon  after- 
wards he  subscribed  to  Mr.  Smith's  opinion  that  the  Plumstead- 
Beckton  Hydrobia  was  entitled  to  rank  as  a  new  species.  From  this, 
I  conclude  that  the  variety  ovata  of  H.  lenirosa  is  exceedingly  rare, 
as  otherwise  comparison  of  the  two  shells  would  have  settled  the 
affair  at  once.  To  me  it  has  often  been  a  matter  of  deep  regret  that 
the  splendid  collection  of  Dr.  Jeffreys,  containing  his  types,  was  ever 
allowed  to  go  out  of  this  country. 

The  carination  and  little  tufts  upon  many  of  the  shells  of  H. 
jenkinsi  are  very  peculiar,  and  form  one  of  the  features  by  which  we 
can  readily  distinguish  them  from  allied  species.  An  examination 
with  a  pocket  lens  of  between  two  and  three  thousand  shells,  from 
various  places,  proves  that  by  far  the  larger  proportion  show  more  or 
less  traces  of  the  carination,  although  but  few  specimens  show  these 
processes  in  perfection.  Amongst  the  marine  and  brackish-water 
shells  of  the  Antipodes  there  are  quite  a  number  of  species  of 
Hydrobia  which  are  either  keeled  and  tufted,  or  else  possess  a  number 
of  delicate  hair-like  processes,  running  spirally  around  the  body  and 
preceding  whorls  just  upon  or  above  the  periphery.  Several  New 
Zealand  species  are  strongly  keeled,  and  the  shells  are  either  tufted 
or  sericeous.  Potamopyrgos  corolla,  Gould,  is  strongly  carinated 
with  a  number  of  very  short  bristles,  proceeding  from  the  keel,  and 
the  very  beautiful  shells  of  P.  cumingiana,  Fischer,  have  a  number 
of  long  silky  processes.  P.  antipodium,  Gray,  appears  generally  to 
be  ecarinate  and  without  tufts  or  hairs,  although  a  few  tufted 
specimens  may  occasionally  occur.  This  species  appears  most 
nearly  to  resemble  H.  jenkinsi,  and  one  variety  might    easily   be 


WITH    A    LIST    OF    SPECIES    OBSERVED.  227 

mistaken  for  it.  Professor  E.  von  Marten  has  also  noticed  this, 
although  he  believes  that  it  differs  ixom  jenkinsi  in  other  respects. 

It  seems  extremely  probable  that  this  new  species  has  been 
introduced  from  abroad,  particularly  as  it  has  not  been  noticed  in 
any  other  part  of  Great  Britain.  From  the  fact  that  none  of  our 
other  Hydrobias  seem  to  have  the  least  tendency  to  assume  the 
keeled  and  tufted  appearance,  surely,  if  indigenous,  it  must  have 
been  noticed  long  ago.  It  seems  hardly  possible  that  Dr.  Jeffreys, 
Mr.  Marshall,  and  other  conchologists  of  repute,  could  have  over- 
looked the  species.  But,  supposing  it  to  be  a  recent  introduction,  we 
are  met  with  the  further  difficulty  that  it  is  almost  inconceivable  that 
the  Hydrobia  could  have  increased  to  such  an  extent  in  a  few  years. 
The  shells  now  occupy  many  miles  of  ditches  upon  both  sides  of  the 
Thames,  and  from  their  greater  vigour  and  prolificness  they  seem 
likely  before  long  to  predominate  over  our  other  native  species. 

The  carinated  tufted  specimens  oi  H.jenkitisi  "axq  so  distinct,  and 
generally  they  so  far  exceed  the  proportion  of  shells  which  are  not 
keeled  or  tufted,  that  I  prefer  to  consider  them  as  typical  of  the 
species  ;  those  specimens  which  are  without  any  trace  of  either  keel 
or  tufts  may  be  called  var.  ecarinata.  Besides  these  two  forms,  there 
are  to  be  found  existing  with  the  type  at  Beckton,  and  several  other 
places,  a  very  short  spired,  much  inflated  variety,  which  I  have  pro- 
posed to  name  var.  tnmida.  Other  specimens  occur  at  Beckton  and 
Plumstead  which  are  much  more  graceful  in  contour,  the  spire  is  long 
and  tapering,  and  the  outer  lip  very  much  expanded  ;  if  worthy  of 
being  considered  as  a  variety,  they  might  be  designated  var.  gracilis. 

There  is  every  reason  to  believe  that  the  pretty  little  shell  H. 
similis  (or  H.  confusa,  Frau.,  as  they  prefer  to  call  it  at  the  Natural 
History  Museum  at  Kensington),  will  not  long  continue  to  be 
enumerated  with  the  British  Hydrobiae.  A  recent  visit  to  its  habitat 
resulted  in  obtaining  two  dead  shells  only,  and  the  most  diligent 
search  for  living  specimens  was  unavailing.  It  is  just  possible  that  a 
few  may  still  remain  in  hybernation,  as  the  locality  has  been  known  to 
but  a  few  conchologists,  who  have  done  their  best  to  preserve  it  from 
extinction. 

In  searching  for  this  Mollusc  some  very  interesting  caddis-worm 
(Phryganidifi)  cases  have  at  times  been  collected,  which  have  been 
constructed  almost  entirely  of  the  young  shells  of  H.  si/iiilis  and  of 
H.  ventrosa ;  and  upon  one  occasion  I  came  across  a  caddis-case 
which  had  a   single  shell  of  the  subterrannean   species  Cixcilioides 


2  28         NOTES    ON    THE    MOI.LUSCA    OF    THE    THAMES    ESTUARY, 

{Acha/ina)  acicula  attached  to  it.  This  confirms  my  idea  that  this 
latter  species  certainly  does  exist,  either  upon  the  marshes  or  in  their 
immediate  neighbourhood,  although  from  its  burrowing  habits  it  has 
hitherto  been  overlooked.^ 

[It  may  be  useful  to  append  the  titles  of  some  papers  on  Hydrohia  and  allied 
forms  of  Mollusca  of  our  Essex  marshes,  which  have  recently  appeared  : — 

J.  T.  Marshall.    "  On  Hydrobiae  and  Assimineoe  from  the  Thames  Valley." — 

"  Journ.  Conchology,"  vi.  (1889),  pp.  140-142. 
Ibid.     "  Further  Notes  on  the  British  Hydrobiae,"  l.c  ,  pp.  224-225. 
E.  A.  Smith.      "  Notes  on  British  Hydrobiae,  with  description  of  a  supposed 

new  species,"  I.e.,  pp.  142-145. 
Ibid.  "  A  reply  to  Mr.  J.T.  Marshall's  '  Further  Notes  on  British  Hydrobioe,'" 

I.e.,  pp.  244-246. 
Ibid.     "  Note  on  HydrobicF  jenkinsi." — "  Essex  Nat.,"  vol.  iv.,  pp.  212-213. 
A.   J.   Jenkins.      "Distribution    and    Habits   of  the    British    Hydrobioe." — 

"  Science  Gossip,"  1890,  pp.  103-106. 
//;/(/.     "  Note  on  H.jenkensi." — "Science  Gossip,"  i8gi,  pp.  184-185. 
A.  J.  Jenkins  and  L.    0.   Groeoek.     "  Notes  cjncerning  the   Distribution   of 

Mollusca  in  the  Thames  Estuary,"  I.e.,  1891,  pp.  8-10. 
Walter   Crouch.     "  Note  on  Hydrobia  jenkinsi." — "  Essex  Nat.,"  vol.  iv.,  pp. 

213-214. 
Ibid.     "  Hydrobia  jenkinsi  in  Essex." — "  Science  Gossip,"  1891,  pp.  163-164. 
y.  W.    Williams.       "The  New    Hydrobia." — "Science    Gossip,"    1890,   pp. 

131-132.— Ed.] 

LIST  OF  SPECIES. 

/. — Fresh    JVater  and  Land  Shells. 

Order  LAMELLIBRANCHIATA. 

Family  SPHyERIIDJE. 

Sphaerium  corneum,  L.     Fairly   common  ;   Plumstead  and 
Tilbury  Marshes. 

S.  lacustre,   Mull.     Same  localities,  and  Frith  Marshes. 
Pisidium  fontinale,  Drap.     Local ;  Plumstead  Marshes. 

Order  PECTINIBRANCHIATA. 

Family  PALUDINID.E. 

Bythinia  tentaculata,  L.  Common,  and  generally  distributed. 

Var.  albida,  Rim.     One  specimen  from   Coldharbour  Marsh. 

B.  leachii,  Shepp.     Common  in  same  locality  as  B.  tentaculata. 

5  See  Essex  Nat.,  vol.  iv.,  p.  227,  in  report  of  meeting  on  December  2nd,  1890,  when  Mr.  W. 
Cole  exliihited  specimens  of  Ccccilioidcs  acicula  from  a  human  skull  at  East  Tilbury.  These 
specimens  appear  to  be  recent  shell';,  and,  therefore,  il  is  probable  that  C.  acicula  exists  on  the 
Essex  marshes,  although  its  subterrannean  habits  enable  it,  as  Mr.  Jenkins  suggests,  to  escape 
detection. — Ed. 


with  a  list  of  spf.ciks  observed.  229 

Order  PULMONOBRANCHIA  TA. 
Fa M I  Lv  LIMN. £ID.  -E. 

Planorbis  nautileus,  L.  Local  ;  abundant  l^etween  Green- 
hithe  and  Darenth  Creek ;  also  few  associated  with  Hydrobia 
Jenkinsi,  Plunistead  Marshes. 

P.   spirobis,   Mull.     Common  ;  and  generally  distributed. 
P.   vortex,   L.     Somewhat  more  local ;  Tilbury  Marsh. 
P.   carinatus,   Mull.     Local;  near  Abbey  Wood. 
P.  complanatus,  L.     Common  upon  the  Marshes  both  sides 
of  the  river. 

P.   corneus,   L.     Local.     Specimens  from  the  Marshes  are  not 
generally  so  fine  as  those  inhabiting  the  adjacent  ponds  and  ditches. 
P.   contortus,  L.     Very  local  ;  few  from  ditch,  West  Tilbury 
Marsh. 

Physa  hypnorum,  L.  A  few  shells  in  ditch  upon  Plumstead 
Marshes. 

P    fontinalis,   Linn.     Common  ;  and  widely  distributed. 
\ar.  infiata,  Moq.     Marsh  near  Abbey  Wood  Station. 
Var.  oblonga,  Jeff.     One  specimen  ;  ditto,         ditto. 
Limnaea  peregra,  Mull.     The  commonest  fresh  water  shell 
upon  the  ^L\rshes. 

Var.  ovata,  Drap.     Near  Abbey  Wood  Station. 
Var.  acuminata,  Jeff.  Ditto,  ditto. 

Var.  labiosa,  Jeff.     Few  specimens  ;  Plumstead  Marshes. 
Var.  scalariforme,  Jeff.     Two  shells  only  at  Abbey  "Wood. 
L.   stagnalis,  L.     Local  ;    a  few  at   Purfleet ;    also  in   pond 
Shooter's  Hill. 

Var.  albida,  Jeff.     One   shell  ;    Coldharbour  Marshes,   near 
Purfleet. 
L.   palustris,   Mull.     Common  ;  everywhere. 
L.  truncatula.  Mull.     Scarce  and  local ;  Plumstead  and  Rrith 
ALarshes. 

Order  PULMONIFERA. 
Family  ARIONID.E. 

At  present  I  have  recorded  six  species  only  of  slugs  from  the 
Marshes  and  immediate  neighbourhood. 

Arion  ater,  L.  (Black  Slug.)  Plumstead  Marshes.  One 
specimen   kept  in  captivity  attained  the  length   of  8^    inches  when 


230         NOTES    ON    THE    MOLLUSCA    OF    THE    THAMES    ESTUARY, 

fully  extended.     Hie  Ario/is  are  partially  carnivorous,  and  are  occa- 
sionally guilty  of  cannibalism. 

Family   LIMACIDM. 

Amalia  marginata,   L.     Common  all  along  Kentish  Marshes. 
Limax  flavus,   L.     (Cellar  Slug.)     Sparsely  distributed. 
L.  maximus,  L.     One  specimen  from  near  Abbey  Wood. 
L.  agrestis,   L.     Very  common  upon  the  Marshes. 

Fami LY   TESTA  CELLID^. 

Testacella  haliotidea,  Drap.  A  number  of  specimens  have 
been  collected  by  the  Rev.  J.  W.  Horsley,  in  his  garden  at  Wool- 
wich. 

Family  HELICID.E. 

Succinea  putns,  L.  Upon  reeds  at  the  sides  of  ditches  in 
the  Marshes  upon  both  sides  of  the  river. 

S.  elegans,  Risso.  Same  habitat  as  the  last.  This  species 
differs  from  the  former,  being  smaller,  less  robust,  with  a  longer 
spire,  the  suture  of  which  is  more  oblique. 

Vitrina  pellucida,  Mull.  Scarce  and  local ;  under  stones,  and 
among  decaying  leaves  at  Bostal  Wood. 

Zonites  (Hyalina)  cellarius,  Mull.  General  in  the  Kentish 
Marshes. 

Z.   nitidulus,  Drap.     A  few  shells  from  Belvedere. 
Helix  aspersa,   Mull.     Common  and  general. 

Var.  exalbida,  Menke.     Few  near  Dartford. 
H.  nemoralis,  Mull.     Very  common  in  Marshes  (Kent)  from 
Plumstead  to  Gravesend. 
Var.  albolabiata,  Von  Mart.     Near  Abbey  Wood. 
Var.  bimarginata,  Moq.     Plumstead  Marshes. 
Var.  /i'be//u/a,  Risso.    (Shell,  yellow.)    Common  ;  and  general. 
Var.  nibella,  Mocj.     (Shell,  pink.)  Ditto,         ditto. 

Var.  casianea,  Moq.     (Shell,  brown.)     Belvedere. 
\vlv.   olivacea,   Gassies.      (Shell,   olive.)      Abbey  \\'ood    and 
Cobham. 
H.  hortensis,   Mull.     Woolwich,  Shooter's  Hill,  Dartford,  and 
Cobham. 

Var.   albiua,  Moq.     (Shell,  whitish.)     Woolwich. 


WITH    A    LIST    OK    SPECIES    OBSERVED.  23 1 

Var.  liitea,  Moci-     (Shell,  yellow.)     Common  ;  with  type. 
Var.  ificarnafa,  Moq.     (Shell,  pink.)     Charlton. 
Var.  /i/ncina,  Taylor.     Scarce  and  local ;  Shooter's  Hill. 
Var.    orenicola,    McGill.       (Shell,    with    translucent    bands.) 
Hartford. 
H.  arbustorum,   L.     Very  local ;  Shooter's  Hill  Road. 
H,  cantiana,  Mont.     Common;  and  widely  distributed. 
\'ar.  al/>ida,  Taylor.     Generally  distributed  ;  with  type. 
H.  rufescens,    Penn.      Common   and   general ;    a   very   dark 
form  occurs  at  Charlton. 

H.  concinna,  Jeff.     Common  ;  Plumstead  Marshes,  &c. 
H.  hispida,  L.     Bostal  Wood ;  generally  distributed. 
H.  virgata,   Da  Costa.     Common;  Greenwich  and  Plumstead 
Marshes. 

Var.  a/ki,  Taylor.     Occurs  with  type. 
H.  caperata,  Mont.     Generally  distributed. 

Var.  ornata,  Picard.     With  type ;  Plumstead  Marshes. 
H.  rotundata,  Mull.       Common   in   lane  and   hedgerows,  at 
Bostal  ^^'ood  and  Belvedere  ;  not  generally  found  in  Marshes. 
Var.  aHni,  Picard.     Two  shells  at  Bostal  Wood. 
H.  pulchella,   Mull.     Charlton,  Plumstead,  &:c. 
Bulimus  obscurus,  Mull.     Charlton  and  Belvedere. 
Pupa    umbilicata,     Drap.       Under   stones ;    Dartford    and 
Marshes. 

Clausilia  rugosa,  Drap.     Bostal. 

C.  rolphii,  (iray.     Bostal  Wood,   and   lane   Belvedere.     This 
generally  rare  species,  although  local,  is  fairly  common  in  places. 
C.  laminaia,  Mont.     Bostal  and  Belvedere. 
Cochlicopa  lubrica,   Mull.     Charlton,  Bostal,  and  Plumstead 
Marshes. 

Carychium  minimum,    Mull.     Occurs   sparingly,  on   leaves 
and  under  stones,  at  Bostal  Wood. 

Cyclostoma  elegans,  Mull.  Very  common  ;  and  general  in 
chalk  districts  from  Bostal  Wood  to  Gravesend. 
Var.  ochroleuca.  Bostal  Wood. 
Cyclostoma  elegans  and  Ac/ne  lineata  are  the  only  two  operculate 
land  shells  which  are  found  in  the  British  Isles.  The  first  species 
is  very  common  in  chalk  districts,  and  abounds  in  this  neighbour- 
hood. Acme  lineata  has  been  recorded  for  East  Kent,  but  we  have 
never  been  fortunate  enough  to  obtain  specimens   from  our  district. 


232  NOTES    ON    THE    MOLLUSCA    OF    THE    THAMES    ESTUARY. 

No  doubt,  owing  to  its  extreme  minuteness,  and  its  habit  of  hiding 
among  moss,  it  is  frequently  overlooked. 

//. — Brackish    Water  Shells  (^generally  classed  as  Marine)  inhabiting 
the  Alarshes  of  the  Thames  Estuary  in  Kent  and  Essex. 

Order  PECTINIBRANCHIATA. 

Family  LITTORINID.E. 

Littorina  rudis,  Maton.  Small  brackish  water  variety  ;  asso- 
ciated with  Hydrobia  ventrosa,  and  Assiniinia  grayana.  Ditches 
upon  East  Tilbury  Marsh. 

Hydrobia  ulvae,  Pennant.  Grays,  Tilbury,  Greenhithe,  and 
Gravesend. 

H.  ventrosa,  Montagu.  From  Erith  to  below  Gravesend, 
Kent  ;   Coldharbour  Point  to  below  Tilbury  Fort,  Essex. 

H.  similis,  Draparnaud.  Erith  Marshes  ;  one  dead  shell  at 
Beckton  ;  two  live  and  one  dead  shell,  marshes  near  Abbey  ^^'ood, 
1890. 

Var.  Candida^   Jeff.     Occurs  sparingly  with   type.     (A   clear 
pellucid  variety.) 
H.  jenkinsi,  Smith.     The  most  abundant   shell  of  this  genus 
upon  the  Thames  Marshes ;  from  the  commencement  of  Plumstead 
Marshes  nearly  to  Northfleet,  in  Kent,  and  from  Beckton  to  Cold- 
harbour  Point,  Essex. 

Var.    ecarinata,    Jenkins.       Shell    smooth,    without    keel    or 

tufts  ;  occurs  with  type. 
Var.  tiimida,  Jenkins.     Shell  much  inflated,  very  short  spire ; 

ditch  near  Beckton. 
Var.  gracilis,  Jenkins.    Ditches;  Rainham  and  Erith  Marshes 

Order  PULMONOBRANCHIATA. 

Family  ASSIMINEDM. 

Assiminea  grayana,  Leach.  Between  Coldharbour  Point 
and  Purfleet  ;  also  from  Grays,  extending  some  distance  down  the 
river  below  Tilbury  Fort  ;  and  in  Kent  from  Greenhithe  to  below 
Gravesend  ;  abounding  in  the  canal  near  the  latter  place. 

Fami LY  CAR  \ XHIID. E. 
Melampus  myosotis,  Drap.     Associated  with  Assiminea  in 
the  same  localities. 


THE  LOCAL  (ESSEX)   mUSEUM  —  Qwfi/i//cd. 

It  cannot  he  too  cmphali(-ally  stated  or  too  well  known  that  the 
institution  is  for  the  henefit  of  the  wliole  county,  and  not  exclusively 
for  that  of  Chelmsford  or  any  particular  district.  It  must,  of  course, 
have  a  home,  and  the  proposed  buildings  are  to  be  erected  at 
Chelmsford  simply  because  Chelmsford  is  a  convenient  centre  nt 
and  from  which  the  important  educational  work  that  is  contemplated 
can  be  best  carried  out.  Express  care  has  been  taken  in  the 
amalgamation  scheme  to  guard  against  the  county  town  having  a 
paramount  or  more  than  fair  share  in  the  management.  I'he  insti- 
tution is  to  be  essentially  and  really  a  county  one,  and  it  is  designed 
for  the  assistance  of  every  student,  whether  a  member  of  the  Club  or 
not,  desirous  of  improving  himself  in  natural  knowledge,  and  in 
contributing  to  the  general  well  being  of  Essex.  The  total  amount 
of  capital  required  for  the  Museum  scheme  is  ^4,000,  and  the 
estimated  annual  expenditure  is  ;^4oo.  Active  work  can  be  com- 
menced in  the  temporary  premises  when  one-fourth  of  the  required 
capital  has  been  obtained. 

The  Council  appeals  strongly  to  the  public  spirit  of  the  inhabi- 
tants of  Essex,  and  generally  to  all  those  interested  in  science  and 
in  its  practical  applications,  to  give  the  financial  support  necessary  to 
launch  and  to  maintain  the  Museum,  and  to  help  forward  the  useful 
and  interesting  work  which  will  grow  up  around  it. 

The  property  of  the  Club  will  be  placed  under  the  care  of  the 
following  Trustees  : — 

The  Right  Hon.  Lord  Rayleigh,  D.L.,  D.C.L,  LL.D.,  F.R.S.  ; 
Lord  Brooke,  M.P.  ;  Sir  T  Fowell  Buxton,  Bart.,  D  L.,  F.R.G.S.  ; 
The  Ven.  the  Archdeacon  of  Essex;  W.  M.  Tufnell,  Esq.,  J. P., 
D.L;  Professor  Meldola,  F.R.S.,  F.R.A.S.,  F.C.S.  ;  and  G.  P. 
Hope,  Esq.,  M.A. 

Copies  of  Appeal  and  pamphlet  of  papers  relating  to  the  pro- 
posal may  be  had  from  the  //on.  Secretaries,  Mr.  \\'.  Cole,  Buck- 
hurst  Hill,  Essex,  and  Mr.  E.  Durrant,  90,  High  Street,  Chelms- 
ford, who  will  be  glad  to  give  further  information  to  encjuirers. 

Sup.scRiPTiONS  either  to  the  Capital  Fund,  or  promises  of 
annual  donations  to  the  Maintenance  Fund,  may  be  sent  to 
.Messrs.  Sparrow,  Tufnell  «Sc  Co.,  Bankers,  Chelmsford,  or  to  the 
National  Bank,  Old  Broad  Street,  London,  or  to  the  Treasurer  of 
the  Club,  Mr.  .\.  Lockyer,  Mornington  Lodge,  Wanstead,  Essex. 


A     SELECTION     FROM     MESSRS. 

Edmund  Durrant  &  Co.'s  List  of  Publications. 


The    Ancient    Sepulchral    Monuments    of    Essex.        By 

FiiED.  Chancellor,  F.R.I.B.A.     Imp.  410,  cloth,  illustrated,  £\  4?.  nett. 

Poems.  By  Alice  E.  Argent.  With  an  Introduction  by  the 
Right  Rev.  Bishop  Claughton.     Crn.  8vo,  cloth,  is.  6d.  nett,  post  free. 

Durrant's  Handbook  for  Essex.    A  Guide  to  all  the  Principal 

Objects  of  Interest  in  each  Parish  in  the  County.  By  MlLLER  CHRISTY, 
F.L.S.     With  Map,  2s.  6d.  nett,  poat  free. 

"  One  of  the  very  best  Guide  Books  in  existence." — Evening  Neivs. 

The  Birds  of  Essex.     A  Contribution  to  the  Natural  History  of 

the  County.  With  numerous  Illustrations,  two  Plans,  and  one  Plate  (torm- 
ing  Vol.  II.  Special  Memoirs  of  Essex  Field  Club).  By  Miller  Christy. 
Demy  8vo,  scarlet  cloth,  15^.  nett,  post  free. 

A  History  of  Felsted  School.      With  some   Account  of  the 

Founder  and  his  Descendants.  By  JOHN  Sargeaunt,  M.A.  Illustrated, 
nel.t  4y. 

The    Trade    Signs    of   Essex.       A    Popular   Account   of  the 

Origin  and  Meaning  of  the  Public  House  and  other  Signs,  now  o' 
formerl}^  found  in  the  County  of  Essex.  With  Ilhntrations.  By  MiLLER 
Christy,     Demy  8vo,  cloth,  fs.  6d.  nett. 

Daily  Rays  of  Light  for  Sick  and  Weary  Ones.     Compiled 

by  Edith  L.  Wells,  with  a  Preface  by  the  Rev.  Prebendary  HuTTON. 
Crown  Svo,  cloth,  C^. 

The  Limits  of  Ritual  in  the  Church  of  England.     By  Rev. 

R.  E.  Bartlett,  M.A.,  late  Fellow  and  Tutor  Trinity  College,  Oxford  ; 
Bampton  Lecturer,  1888.  Reprinted  b}^  permission  from  Contemporary 
Review.     Price  3?/.,  by  post   Z\d.  ;   2s.  <^d.  per  dozen,  post  free. 

Homespun  Yarns.  By  Edwin  Coller.  Crown  Svo,  cloth,  35-.  6d. 
Royal  Illustrated  History  of  Eastern  England      By  A.  D. 

B.AYNE.     With  many  Illustrations.     Two  vols.,  large  Svo,  cloth,  155. 

Domesday  Book  relating  to  Essex.  Translated  by  the  late 
T.  C.  Chisenhale-Maksh.  410,  cloth,  215-.  nett.  Only  a  few  copies 
unsold. 

John  Noakes  and  Mary  Styles.     A  Poem  in  the  Essex  Dialect. 

Bv  the  late  Chakles  Clakk,  of  Toiham  Ilall.  With  a  Glossary  and 
Portrait,  \s.  nett. 

The  History  of  Rochford  Hundred,  Essex.  Vol.  I.,  15^-.  dd. ; 
Vol.  II.,  185.  nett.     By  Philii'  Bh:nto\. 

A    First    Catechism    of    Botany.     By   John  Gibhs.     Second 

Edition,  i2mo,  boards,  6//. 

The  Symmetry  of  Flowers.    By  John  Giisrs.    i8mo,  sewed,  4^'. 
Forms  and  Services  used  in  the  Diocese  of  St.  Alban's. 

Published  by  auihoril\-.     JJsts  on  application. 


EDMUND  DUf(RANT  &  CO.,  Publishers,  90,  High  St.,  Chelmsford. 


ANNUAL  SUBSCRIPTION— Members,  4s.  6d. ;  Non-Members,  9s.    Post  Free. 


NO.  12,  VOL  v.]  Price  Is.  [DECEMBER,  1891. 


Tbe 


Essex  Naturalist: 


BEING    THE 


JOURNAL 

OF    THE 

ESSEX    FIELD    CLUB, 


EDITED    P.Y 

WILLIAM     COLE, 

Honor  a  ry  Seer  eta  ry . 


Contents. 

Notes  on  the  Teasels,  Dipsacus  Sylvestris  and  D.  Pilosus,  and  their  natural  rela- 
tionship.    P.y  J    FK1.-.NCH       233 

British  Annelids.      With  esperial  reference  to  the  Earthworms  of  Essex.    By  Rev.  Hilderic 

Frikxii,  F.L.S.     {Continued.)        237 

Short  Papers.  List  of  Mollusca  observed  in  the  Orwell  and  Slour  Estuaries,  244  ;  Notes  on 
the  History  of  the  Chelnier  and  Blackwater  Navigation.  By  E.  A.  Fitch,  248;  List  of 
Plants  noted  on  the  Banks  of  the  Chelintr,  &c.,  251  ;  Mollusca  observed  in  Chelmer,  253  ; 
Notes  on  the  Colne  Oyster  Fishery.  By  J.  C.  Shenstone,  F.R.M.S.,  and  Dr.  La\  er, 
F.L.S. ,  257  ;  Notes  on  Aquatic  Plants  of  the  Thames  Marshes.  By  A.  J.  Jenkins  and 
W.  BlUUISCOMlSE         261 

The  Essex  Field  Club.  Second  Joint  Meeting  of  the  Club  and  the  Ipswich  Scientific  Society 
at  Ipswich,  and  on  the  Orwell  and  Stotir  Rivers,  241  ;  Excursion  from  Maldon  to  Chelms- 
ford, along  the  Blackwater  and  Chelmer  Navigation  River,  247  ;  Meeting  at  St.  Osyth  and 
Brightlingsea,  254  ;  Ordinary  Meeting,  November  7th,  260  ;  Ordinary  Meeting,  November 
2Sih 262 

Note  on  the  Marine  Algae  and  Flowering  Plants  observed  between  Harwich  and 

Dovercourt.     By  E.  M.  Holmes,  F.L.S 264 


The  authors  alone  are  responsihie  for  the  statements  and  opinions  contained  in  their 

respective  papers. 


PI:BLISHF.D    by    TF^E    club,    BL'CKHURST    hill,    ESSEX. 
F..    nrRR.-XNT   &    CO.,   90.    ElIGII    STREET,   CHELMSFORD. 

Fnt.  Stationers'  Hall.]  ^Issued  March,  iSgi..'] 


CoMMu.NiCATioNS  flW  Advertisements  should  be  addressed  : — 

The  Editor  of  "THE    ESSEX    NATURALIST," 

7,  Knighton  Villas,  Buckhurst  Hill,  Essex. 


THE    LOCAL    (ESSEX)    MUSEUM, 
LIBRARY,  AND  LABORATORY. 


The  attention  of  Members  of  the  Essex  Field  Club,  and  of  all  those 
interested  in  the  practical  study  of  Natural  Science,  and  its  applica- 
tions in  industries,  and  as  a  means  of  general  education,  is  earnestly 
called  to  the  Statement  and  Appeal  for  Funds  for  the  establish- 
ment of  the  Museum  now  being  circulated  by  the  Council. 

The  scheme  has  long  been  under  consideration,  and  it  has  been 
fully  explained  at  meetings  of  the  Club  and  in  the  Essex 
Naturalist.     Its  principal  features  are  as  follows  :  — 

With  the  object  of  establishing  at  Chelmsford  (chosen  as  being 
the  County  Town,  and  also  as  a  central  position  in  Essex)  a  Local 
and  Educational  Museum,  the  club  has  agreed  to  amalgamate  with 
the  Essex  and  Chelmsford  Museum,  under  the  title  of  "  The  Essex 
Field  Club,"  conditionally  on  the  sum  necessary  for  founding  the 
liew  Museum  being  raised.     The  main  objects  in  view  are  : — 

(rt)  The  formation  of  authentic  collections  to  illustrate  the  Geology,  Miner- 
alogy, Botany,  Zoology,  Ethnology,  Pre-historic  Archaeology  and 
Technology,  &c.,  of  ESSEX  and  the  adjacent  sea  and  rivers, 
together  with  an  educational  series  of  specimens  and  preparations  to 
be  employed  for  illustrative  and  teaching  purposes.  Specimens  that 
are  not  of  Essex  origin  will  be  admitted  so  far  onlj'  as  they  serve  to 
demonstrate  the  structure  and  relationship  of  the  local  types. 

(/^)  The  formation  of  a  Local  and  Scientific  Library,  to  include  (in  addition 
to  standard  scientific  works),  topographical,  antiquarian,  and  other 
books,  manuscripts,  maps,  parliamentary  and  official  papers,  pictures, 
prints,  &c.,  which  in  any  way  relate  to  the  county  of  E-^sex. 

(r)  The  establishment  of  a  Laboratory  and  Class-rooms,  with  fittings, 
apparatus,  and  instruments  suitable  for  the  preparation  of  specimens 
for  the  Museum,  and  for  the  practical  study  and  teaching  (either  in 
the  Museum  or  in  selected  local  stations  throughout  the  county)  of 
the  subjects  named  in  paragraph  (r?),  and  for  promoting  their  practi- 
cal application  in  Agriculture,  Forestr}-,  Arboriculture,  Gardening, 
Fisheries,  Manufactures,  Industries,  and  general  education.  Tlie 
laboratory,  c!a=s-rooms,  instruments,  &c.,  will  be  under  the  control 
of  the  Council,  who  may  permit  students,  investigators,  and  others  to 
use  them,  and  may  also  lend  instruments  and  preparations  out  of  the 
Museum  buildings  for  purposes  in  furtiierance  of  the  above  objects. 

\^Conlinitfd  071  page  3  of  Wrapper. 


233 


NOTES  ON  THE  TEASELS,  DIPSACUS  SYLVES- 
TRIS  AND  D.  PILOSUS,  AND  THEIR 
NATURAL  RELATIONSHIP. 

By  J.   FRENCH. 

[Kfad  Deceinbey  2nd,  lSgo.\ 

'"PHE  Teasel,  Dipsacus  sylvestris,  in  its  stage  of  flowering  and 
seed  is  so  familiar  that  description  is  quite  unnecessary.  Dip- 
sacus pi/osus,  with  a  more  modest  appearance,  is  less  common,  and 
not  nearly  so  well  known.  Its  heads  of  flowers  are  nearly  globular, 
and  not  half  the  size  of  those  of  its  kinsman,  and  the  bloom  is  white 
and  inconspicuous.  The  plant,  moreover,  is  nearly  destitute  of  that 
formidable  array  of  prickles  so  characteristic  of  D.  sylvestris.  The 
curious  arrangement  of  water-cups  in  the  latter  plant,  which  are 
developed  at  the  axils  of  the  leaves  at  an  early  stage  of  its  growth,  is 
absent  in  D.  pilosus.  In  point  of  foliage  and  habit  the  two  plants  are 
not  greatly  unlike. 

We  will  now  call  attention  to  the  prickly  apparatus  and  cups  of 
D.  sy/vestris.  Neither  of  these  appliances  are  brought  into  operation 
until  the  stems'  are  in  process  of  development.  The  cups  precede 
the  prickles,  which  latter  do  not  appear  on  the  stem  until  the  fourth  or 
fifth  node  is  reached.  The  cups,  hoivever,  cease  just  before  the  time 
of  flowering,  while  the  prickles  are  hardened  and  multiplied  to  a 
much  later  date. 

A  very  cursory  examination  will  assure  us  that  the  cup  is  the 
result  of  a  special  process,  and  is  not  the  accidental  result  of  con- 
tiguity of  leaf  bases  like  Blackstonia,  Lonicera,  and  others.  Long 
before  the  leaf  attains  its  full  development  the  puckering  at  the  base 
is  well  marked,  and  a  set  of  vascular  vessels  specially  contributing 
to  the  support  of  the  cup  make  their  appearance.  The  rim  of  the 
cup,  too,  is  very  entire,  and  never  crenated  like  the  leaf  limb.  The 
cups  are  absolutely  water-tight,  only  losing  water  by  evaporation  and 
rupture. 

The  arrangement  of  the  prickles  is  such  as  to  indicate  a  special 
design.  This  design  is  more  pronounced  as  the  plant  advances  to 
seed,  and  in  the  species  known  as  the  "  Fuller's  Teasel  "  {D./ulIotium) 
it  attains  its  maximum.  The  points  of  the  prickles  are  directed  dowiv 
wards,  as  though  to  repel  a  foe  creeping  upwards.     In   the  "  Fuller's 

I  The  plants  are.  it  shoiikl  be  recollected,   biennial,  .nnfl  in  the  first   year  make  only  radical 
leaves. 


2.34  NOTES    ON    THE    TEASELS,    DIPSACUS    SYI.VESTKIS    AND 

Teasel  "  even  the  tips  of  the  awns  of  the  flowering  head  have  this 
downward  inchnation. 

It  is  not  easy  to  say  what  are  the  foes  so  carefully  guarded 
against.  That  there  are,  or  have  been,  foes  in  the  case  of  the  cups 
there  can  be  no  doubt;  for  the  most  careful  observation  will  not 
show  that  the  water  is  in  any  case  absorbed  by  the  plant,  or  used  as 
nourishment. 

Ants  have  been  suggested  as  possible  enemies,  but  it  is  hard  to 
see  what  harm  they  could  do.  The  prickles  in  any  case  are  not 
against  them.  In  the  allied  species,  D.  piiosus,  the  cup  is  represented 
by  a  fringe  of  bristly  hairs,  which  also  is  no  protection  against  ants. 
Slugs  and  snails  in  both  species  are  guarded  against  ;  but  far  more 
effectively  in  D.  sylvestris,  although  there  is  reason  to  believe  that 
no  English  species  of  MoUusca  now  attack  the  plants. 

It  does  not  seem  that  the  prickly  apparatus  is  directed  against 
the  attacks  of  cattle,  as  these  prickles  are  rarely  hardened  enough  to 
cause  much  inconvenience  till  the  plant  has  flowered,  when  the 
foliage  will  be  dry  and  tasteless. 

It  may  be  that  the  prickles  at  an  early  stage  guard  against 
molluscs^  and  at  the  last  stage  assist  in  dissemination  of  the  seed- 
heads  by  attaching  themselves  to  the  wool  of  cattle,  &c. 

We  will  now  attempt  to  trace  the  mutual  relationship  of  the  two 
species. 

When  we  consider  that  D.  piiosus  has  only  the  rudiments  of  a 
prickly  system,  and  a  rudimentary  form  of  cup,  we  infer,  either  that  it 
is  a  degenerate  form  of  D.  syhestris,  or,  on  the  other  hand,  is  more 
nearly  allied  to  an  ancestral  form.  An  examination  into  the  struc- 
ture and  habits  of  both  species  will  show  that  the  latter  alternative 
must  probably  be  the  one  accepted. 

In  plants  of  the  first  year  it  is  hardly  possible  to  discriminate 
the  species,  both  being  so  much  alike.  The  configuration  of  the 
leaf  in  this  early  stage  is  instructive,  the  limb  is  reduced  to  a  rudi- 
mentary fringe  for  nearly  half  the  length  of  the  mid-rib,  and  the 
leaves  may  therefore  be  regarded  as  petioled.  There  is  a  tendency 
to  development  of  the  sheath  of  the  petiole  equally  in  both  species. 
The  epidermis  is  also  here  equally  active,  giving  rise  to  occasional 
prickles,  and  develops  the  serrature  on  the  mid-ribs  of  the  leaves  of 
both. 

The  start  in  the  following  spring  appears  to  run  for  a  short  time  on 
equal  lines,  as  the  radical  leaves  are  much  alike  ;  but  a  difference  soon 


n.     PII.OSUS,    AND    THF.IR    NATl'KAI,    RKI.ATIONSHIl'.  235 

becomes  apparent.  D.  syJvcstris  goes  on  with  new  and  vigorous 
developments  ;  out  of  the  sheath  of  the  petiole  is  developed  the  cup, 
and  each  pair  of  leaves  is  strengthened  and  rendered  rigid  by  a  more 
perfect  system  of  venation  than  obtains  in  D.  pilosus.  The  prickly 
system  is  afterwards  matured  with  the  same  vigour,  and  the  whole 
gives  rise  to  a  very  robust  plant  having  flowering  heads  proportionately 
much  larger  than  its  kinsman.  There  is  still  usually  an  excess  of 
vigour  expended  in  different  ways,  sometimes  in  producing  very 
long  and  foliaceous  bracteoles,  sometimes  in  bifurcating  a  leaf  or 
leaves,  and  sometimes  in  producing  an  additional  leaf  or  pair  of 
leaves  at  one  of  the  upper  nodes. 

In  D.  pilosus  this  vigorous  growth  is  pretty  well  absent  through- 
out. In  this  species,  in  place  of  the  cup,  there  is  developed  from 
the  sheath  of  the  petiole,  which  is  not  greatly  expanded,  a  fringe  of 
bristly  hairs,  and  also  some  prickles  on  the  earlier  nodes  of  the  stem. 
The  cauline  leaves,  which  are  the  largest  of  the  plant  in  both  species, 
in  D.  pilosus  are  peculiar.  They  have  a  naked  petiole  for  the  most 
part,  but  at  the  base  of  the  leaf-limb  some  two  or  three  leaflets  are 
generally  developed.  The  leaf,  moreover,  has  a  flabby  appearance. 
It  is  at  this  stage  that  the  essential  weakness  of  the  plant,  as  com- 
pared with  D.  sy/vestris,  becomes  apparent.  The  flower  stalks  are 
clothed  with  weak  prickles,  and,  with  the  flower-heads,  attain  a  size 
comparable  with  D.  sy/vestris  only  when  its  stem  has  been  cut 
nearly  through  so  as  to  allow  only  two  or  three  bundles  of  fibres  to 
nourish  the  plant. 

We  have  adverted  to  the  not  infrequent  case  of  bifurcation  (or 
even  addition)  of  a  leaf  of  D.  sylvestris,  which,  of  course,  means  that 
the  mid-rib  of  the  leaf  separates  at  a  certain  point  into  two  equal  or 
uiiecjual  portions,  and  these  develop  proportional  independent 
leaflets.  This  must  be  regarded  as  the  most  pronounced  stage  of  a 
l)henomenon  which  is  traceable  in  both  species,  but  far  more 
frequently  in  D.  sylvestris.  It  seems  reasonable  to  suppose  that  the 
plant  exercising  this  function  (of  variation)  most  readily  should  be 
the  newer  form. 

Closely  associated  with  the  fibro-vascular  tissue  giving  rise  to  these 
variations  are  the  prickles,  and  some  attention  should  therefore  be 
directed  to  their  structure  and  distribution.  In  the  advanced  stage 
of  D.  sy/vestris  they  almost  acquire  the  consistency  of  spines, 
whereas  in  D.  pi/osus  they  are  often  represented  by  hairs.  They  are 
all  epidermal,  and  there  is  no  material  difference  between  the  hair  of 

<)  2 


236  NOTES    ON    THE    TEASELS. 

one  plant  and  the  spine  of  the  other,  as  every  transition  between 
them  can  be  found.  It  would  seem  that  in  most  cases  they  are 
nourished  directly  from  the  fibrous  vessels,  no  other  tissue  inter- 
vening. For  instance,  in  the  serrature  of  the  mid-rib — the  most 
persistent  line  of  prickles  in  both  plants — the  epidermis  closely  invests 
a  bundle  of  fibres  for  the  whole  length  of  the  leaf.  It  further  seems 
that  the  vitality  of  the  prickles  is  dependent  on  the  presence  of  the 
growing  fibres,  and  in  that  respect  they  may  be  regarded  as  secondary 
appendages.  This  will  perhaps  account  for  their  presence  on  the 
stem  o{  D.pilosus  at  an  early,  that  is,  fast-growing  stage. 

No  functional  importance  appears  to  attach  to  the  prickles.  We 
may,  however,  safely  prognosticate  their  further  development  in  direct 
proportion  to  the  increase  of  the  vigorous  tissue  on  which  they 
depend.  As  we  have  seen  that  this  tissue  is  such  a  capricious  and 
increasing  quantity,  the  plant  bids  fair  to  become  eventually  a  spiny 
monster. 

Any  mention  of  the  leaves  of  D.  pilosus  would  be  incomplete 
without  a  special  reference  to  the  pair  of  characteristic  leaflets,  occur- 
ing  as  before  noticed  at  the  back  of  the  main  limb.  Do  these  still 
exist  as  relics  of  an  earlier  form  ?  My  ignorance  of  the  other 
members  of  the  genus  will  not  allow  me  to  discuss  that  question  ; 
but  I  can  certainly  say  that  no  such  appendages  ever  occur  in 
D.  sylvestris. 

Comparing  the  two  British  species,  it  seems  to  be  correct  to  say 
that  the  one  (sylvestris)  is  vigorous  and  variable,  and  tends  to  depart 
from  forms  which  may  have  been  ancestral.  The  other  {pilosi/s)  is 
much  less  vigorous,  and  shows  affinity  with  forms  {Ce/>/ia/aria  and 
Scabious)  which  also  may  have  been  ancestral. 

[At  the  reading  of  the  above  paper.  Prof.  Boulger  communicated 
the  following  remarks  : — 

"  I  am  sorry  that  I  cannot  get  down  to  the  meeting,  as  I  should 
have  liked  to  say  a  few  words  on  Mr.  French's  paper  on  Dipsaci's.  As, 
how'ever,  you  have  kindly  given  me  an  opportunity  of  seeing  the 
paper,  I  may  briefly  state  what  would  have  been  the  substance  of 
my  remarks.  Generally,  I  may  say  that  I  consider  that  the  chief 
mistake  of  the  modern  students  of  the  new  teleology — the  followers  of 
Mr.  Grant  Allen,  with  whom  I  must  class  Mr.  French — is  that  they 
constantly  look  for  some  immediate  utility  to  the  possessor  in  every 
detail  of  structure.  In  so  doing,  they  often,  I  think,  overlook  two 
large  classes  of  structures,  which  I  may  term  ancestral VLnd  indifferent 
respectively.       The    first    class,    the   ancestral,    includes  :    (i.)    the 


liKlTISH    ANNELIDS.  237 

embryo)iu\  those  useful  to  the  organism  in  its  early  stages  ;  (ii.)  the 
vestigia/,  those  useful  to  its  ancestors,  but  now  in  process  of  abortion 
through  the  operation  of  the  law  of  economy  of  nutrition  ;  and  (iii.) 
the  indifferent  ancestral  structures,  structures  originating  in  the  vari- 
ation which  we  call  *  spontaneous  '  of  its  ancestors ;  which,  being 
neither  directly  useful  nor  extravagantly  wasteful  of  tissue — and  there- 
fore likely  to  become  aborted — nor  otherwise  harmful,  are  inherited 
unaltered.  The  indifferent  class  similarly  includes  all  structures 
originating  in  the  free  play  of  that  '  spontaneous  variation  '  which 
Mr.  Wallace  has  shown  to  be  so  widely  varied  in  its  results,  which 
are  neither  directly  useful  nor  harmful.  Darwin  showed  that  struc- 
tures which  I  should  refer  to  one  or  other  of  these  classes,  being 
practically  beyond  the  scope  of  natural  selection,  will  be  extremely 
variable.  Coming  to  Mr.  French's  immediate  subject,  I  would 
remark  that  he  has  confined  his  attention  to  the  two  species  of 
Dipsacus  that  happen  to  be  British,  whereas  there  are  seventeen  or 
eighteen  species  of  the  genus,  five  or  six  of  which  occur  on  the  con- 
tinent of  Europe ;  and  that  D.  sylvestris  and  D.  pilosus  belong  to 
different  sections  of  the  genus,  the  Eudipsaci  and  the  Trichocephaia, 
the  latter  approximating  to  the  genus  Cephalaria.  I  should  be 
interested  to  know  whether  Mr.  French  has  ever  observed  the  two 
British  species,  or  others,  growing  so  as  to  compete  with  one  another."  ' 

— G.  S.  BOULGER.] 


BRITISH   ANNELIDS. 

WITH  ESPECIAL  REFERENCE  TO  THE  EARTHWORMS  OF  ESSEX. 

By  REV.  HILDERIC  FRIEND,  F.L.S. 
{Continued from  page  tgd.) 

/^NLY  a  few  words  are  necessary  in  order  to  present  a  bird's  eye 
^^^  view  of  the  different  genera  of  British  earthworms.  The  indi- 
genous species  belong  entirely  to  one  group,  which  has  been,  at  the 
most,  divided  into  four  sections,  and  as  one  of  these  divisions  is  not 
at  present  retained  (though  it  may  at  any  time  be  revived),  we  have 
practically  only  three  distint  genera  to  examine.  These  are  Lum- 
hricus,  Allololwphora,  and  Allurus.  The  lapsed  name  is  Dendro- 
bcena,  but  we  will  not  include  it  in  our  present  study.  Lumbricus 
is  distinguished  from  AUolobophora  chiefly  by  the  shape  of  the  lip  or 
prostomium.  In  Lumbricus  the  foremost  portion  of  the  body  and 
the  first  ring  form  a  perfect  mortise  and  tenon,  whereas  in  AUolobo- 
phora the  lip  cuts  but  partially  into  the  first  ring.  The  first  ring, 
which  bears  no  setae,  is  usually  known  as   the  peristomium.     While 

I    This  I  have  not  yet  seen.— J.  Fkenxh. 


238 


BRITISH    ANNELIDS. 


both  the  foregoing  species  have  their  male  pore  on  segment  fifteen, 
it  is  found  on  the  thirteenth  in  A/iurus,  and  thus  they  may  be  readily 
distinguished.  A  brief  tabular  arrangement  may  present  the  matter 
in  clearer  light,  and  help  to  pave  the  way  for  a  rather  more  detailed 
account  of  the  different  genera  : — 


Tabular  View  of  British  Lumbrici. 


Genera. 

MalePore: 

Segment. 

Lip  or  Pros- 

TOMIUM. 

Girdle  or 

Clitellum. 

Colour. 

Set^  or 
Bkistles. 

Lmnhrkus 

15 

Perfect    mor- 
tise and  tenon 
with    peristo- 
mium. 

Begins  on  any 
segment  from 
25  to  34  and 
coversaboutb. 

Usually 
red-brown, 
iridescent. 

Always  in 
couples. 

A  llolobophoru 

15 

Partial. 

Same  as 
Lumbricus. 

Variable.       ^^^  ^^ 
Pink,  brown,     .^  ^^      j^->^_ 
yellow,  green.              '^ 

A  hunts 

13 

Partial. 

22  to  27. 

Brown  and 
golden. 

Fourcouples 

one    at  each 

angle. 

Let  us  imagine  the  naturalist  going  out  with  a  collecting  tin 
lightly  filled  with  damp  moss,  and  securing  a  dozen  specimens  of 
worms  from  different  localities.  He  wants  to  know  first  of  all  what 
genera  he  has  procured,  and  takes  them  out  one  by  one  for  examina- 
tion. With  his  pocket  lens  he  first  examines  the  head  and  finds  the 
first  ring  cut  right  through  by  the  lip.  This  points  to  Lumbricus. 
He  next  counts  the  segments  from  the  head  to  the  girdle,  and  finds 
upwards  of  twenty-two.  It  cannot,  therefore,  be  Allurus.  It  is  a 
dark  red  or  ruddy  brown  colour,  and  will  therefore  not  be  Allclobo- 
phora,  unless  it  is  an  exception,  and  then  the  shape  of  the  mortise 
and  tenon  is  decisive. 

Putting  this  aside  as  a  species  of  Lutnbricus,  he  takes  up  another. 
It  is  a  small  worm  but  mature,  or  possessed  of  a  girdle,  and  has  a 
happy  method  of  progressing  tail  foremost ;  while  the  tail,  instead  of 
being  flat  round  or  oval,  is  sharp-angled,  or  square.  The  mortise 
and  tenon  is  imperfect,  so  it  may  be  either  Allurus  or  Allolobophora 
but  the  male  pore  is  on  the  thirteenth  and  the  girdle  on  the  twenty- 
second  segment,  so  it  must  be  Allurus.     Now  since  we  have  at  pre- 


BRITISH    ANNELIDS.  239 

sent  only  one  species  of  Allunis  (subject  to  variation,  liowever,  as  \vc 
shall  see  later  on),  it  will  be  utterly  impossible  to  confound  it  with 
AllolobopJiora  when  we  have  once  seen  and  examined  it.  We  are 
thus  narrowed  down  practically  to  the  two  genera  I.umbi-iciis  and 
Allolohophora^  and  have,  as  external  guides  to  their  distinction,  the 
mode  of  insertion  between  lip  and  peristomium,  the  colour,  and  the 
setje.  Since  the  latter  are  variable  we  may  be  obliged  occasionally 
to  resort  to  anatomy  before  we  can  be  absolutely  certain  about  a 
given  species ;  but  I  believe  that  I  shall  be  able  to  show  as  we  pro- 
ceed that  all  the  species  may  be  readily  distinguished  by  external 
characters  alone,  if  only  they  are  mature.  I  shall  endeavour  to  give 
such  unmistakable  clues  to  the  identification  of  each  species  by 
external  means  as  shall  render  the  use  of  the  knife  and  the  micro- 
scope unnecessary. 

Those  who  have  followed  me  thus  far  will  have  learned  which 
are  the  leading  portions  of  the  bocy  of  a  worm,  and  what  parts  must 
be  particularly  observed  in  order  to  obtain  a  clue  to  their  identity. 
I  may  add  now  a  few  more  details  which  will  be  helpful,  and  explain 
some  terms  which  will  be  constantly  met  with  in  the  study  of 
Annelid  literature. 

Beginning  with  the  front  or  anterior  portion  of  the  body  we  find 
that  there  is  no  distinct  head,  while  no  organs  of  vision  or  hearing 
are  anywhere  apparent.  'J'here  is  a  retractile  lip,  usually  called  the 
prostomium  on  account  of  its  being  in  front  of  ai.d  above  the  mouth 
(stoma).  The  first  ring,  segment,  or  somite,  bears  no  setae  or 
bristles,  and  is  called  the  peristomium,  because  it  surrounds  the 
mouth.  Some  works  include  this  ring  in  all  calculations  relating  to 
the  number  of  segments,  but  it  is  usual  in  England  to  omit  it,  and 
begin  to  reckon  from  the  first  segment  which  carries  bristles.  The 
setae  are  organs  of  locomotion.  Along  the  back,  in  the  groove  between 
each  segment,  one  will  be  able  to  discover  a  series  of  pores  oi 
punctures  which  look  as  though  a  pin  had  been  thrust  through  th( 
skin.  These  are  the  dorsal  pores  of  which  an  account  w  ill  be  found 
in  "Science  Gossip,"  December,  1891.  The  male  pore,  found  on 
segment  fifteen,  except  in  the  case  of  A/lurus,  is  to  be  looked 
for  on  the  lower  surface  of  the  body.  In  some  species  the  opening 
is  seated  on  a  cushion  or  papilla  of  very  delicate  structure,  which 
gives  it  great  prominence  ;  but  in  other  cases  only  a  well-trained  eye 
will  detect  it.  The  Greenworm  and  the  Common  Earthworm  have 
the  most  prominent  papilla  for  the  male  pore,  and  these  should  be 


240  BRITISH    ANNELIDS. 

Studied  in  order  to  understand  the  position  and  appearance  of  this 
important  organ. 

The  girdle,  which  has  been  variously  called  the  "  clitellum," 
"  cingulum,"  or  "  knob,"  is  that  swollen  portion  of  the  body,  usually 
of  a  lighter  colour,  which  one  observes  in  adult  worms,  and  which 
when  I  was  a  boy  in  Sussex  was  declared  by  the  country  folk  tc 
represent  the  place  where  two  portions  of  a  worm  had  joined  up 
after  having  been  bisected  under  the  gardener's  spade  !  It  is  usually 
saddle  shaped  in  our  native  species,  and  in  the  channel  which  it 
forms  on  the  under  surface  of  the  body  we  may  find  a  series  of  pores, 
and  at  times  a  number  of  beautiful  trumpet-shaped  bodies  which  are 
known  as  spermatophores,  and  play  an  important  part  in  the  repro- 
duction of  the  species.  I  have  found  the  Greenworm  the  best  species 
for  many  of  these  researches,  and  as  it  is  to  be  obtained  under  stones 
wherever  cattle  are  kept,  or  by  the  side  of  stagnant  water,  it  will  be 
a  convenient  subject  for  the  beginner  to  practise  upon. 

It  is  a  good  plan  to  have  a  note-book  in  which  to  make  entries  on 
the  following  plan  : — 

"  Species  taken  at  Romford,  January,  1892. 

"  I.  A  specimen  found  by  the  side  of  a  pond  where  cattle  come 
to  water,  lying  under  the  stones  in  a  coil,  and  appearing  very  sluggish. 
Dirty  green  colour  with  a  yellowish  girdle  about  the  middle  of  the 
body.  Length  about  two  inches.  The  lip  only  partially  bisecting 
the  first  ring.  Male  pores  on  segment  fifteen  with  prominent,  pale 
papillae.  Girdle  commencing  on  segment  twenty-eight,  and  extending 
to  the  thirty-sixth,  with  three  pairs  of  pores  on  the  under  side  on  seg- 
ments 31,  ;^^  and  35.  Tail  curled  up,  cylindrical  or  round,  tapering 
off  rather  abruptly." 

"2.  A  small  worm  from  the  roots  of  grass  by  the  side  of  the  stream. 
Dull  brown,  with  lighter  girdle  and  square  tail.  Only  an  inch  long, 
and  unlike  the  last,  very  active  ;  chiefly  moving  tail  foremost.  Lip 
partly  cutting  the  peristomium,  male  pore  on  segment  13,  and  girdle 
extending  from  the  22nd  to  the  27th." 

These  will  be  the  Greenworm  and  the  Square-tail  {Alhirus) 
respectively,  and  all  the  others  should  be  w'orked  up  on  the  same 
principle. 

It  remains  for  me  now  to  describe  in  successive  issues  of  the 
Essex  Naturalist  the  species  of  Earthworm  which  I  have  already 
received  from  Essex,  with  such  others  as  shall  by  the  courtesy  of  the 
reader  be  submitted  to  me  for  identification  and  registration.     I  shall 


THE    ESSEX    FIELD    CLUC.  24I 

be  glad  if  specimens  are  sent  to  me  in  a  tin  box  with  damp  moss, 
and  data  respecting  the  habitat,  soil,  nearness  to  sea  or  brackish 
water,  and  the  like,  addressed,  "The  drove,"  Idle,  Bradford,  York- 
shire. 

( To  be  continued. ) 


THE  ESSEX  FIELD  CLUB. 

Second    Joint    Meeting    of    the   Club  and   the   Ipswich   Scientific 
Society,  at  Ipswich,  and  on  the  Orwell  and  Stour  Rivers. 

Friday  and  Saturday,  July  24th  and  25th,  1891. 

Birec/ors:— Henry  Miller,  M.Inst.C.E.  ;  Dr.  J.  E.  Taylor,  F.L.S.,  F.G.S.  ; 

E.  A.  Fitch,  F.L.S.  ;  E.  M.  Holmes,  F.L.S.  ;  Walter  Crouch,  F.Z.S.  ; 

G.  H.  Hewetson,  and  W.  Cole,  F.E.S. 
n"'HE  meeting  in  June  last  year,  for  the  purpose  of  dredging  in  the  Estuaries 
-*■  of  the  Orwell  and  Stour  rivers,  having  been  so  successrul  and  pleasant, 
the  Council,  with  the  kind  and  hospitable  co-operation  of  the  Ipswich  Scientific 
Societ}-,  arranged  to  repeat  the  experiment,  with  some  additional  features.  A  full 
account  of  the  previous  meeting,  with  lists  of  the  objects  of  marine  zoology  and 
botany  found,  was  printed  in  the  Essex  Naturalist,  vol.  iv.,  pp.  169-173. 

Ipswich  ("  Gipes-wic,"  A.S.  Chronicle,  A.D.  993)  is  a  fine  example  of  an 
English  town,  containing  abundant  evidences  of  antiquity  and  continuity  of 
history,  and  many  interesting  buildings  and  churches.  The  building  known  as 
"  Sparrowes  House  "  is  perhaps  the  most  remarkable  specimen  of  ancient  domestic 
architecture  to  be  found  in  the  eastern  counties  (see  "  In  and  About  Ancient 
Ipswich,"  by  Dr.  J.  E.  Taylor).  The  centre  of  attraction  for  the  naturalist  is,  of 
cou'se,  the  Museum,  in  which  are  local  collections  of  very  considerable  scientific 
importance.  It  was  largely  promoted  by  the  Rev.  W.  Kirby,  the  celebrated 
entomologist,  and  by  the  late  Prof.  Henslow.  It  is  famous  for  its  collection  of 
fossils  from  the  Red  and  Coralline  Crags  of  the  eastern  coasts,  which  was 
augmented  in  1877  by  the  late  Sir  Richard  Wallace's  gift  of  the  Rev.  H. 
Canham's  fine  collection,  the  result  of  twenty  years'  labour.  There  are  also 
excellent  botanical  and  bird  collections,  shells  and  crustacea,  and  a  good  series  of 
flint  implements,  principally  found  in  Suffolk  by  Mr.  S.  Fenton.  Dr.  J.  E. 
Taylor  is  the  Curator,  and  under  his  able  management  the  Museum  has 
become  the  centre  of  scientific  activity  in  Suffolk. 

Members  of  the  Club  assembled  in  Ipswich  on  the  Friday  afternoon,  coming 
by  road  and  rail.  The  management  of  the  meeting  was  again  in  the  hands  of 
the  Secretaries  of  the  two  Societies,  Messrs.  G.  H.  Hewetson  and  W.  Cole,  the 
former  most  kindly  undertaking  all  the  local  arrangements.  The  "  East  Anglian 
Daily  Times  "  gave  excellent  accounts  of  the  two  days'  meeting,  and  we  cannot  do 
better  than  repeat  the  opening  words  of  the  reporter  : — "  Between  men  engaged 
in  scientific  pursuits,  whether  professionally  or  as  a  form  of  recreation — and  the 
women  too,  happily  enough — there  is  a  kind  of  freemasonry  which  places  them 
all  upon  a  common  footing  of  sympathy  and  good  comradeship.  No  society  is 
more  democratic,  in  the  best  sense  of  the  word  ;  and  in  none  other  are  more 
friendly  relationships  established  without  any  deference  to  political  or  religious 


?42  THE    ESSEX    FIELD    CLUB. 

differences.  The  study  of  nature,  like  the  poet's  '  one  touch  '  of  it,  makes  the 
whole  world  kin.  It  was  the  underlying,  if  unexpressed,  apprehension  of  this 
fact,  we  think,  which  left  so  many  pleasant  memories  of  the  joint  meeting  of  the 
Essex  Field  Club  and  the  Ipswich  Scientific  Society,  and  led  eventually  to  a 
repetition  of  the  programme  during  the  present  summer.  Members  of  the  now 
famous  Essex  Society  expressed  an  earnest  wish  for  another  visit  to  Ipswich,  the 
local  Society  were  delighted  with  the  opportunity  of  giving  them  an  enthusiastic 
w^elcome,  and  the  introduction  to  a  day's  outing  assumed  the  form  of  a  social  and 
scientific  '  reception  '  at  the  Ipswich  Museum  on  the  previous  evening.  Arrange- 
ments for  this  preliminary  gathering  were  made  in  a  spirit  of  heartiest  hospitality 
by  the  Committee  of  the  Ipswich  Scientific  Society.  The  President  for  the  year 
(Mr.  Henry  Miller,  jun.),  Mr.  G.  H.  Hewetson,  Hon.  Secretary,  and  Mr.  F. 
Woolnough,  welcomed  the  compan3r.upon  their  arrival,  and  were  the  more  active 
orj:;anisers  of  the  proceedings  ;  but  they  were  assisted  in  various  ways  by  others 
of  their  colleagues,  including  Mr.  J.  Napier,  Mr.  E.  P.  Pidley,  Mr.  W.  Vick,  and 
Mr.  F.  W.  Wilson. 

"The  visitors  at  once  proceeded  to  the  room  occupied  by  Dr.  J.  E.  Taylor,  who 
acted  as  guide,  philosopher,  and  friend  to  all  inquirers,  and  showed  the  way  with 
pardonable  pride  around  the  Museum  which  he  has  in  great  part  created,  and  for 
which  the  borough  is  rightly  famed.  In  the  Doctor's  room,  Mr.  VV.  Vick  showed  his 
remarkable  coUectionof  photographs  of  one  hundred  people  over  seventy  years  of  age, 
which  make  a  curious  study  in  character  and  facial  expression,  together  with  many 
good  views  of  scenery  and  places  of  interest  in  the  neighbourhood,  which  were  seen  to 
advantage  through  two  or  three  graphoscopes.  Dr.  Taylor  exhibited  a  group  of 
carnivorous  plants.  Sundews  (^D^-osera)  and  Butterwort  (^Pinguicula),  of  which  he 
gave  an  intensely  interesting  account ;  and  his  sanctum  was,  as  usual,  full  of  objects 
which  arrested  the  attention  of  the  naturalists  and  geologists." 

Dr.  Taylor  afterwards  led  the  way  upstairs  into  the  principal  room  of  the 
Museum,  and  proceeded  to  give,  in  his  inimitable  style,  a  most  interesting  dis- 
course upon  the  Essex  and  Suffolk  Red  Crag  formations,  demonstrating  each 
statement  by  aid  of  the  magnificent  collections  of  Crag  fossils  which  were  con- 
tained in  the  cases  around.  At  the  close  of  the  address  the  Ma3-or  of  Ipswich 
proposed  a  hearty  vote  of  thanks  to  the  demonstrator,  which  was  carried  by 
acclamation.  Dr.  Ta3lor  replied  in  a  happy  speech,  complimenting  the  Essex 
Field  Club  upon  the  high  position  it  had  attained  among  natural  hi  tory  societies. 
The  remainder  of  the  evening  was  occupied  in  examining  the  collections,  and 
in  partaking  of  the  refreshments  which  were  hospitably  provided  in  the  Art  Class- 
room. The  members  of  the  Essex  Field  Club  present  on  the  Friday  evening 
were  not  so  many  as  were  desired  ;  but  those  who  went  down  to  Ipswich  on  the 
Friday  were  delighted  at  the  kind  reception  accorded  to  them  by  the  Council  and 
members  of  the  local  Scientific  Society. 

On  the  Saturday  morning  the  Conductors  and  members  of  both  Societies 
assembled  punctually  at  the  landing-stage  on  the  New  Cut,  and  (after  being 
reinforced  by  the  Field  Club  members  who  travelled  down  by  the  8.5  a.m.  from 
London)  embarked  on  the  Great  Eastern  Railwr.y  steamer,  the  "  Stour,"  for  a 
day's  dredging  in  the  estuaries  of  the  Orwell  and  Stour  rivers. 

Whilst  awaiting  departure  alongside  the  fteamer,  Mr.  Walter  Crouch  pointed 
out  the  numerous  borings  of  a  most  destructive  mollusc,  the  Teredo,  which  was  well 
in  evidence  on  the  landing-stage  ;  and  before  the  start  other  interesting  forms  were 
to  be  seen  on   board,   alive.     These  had  been  taken  on  the   previous  day  from 


llli:    KSSEX    1-lKl.D    CI.UB.  243 

ihe  oyster-Leds  in  the  river.  Of  these,  two  exceedingly  fine  varieties  of  the 
beautiful  sea-anemone,  Bunodes  (Tealia)  crassicornis,  at  once  attracted  attention  ; 
and  the  white  and  orange-coloured  specimens  of  Alcyonium  digitatum^  or  "  dead- 
man's  fingers,"  with  their  crowd  of  translucent  extended  polypes,  each  with  eight 
feathery  tentacles.  Crawling  on  the  sides  of  the  glass  vessels  were  two  specimens 
of  the  Gastropod,  Philine  aperta,  whose  delicate  shells  are  concealed  beneath  the 
mantle  lobes  ;  and  the  little  Top-shell,  Trochus  cinerarius,  but  both  of  these  had 
been  recorded  in  the  previous  year's  excursion  (see  Essex  NATURALIST,  vol.  iv., 
p.  171). 

On  leaving  Ipswich,  the  walls  of  the  quay  were  observed  lobe  lined  with  green 
Alg:c  of  a  filamentous  character,  probably  (Mr.  E.  M.  Holmes  suggested)  consist- 
ing of  species  of  Urospora  and  Enteromorpha^  and  possibly  (in  the  darker  patches) 
of  Osci/laria,  Lynghya  and  Protococcus,  but  neither  time  nor  opportunity  permitted 
of  their  examination. 

The  weather  was  rather  dull  and  cold  as  the  "  Stour  "  dropped  down  the  river, 
under  the  command  of  Captain  Mills,  and  it  remained  so  during  the  greater  part 
of  the  day. 

The  reader  is  referred  to  the  report  of  the  previous  dredging  meeting  on  June 
i4ih,  1890,  in  tlie  Essex  Naturalist  (vol.  iv.,  pp.  169-173),  for  much  interesting 
information  on  the  natural  history  of  the  estuary  of  the  Stour.  The  methods  of 
working  were  the  same  as  on  the  first  visit ;  but  a  greater  number  of  large 
clear-glass  bottles  and  small  aquaria  having  been  provided  than  on  the  previous 
occasion,  the  members  were  enabled  to  view  the  various  animals  brought  up  with 
ease  and  minuteness.  Microscopes  and  hand  lenses  were  provided  for  this 
purpose.  Mr.  W.  Jolly  (the  lessee  of  the  Orwell  Oyster  Fishery)  again  gave 
permission  for  dredging  in  his  waters,  and  rendered  most  valuable  assistance. 

The  first  cast  of  the  dredge  was  made  on  the  VVoolverstone  Park  side  of  the 
river,  just  beyond  the  Cat  House,  and  this  haul  (and  subsequent  casts  both  in  the 
Orwell  and  Stour)  brought  up  an  abundance  of  the  POLYZOAN,  Akyonidium 
gtlatinosum,  or  "  Barley  Sugar,"  on  which  were  thickly  sprinkled  young  specimens 
of  a  mollusc  allied  to  the  periwinkle,  Lacuna  crasswr,  with  the  epidermis  of  the 
shell  drawn  up  into  ridges.  On  the  same  Polyzoan,  and  also  on  the  siliceous 
sponge,  Chalina  oculata,  were  crowds  of  the  small  scarlet  and  white  skeleton 
Crustacean,  Caprella  linearis^  both  male  and  female.  Other  Crustaceans 
observed  were  N)mphon  gracilis  (in  good  numbers),  Eiipagurus  bertihardus  (in 
Buccinum  shells),  Nyas  araneus,  Carcitius  mcenas  (abundant,  as  usual)  ;  of  Pallene 
brevirostris  Mr.  Fitch  recorded  one  specimen,  &c. 

Of  other  POLVZOA,  some  specimens  of  Bugula  avicularia  and  Metnhranipora 
pilosa  were  noticed  investing  the  algae  ;  and  on  dead  shells,  species  of  Eschara 
and  Lepralia. 

A  few  forms  of  the  TuNlCATA,  or  "  Sea  Squirts,"  were  brought  up — Botiyllns, 
Cynthia  and  Ascidium  ;  among  the  latter,  A.  intestinalis,  with  almost  transparent 
gelatinous  tunic,  which  was  fairly  abundant,  and  generally  attached  to  dead 
shells  of  Tapes,  &c. 

Among  the  Sea  Anemones  were  many  free-swimming  Ilyant'ms  scoticus  and 
specimens  of  another  species  that  comes  nearest  to  Edwardsia  callintorpha,  and 
another  small  sage  green  species  with  yellow  furrows  that  seems  to  come  near 
Gregoria  fenestrata  ;  it  was  attached  to  seaweeds,  especially  Laminaria  and  Fucus. 

The  Medus.E  (HyproZOA)  included  Amelia  aiirita,  and  one  specimen  of 
Cydippe   pomiformis  \     and    the    division     Hydromeduscc' was    represented    by 


244  THE    ESSEX    FIELD    CLUB. 

Hydractinia   echmata    (on    various    shells),    Sertularia    abietina,    Hydralhnannia 
falcata,  and  Thuiaria  thiiia. 

The  ECHINODEKMATA  were  represented  by  6".  papposa,  and  Ophiothrix 
("  brittle-star  "). 

Worms.  Good  specimens  of  Sabella penicillus^  in  their  leathery  tubes,  were 
brought  up,  and  in  their  new  abode,  in  the  bottles  and  aquaria,  soon  displayed  the 
delicate  mottled  plumes,  as  though  they  sought  for  admiration. 

On  an  old  oyster  shell  was  a  tube  of  Terebella  conchihga,  with  its  rough 
exterior  composed  of  broken  fragments  of  shells  and  stones,  but  the  annelid- 
builder  was  no  longer  within. 

On  the  Laminaria,  a  host  of  the  tiny  spiral  calcareous  tubes  (which  simulate 
a  true  shell)  occurred,  the  shelter  of  the  delicate  plumed  Spirorbis  nautiloides. 

Many  other  species  of  Marine  Worms  of  the  genera  Phyliodoce,  Nereis, 
Po'ynof,  Nepht/iys,  &c.,  were  taken,  and  it  is  hoped  that  they  may  be  subsequently 
worked  out. 

Sponges.  Some  grand  specimens  of  Grantia  compressa  and  G.  ciliata  (of  the 
former  two  very  large  ones)  were  brought  to  the  surface,  which  were  pronounced 
by  Dr.  Taylor  and  Mr.  Crouch  to  be  the  largest  they  had  ever  seen.  One  of 
these  measured  7  inches  in  length,  and  z\  inches  in  breadth,  and  is  prettily  lobed. 
Chalini  oculata,  and  Halkhondria  panicea  ("  The  Crumb  of  Bread  Sponge  ")  were 
abundant,  as  on  the  previous  occasion  ;  and  a  number  of  the  small  but  very 
interesting  Sycon  ciliatus,  with  its  tri-radiate  calcareous  spicules  around  the 
osculae.     The  largest  one  taken  is  barely  half-an-inch  long. 

MOLLUSCA.  A  larger  number  were  captured  than  on  the  previous  trip,'  when 
only  sixteen  species  were  recorded.  These  (with  two  exceptions — Saxicava  and 
Eolis)  were  again  taken,  and  Mr.  Crouch  has  now  been  enabled  to  add  twenty- 
one  to  the  list,  making  in  all  thirty-seven  species.  Of  these,  nine  were  in  the 
River  Stour,  and  in  the  following  list  Mr.  Crouch  has  detailed  these  and  marked 
those  which  had  occurred  in  1890. 

A  large  specimen  (dead)  of  the  northern  shell  Fusus  norvegicus  was  dredged 
up  ;  but  this  cannot  be  taken  as  indigenous,  as  they  have  been  brought  here  at 
different  times  v\ith  oyster  spat  from  the  North  Sea,  the  Dogger  Bank,  &c. 

LIST  OF  MOLLUSCA    OBSERVED  IN  THE   ORWELL   AND  STOUR 

ESTUARIES. 

{Species  marked  *  occurred  also  in   1890.) 
Bivalve  Shells — Pelecvpoda. 
*  Ostt  ea  edui'is. 
* Pecteti  varius         ....     Two  dead  shells. 


*  Mytihis  edulis 
Modiolaria  marmorata  . 
Nttcula  nitida 

*  ,,  nucleus 
Lucina  bar  ea  lis 
Cardium  exiguum 

*  „  edule 

*  Tapes  piillastra 

,,      decussatus   . 
Tellina  balthica  (Stour) 


Abundant. 
Four  alive. 
A  few. 
A  few. 

One  valve,  young. 
A  quantity. 
Mostly  dead. 
Mostly  dead. 
Several  dead. 
One  dead  valve. 


See  Essex  Nat.,  vol.  iv. 


THE    ESSEX    FIELD    CLUB. 


MS 


Miictra  solida  (Stour)    . 
Scrobicu'.aria piperata  (Stour) 
„  alba  (Stour)     , 

*Mya  arenaria  (Stour)  . 
,,     truncata  (Stour)    . 
Pholas  dactylus 
,,       Candida 
Teredo  sp.  (?) 
*Saxicava  rtigosa     . 


Univa 


*  Chiton  cinereus 
*Trochus  cinerarius 

Trochus,  sp.  ? 
Lacuna  crassior     . 
*Littorina  rudis  (Stour) 

*  „       littorea  (Stour) 
Rissoa  mimbranacea 
Hydrobia  ulvce  (Stour) 
Purpura  lapillus    . 

* Buccinum  undatum 
Murex  erinaceus  . 
Fusus  norvegicus   . 

*Nassa  reticulata    . 

*Philine  aperta 


N 


Doris  filosa 
* Eolis  coronata 
Egg  ribbons  of  a  Nudibi  anch 


.  One  dead. 

.  Several. 

.  One  alive. 

.  A  few  dead. 

.  A  quantity  of  dead  shells. 

.  Dead. 

Several  dead. 

.  Borings  only, 

.  (Taken  1890  only.) 

LVEs— Gastropoda. 

Two  alive. 

Quantity  alive. 

Two  on  oyster  shell. 
.     Abundant,  but  small, 
.     Common. 
.     Common. 
.     A  few. 
,     Plentiful. 
.     Dead  shells. 
.     Alive,  but  mostly  small. 
.     Several  dead  shells. 
.     (From  North  Sea.) 
•     A  few. 
.     Plentiful. 

UDIBRANCHIATA. 

.     Several  specimens,  one  an  inch  in  length, 
.     (Taken  1890  only.) 
also  occurred. 


Mr.  E.  M.  Holmes  reported  that  the  Marine  Algae  dredged  up  were  very  few 
and  hardly  worthy  of  record.  Enteromorpha  compressa,  Gracillaria  con/trvoides ■and 
Antithamnion pliimula  were  noticed,  but  even  these  only  in  small  quantities. 

During  the  afternoon,  Dr.  Taylor  gave  an  exceedingly  interesting  address 
''  On  the  Marine  Zoology  of  the  Estuaries  of  the  Orwell  and  the  Stour."  Nobody, 
he  said,  who  merely  travelled  over  the  surface  of  the  water  would  ever  dream  of 
the  marvellously  dense  metropolis  of  marine  life  which  crowded  the  bottoms  of  the 
estuaries.  Submarine  life  was  not  so  abundant  in  the  Stour  as  in  the  Orwell,  and 
his  explanation  of  the  fact  was  this — that  the  bed  of  the  ''ormer  river  was  more 
largely  composed  of  London  clay  than  the  Orwell,  and  that  the  mud  of  this  clay 
took  a  great  deal  of  the  oxygen  out  of  the  water,  leaving  but  little  to  support 
animal  life.  Dr.  Taylor  thought  that  a  fairly  representative  collection  of  the 
animals  inhabiting  the  littoral  zone,  found  everywhere  between  high  and  low 
water  marks  in  the  British  Islands,  had  been  obtained  ;  but  that, as  these  estuari«s 
openeJ  southward,  they  had  perhaps  met  with  some  forms  of  life  which  would  not 
be  found  in  the  firths  and  lochs  of  Scotland,  while  the  latter  would  contain  some 
arctic  animals  not  discoverable  in  the  Suffolk  and  Essex  estuaries.  Along  the 
bottom  of  the  Orwell  and  Stour,  adapting  themselves  to  changed  climatal  con- 
ditions, forms  of  animal  life  had  probably  lingered,  like  those  found  fossilised  in 
the  crags,  and,  perhaps,  had  lived  there  ever  since  the  Crag  period. 


246  THE    ESSEX    FIELD    CLUK. 

Dr.  Ta3-Ior  then  briefly  described  the  various  forms  of  animal  li.'e  dredged  up 
during  the  morning,  taking  as  his  texts  the  numerous  specimens  in  the  bottles 
and  jars  on  the  deck.  Nearly  every  conspicuous  species  mentioned  in  the  above 
lists  was  attended  to,  and  many  very  interesting  remaiks  were  made  on  the 
details  of  their  structure  or  life-histor3\ 

Dr.  Taylor's  remarks  were  highly  appreciated  by  the  company  ;  and  then  Mr. 
Walter  Crouch,  upon  the  invitation  of  the  former,  said  a  few  words  about  the 
shells,  referring  more  particularly  to  monster  Almond  Whelks  (^Fusus  tiorvegicus'), 
which  had  been  brought  to  the  Orwell  with  oyster  spat  from  the  Dogger  Bank. 

Mr.  E.  A.  Fitch,  as  President  of  the  Club,  proposed  a  comprehensive  vote 
of  thanks.  First  of  all,  he  said  the  Essex  Field  Club  felt  indebted  to  the  Ipswich 
people  for  suppoiting  such  a  splendid  Museum  as  that  over  which  Dr.  Taylor 
presided.  The  collection  there  of  fossils  illustrating  the  Red  Crag,  both  of  Suffolk 
and  Essex,  was,  perhaps,  one  of  the  best  in  the  country  ;  and  the  graphic  demon- 
stration by  the  Curator,  to  which  they  had  listened  on  the  previous  night,  alone 
repaid  a  visit  to  the  town.  During  the  whole  of  that  Excursion,  moreover, 
the  Doctor  had  been  always  demonstrating  and  answering  the  many  questions  of 
inquiring  friends,  and  to  him  their  thanks  were  in  the  first  place  due.  They  had 
also  to  most  warmly  thank  the  members  of  the  Ipswich  Scientific  Society  for 
the  reception  given  them,  Mr.  G.  H.  Hewetson  and  Mr.  W.  Cole  for  their  hard 
work  as  Secretaries,  and  Mr.  Frank  Woolnough  for  the  excellent  manner  in  which 
the  Excursion  had  been  organised. 

Mr.  H.  Miller,  jun.,  on  seconding  the  motion,  said  he  hoped  there  would  be 
another  joint  Excursion  next  year  in  some  part  of  Essex,  and  that  Dr.  Taylor 
would  again  be  present  with  them. 

The  motion  was  carried  by  acclamation,  and  Dr.  Taylor,  in  repl}-,  said  that  he 
was  always  happy  to  do  what  he  could  to  assist  naturalist  students. 

A  vote  of  thanks  was  also  passed  to  Mr.  W.  Jolly  for  his  courteous  assistance 
in  superintending  the  dredging  operations. 

In  other  ways  than  those  strictly  scientific,  the  Excursion  was  very  much 
enjoyed.  Luncheon  and  tea  were  served  on  board  by  Mr.  James  Hardwick,  of 
the  "Queen  Street  Restaurant,"  and  these  important  arrangements  were  well 
carried  out  under  the  personal  supervision  of  Mrs.  Hardwick.  The  veteran 
Captain  Mills  was  anxious  to  please  his  visitors,  and  was  most  successful  in  his 
efforts  ;  and  the  crew  and  dredgermen  were  most  helpful  in  assisting  the  various 
efforts  of  the  naturalists. 

A  short  run  was  taken  up  the  Stour  to  Parkeston.  The  Stour  is  celebrated  as 
certainly  the  most  beautiful  of  Essex  rivers.  Constable  was  born  upon  its  margin, 
and  the  charms  of  its  scenery  made  a  deep  impression  on  his  mind  and  works. 
"  I  associate,"  he  said,  "m}'  careless  boyhood  with  all  that  lies  on  the  banks  of  the 
Stour  ;  these  scenes  made  me  a  painter,  and  I  am  grateful."  Unfortunately,  the 
river  not  being  navigable  far  from  its  mouth  for  a  vessel  like  ours,  the  scenes  of 
Constable's  labours  were  reserved  for  another  visit  to  the  Stour. 

At  Harwich  some  of  the  members  were  landed,  in  order  to  catch  an  earlier 
train  home,  and  spent  some  time  in  viewing  the  town,  perhaps,  historical!}',  tlie 
most  interesting  port  in  Essex,  which  was  long  the  chief  point  of  communication 
between  England  and  Holland.  It  was  a  very  earl)'  settlement  ;  the  remains  of 
a  camp  may  still  be  traced  to  the  south,  and  Roman  relics  have  been  found  in 
and  about  the  town.  It  had  early  acquired  such  maritime  importance  as  to  be 
able,  in  1347,  to  furnish  fourteen  ships  to  the  fleet  of  Edward  111.       The  harbour 


THK    ESSEX    FIELD    CLUB.  247 

is  of  great  extent,  and  forms,  united  witli  the  bay,  a  roadstead  for  large  sliijis 
of  war. 

While  waiting  at  Harwich,  Mr.  E.  M.  Holmes  made  some  observations  on  the 
algse  of  the  shore  there,  which  will  be  found  recorded  in  the  present  number  of 
the  Essex  Naturalist  (see  page  263). 

A  run  was  also  made  by  the  steamer  across  the  harbour  to  Felixstowe  Pier, 
where  nearly  an  hour's  stay  was  allowed,  and  where,  on  the  shore,  the  botanists 
were  much  interested  in  finding  Zostera  marina  var.  angustiftlia  in  flower  and  in 
fruit,  the  furrowed  seeds  being  almost  as  large  as  wheat  kernels,  while  the 
axillary  flowers  weie  only  to  be  seen  by  the  slight  thickening  and  by  holding  the 
plant  up  to  the  light. 

The  company  saw  the  "  Lord  of  the  Isles  "  leave  Harwich  and  a  splendid 
steamer  belonging  to  the  Wilson  Line  come  in,  and  the  journey  home  was  made 
in  glorious  weather,  with  the  evening  sunlight  showing  the  scenery  of  the  river- 
side in  its  loveliest  aspect.  All  were  landed  at  Ipswich  before  seven  o'clock,  and 
the  party  separatrd  with  mutual  expressions  of  a  hope  that  other  meetings  of  a 
similar  kind  would  be  held  in  future. 

E.XCURSION     FROM    MaLDON     TO     CHELMSFORD,    ALONG    THE     BlACKWATEK 

AND  Chelmer  Navigation  River. 

Saturday,  August  8th,  1891. 

Directors— Tt..  A.  FITCH,  F.L.S  ,  EDMUND  DURRANT,  WALTER  CROUCH,   F.Z.S., 

W.  COLE,  F.E.S.,  Dr.  J.  E.  TAYLOR,  F.L.S.,  and  Dk.  PEARL. 

The  main  object  of  this  meeting  was  to  afford  opportunities  for  botanical, 
entomological  and  conchological  observations  along  the  banks  of  the  Chelmer 
river,  which  was  rendered  navigable  in  1797  b}'  the  setting  up  of  numerous  locks, 
and  making  some  cuts  to  avoid  bends,  &c. 

The  principal  arrangements  were  in  the  hands  of  Messrs.  Fitch  and  Durrant, 
and  they  were  admirably  carried  out  in  every  detail.  The  members  and  visitors 
(numbering  about  eighty)  embarked  about  eleven  o'clock  from  the  Maldon 
siding,  close  to  the  railway  station,  on  board  the  barge  "William  Davis,"  which 
was  drawn  by  a  couple  of  horses,  the  helmsman  being  Mr.  Lewis  Hansell.  Our 
veteran  Essex  Naturalist,  Mr.  Joseph  Clarke,  of  Saffron  Walden,  was  on  the 
platform  to  meet  some  of  the  party,  and  to  wish  us  bon  voyage.  The  weather 
was  delightful,  and  the  barge  being  most  comfortably  fitted  up,  and  flowers  and 
other  natural  history  objects  fairly  abundant,  the  novel  "  Field  Meeting  "  was 
thoroughly  enjoyed  by  all  privileged  to  take  part  in  it. 

Mr.  President  Fitch  acted  as  skipper  of  the  craft,  and,  on  starting,  read  out 
the  humorous  "sailing  orders"  he  had  prepared,  printed  copies  of  which  had 
been  posted  up  on  the  awning. 

A  splendid  view  of  Maldon  was  obtained  as  the  craft  passed  under  the 
railway  bridge,  and  there  were  som.e  grand  stretches  of  river  scenery,  the  banks 
abounding  with  flowers.  Eleven  locks  had  to  be  ascended,  namel}' — Beeleigh, 
Ricketts,  Eloe  Mill,  Rushes,  Little  Baddow  Mill,  Paper  Mill,  Stonehams,  Cuton, 
Sandford  Mill,  Barnes  Mill,  and  the  Upper  Lock. 

On  the  voyage  the  parishes  of  Fleybridge,  St.  Peter's  Maldon,  Langford, 
L'lting,  Woodham  Walter,  Hatfield  Peverel,  Little  Baddow,  Danbury,  Boreham, 
Sandon,  Great  Baddow,  Springfield,  and  Chelmsford  were  touched  or  traversed. 
The  most  noticeable  features  passed  en  route  were  Beeleigh  Weir  and  Mill,  the 
Speeney,  Sugar   Bakers'  Hoe   (where  the  old   Sugar  Mill   formerly  stood).  All 


248  THE    ESSEX    FIELD    CLUB. 

Saints'  Church,  Ulting,  the  junction  of  the  river  Ter,  the  Paper  Mill,  Little 
Baddovv  Mill,  Sandford  Mill,  and  Barnes  Mill,  Springfield,  and  concerning  most 
of  these  places  the  "  Skipper  "  had  a  fund  of  information  to  communicate. 

The  first  halt  was  made  at  a  small  eyot,  where  many  river-side  plants  were 
gathered  in  profusion,  Dr.  Taylor  and  Dr.  Pearl  affording  information  to  those 
unfamiliar  with  field  botany. 

At  Beeleigh  Lock  the  following  paper  was  read  : — 

Notes  on  the  History  of  the  Chelmer  and  Blackwater  Navigation. 

By  E.  A.  FITCH,  F.L.S.,  &c. 

All  our  Essex  rivers  rise  in  the  north-western  portion  of  the  county.  This 
somewhat  peculiar  physical  feature  is  due  to  the  outcrop  of  the  chalk  in  that 
district.  A  four-mile  radius  from  Radwinter  Church  (near  Saffron  Walden) 
includes  the  sources  of  the  Blackwater,  the  Chelmer,  the  Stour,  the  Colne,  and 
the  Cam.  The  Stort  is  reached  in  seven  miles.  With  the  exception  of  the  Cam, 
these  Essex  rivers  take  a  southerly  or  south-easterly  course,  and  are  mostly  con- 
tained within  the  county. 

The  Blackwater  rises  at  Crawney  Wood,  Debden,  and  to  the  north-west  of 
Wimbish  Green,  joined  by  two  other  brooks,  or  "  burns,"  as  it  trends  round 
Radwinter  Hill.  It  then  flows  through  the  Sampfords  (the  "  Sandy  "  Ford)  and 
the  Bardfields,  receiving  many  smaller  tributaries  in  this  district  and  Wethers- 
field,  and  at  Shalford  (the  ''  Shallow  "  Ford)  is  its  first  mill.  Then  on  past 
Panfield,  which  derives  its  name  from  the  river  Pant,  to  Bocking  and  Stisted. 
The  high  road  crosses  it  at  Blackwater,  thence  to  Coggeshall,  and  by  Feering  to 
Kelvedon,  where  it  is  crossed  by  the  railway  a  few  yards  before  the  railway 
station,  and  by  the  high  road  over  a  single  span  bridge,  with  five  small  arches 
for  flood  water,  built  in  1788.  The  old  seven-arched  bridge,  now  much  dilapi- 
dated, still  remains,  situated  a  short  distance  to  the  south-eastward.  Morant 
gives  "  Easterford  "  as  an  alias  of  Kelvedon,  as  in  John  Norden's  map  (1594), 
and  says  "  Easterford  denotes  the  more  eastern  ford,  which  it  is  in  regard  to 
Rivenhall  water,  now  covered  with  a  bridge,  and  to  that  at  Wickham  mills  " 
(Hist,  of  Essex,  ii.,  150).  The  river  now  turns  sharply  in  a  south-westwardly 
direction,  and  flows  past  the  Braxteds  to  Witham  meads,  the  high  road  running 
almost  parallel  with  it,  where  it  receives  the  important  affluent  known  as  Pod's 
Biook,  which  is  fifteen  miles  in  length,  and  has  five  mills  on  its  stream.  The 
Blackwater  now  passes  below  Wickham  Bi,  hops,  through  Langford  (the  "  Long" 
ford)  nearly  to  Beeleigh  Mill,  which  is  on  the  Chelmer.  It  then  flows  parallel 
with  its  sister  river  almost  to  Fullbridge,  when  it  turns  northwards  and  flows  in 
a  semicircle  round  the  Little  Marsh  and  Potman  Marsh,  joining  the  common 
estuary  at  Heybridge  Creek,  just  at  the  back  of  Maldon  East  Railway  Station, 
a  little  more  than  half-way  from  Fullbridge  to  the  Hythe,  Maldon.  The  tide 
flows  up  under  the  stone  bridge  (Heybridge  High  Bridge)  to  Heybridge  Mill. 
This  bridge  at  the  end  of  the  Causeway  was  doubtless  the  one  solitary  bridge 
over  the  river  when  the  Chelmer  only  took  the  water  from  Beeleigh  Mill,  the 
flood  water  going  into  the  Blackwater  channel  ;  and  even  to-day  in  the  old  leases 
of  the  Maldon  wharf  property  it  is  described  as  on  "the  bank  of  Beeleigh  Mill- 
stream."  Fullbridge  was  then  a  shallow  ford  ;  now  the  tide  rises  about  seven  ftet 
at  ordinary  tides,  and  to  ten  feet  at  spring  tides.  The  whole  river  is  doubtless 
a  much  cleaner  cut  channel  than  formerly. 

The  river  Chelmer  rises  about  two  mil  s  to  the  north  of  Thaxted,  less  than 
one  mile  south-east  of  the  Blackwater,  and  these  ri\ers  almost  join  about  one 
and  a  half  miles  above  their  common  estuary  ;  in  fact  they  interchange  their 
waters  here  commonly  in  flood  times.  Running  round  Thaxted  the  Chelmer  runs 
through  Tilty,  where  it  receives  a  rather  large  but  nameless  brook  on  either  side. 
Between  Great  and  Little  Easton  there  is  its  first  mill,  and  at  this  point  its 
channel  is  within  a  mile  of  the  source  of  the  Roding.  Traversing  Easton  Park, 
through  Church  End,  Dunmow,  the  silvery  streak  approaches  almost  to  Felstead 
where  it  receives  the   Stebbing  brook,  on  which    are  two    mills,    through  the 


THE    ESSEX    FIELD    CLUH.  249 

\V;ilthams — it  is  said  to  flow  a  distance  of  five  miles  through  the  parish  of  Great 
Walthain — between  Broonifield  and  Springfield  to  Chelmsford. 

Here  it  receives  the  two  important  tributaries  of  the  Cann  and  the  Wid.  The 
former  rises  at  High  Easter  and  High  Roding,  and  flows  between  Margaret 
RoJing  and  Good  Easter  to  Chignal  St.  James,  a  little  below  which  it  is  joined 
by  the  Roxwell  Brook,  which  flows  round  Fingrith  Hall  and  the  High  Woods. 
The  lalter  flows  from  Doddiiighurst  and  Biackmore,  Shenfield,  and  Herongate, 
through  Buttsbury,  Margaretting,  Widford,  and  AVrittle.  It  may  be  news  to 
some  of  the  travellers  on  that  great  Essex  highwav — the  Colchester  line  of  the 
Great  Eastern  Railway — that  the  flood  water  thej^  so  often  see  out  from  the 
Mountnessing  Brook,  between  Brentwood  and  Ingatestone  stations,  comes  down 
to  Maldon  to  the  same  point  as  the  river  the}'  cross  just  below  Kelvedon  station. 

P'our  miles  below  Chelmsford  this  river  receives  on  the  left  bank  the  New 
Hall  and  Boreham  Brook,  and  a  little  lower,  at  Little  Baddow,  it  receives  from 
the  other  side  the  Sandon  Brook,  a  considerable  stream  flowing  from  Stock  and 
the  Hanningfields.  The  Ter  runs  from  Felstead,  within  a  mile,  from  the  old 
river  and  from  Rumley  Wood,  Great  Saling,  within  a  mile  of  Pod's  Brook,  a 
tributary  of  the  Blackwater.  through  Little  Leiglis,  Great  Leighs,  and  Terling, 
(to  which  parish  it  gives  its  name),  under  the  main  line  of  railway  at  the 
\'iaduct,  near  Crix  Mill,  through  Hatfield  Peverel,  and  falls  into  the  Chelmer 
about  half-a-mile  above  Ulting  Church.  Between  Hoe  Mills  and  Beeleigh  Mills 
it  receives  a  brook  running  from  Little  Baddow  and  Woodham  Walter  Common. 
The  tide  flows  up  past  Beeleigh  Abbej^  to  Beeleigh  Mill. 

There  has  been  and  still  is  considerable  confusion  about  the  Blackwater  and 
Chelmer  rivers  during  the  last  mile  of  their  separate  existence.  As  has  been 
already  said,  they  interchange  their  waters  at  many  points  from  a  consider- 
able distance  above  Beeleigh  Mill,  but  their  streams  are  distinct  now,  if  not  in 
times  past,  and  it  is  the  Chelmer  that  flows  under  Fullbridge,  although  in  the 
six-inch  Ordnance  map  this  is  called  the  Blackwater,  and  some  years  ago  a  convic- 
tion of  the  justices  was  made  upon  an  information  for  an  offence  committed  here 
upon  the  river  Blackwater,  but  upon  appeal  this  conviction  was  quashed  on  the 
ground  that  the  river  wasn't  there  at  all.  Only  last  year  the  Maldon  borough 
authorities  had  the  satisfaction  of  setting  both  the  Board  of  Trade,  the  Woods 
and  Forests  Office,  and  the  Local  Governmmt  Board  right  in  this  important 
particular,  doubtless  caused  by  the  serious  error  in  the  Government  survey.  It 
is  Heybridge  Creek,  falling  into  the  estuary  iust  east  of  the  railway  station,  that 
is  the  river  Backwater. 

In  the  year  1765  a  proposal  was  made  to  make  the  river  Chelmer  navigable 
for  30-ton  barges  from  Moulsham  Bridge,  Chelmsford,  to  IMaldon  Bridge,  and  an 
Act  of  Parliament  was  obtained  to  that  end.  In  those  da3's,  however,  company 
floating  was  not  so  readily  accomplished  as  now,  and  although  the  capital  asked 
for  was  but  ;^l3,CCO,  sufficient  was  not  subscribed.  The  details  of  the  survej',  by 
Thomas  Yeoman,  for  this  project  will  be  found  in  the  "  History  of  Essex,  by  a 
Gentleman,"  vol.  i.,  pp.  84-102,  and  in  the  same  volume,  at  p.  93,  we  read,  "  We 
here  give  the  survey  and  report,  made  by  the  encouragers  of  this  navigation,  as 
a'so  th.'ir  plan,  curiousl)'  engraved  on  copper,  and  when  we  come  to  treat  of 
Maldon  we  shall  then  subjoin  the  survey  plan,  &c.,  given  by  several  gentlemen 
who  strongly  opposed  it,  lea\ing  the  reader,  after  a  thorough  inspection  of  the 
whole,  to  form  his  own  conjectures."  I  cannot  learn  that  these  plans  were  ever 
published,  and  Yeoman's  plan  is  only  found  in  a  few^  copies  of  the  Histor)*.  In 
1762  the  cost  of  land  carriage  "  for  coals  and  all  other  goods  brought  by  waggons 
from  Maldom  to  Chelmsford  "  was  8s.  per  ton,  and  it  was  estimated  that  the  water 
carriage  was  to  cost  2s.,  with  a  toll  of  2s.  6d.,  in  all  4s.  6d  ,  a  saving  of  3s.  on  every 
ton  of  goods  so  carried  to  Chelmsford,  in  addition  to  a  considerable  saving  of  time 
in  transit.  It  was  also  estimated  that  then  (1762),  "under  all  the  disadvantages  of 
the  late  war,"  at  least  6,oco  tons  of  coal  and  4,000  tons  of  other  goods  were  im- 
ported into  Maldon  for  the  use  of  Chelmsford. 

In  the  year  1793  (33rd  Geoi-ge  HI.)  another  Act  of  Parliament  was  passed 
"  for  making  and  maintaining  the  Chelmer  and  Blackwater  Navigation."  In 
this  Act  the  pro[)rietors'  names  are  set  forth,  so  in  this  instance,  presumabl)-,  the 

K 


250  THE    ESSEX    FIELD    CLUH. 

subscription  list  was  closed  before  the  Act  was  obtained,  and  we  know  that  the 
works  were  proceeded  with  at  once.  The  capital  was  ;^40,ooo,  divided  into  400 
£100  shares,  witli  power  to  raise  a  further  sum  of  ;^20,coo  if  necessary.  The 
only  initial  difficult}'  that  arose  was  that  on  April  13th,  1795,  ^  meeting  of  the 
proprietors  was  called  for  the  purpose  of  raising  a  further  sum  of  ^8,000,  in  con- 
sequence of  the  company  having  been  compelled  to  purchase  Betkigh  Mill. 

In  accordance  with  this  Act,  the  canal  was  made  from  Moulsham  Mill  to  near 
Beeleigh  Mill,  by  widening,  deepening,  cleansing,  straightening,  and  improving 
the  river  Chelmer  ;  here  a  short  cut  along  the  Long  Weir  was  made  into  the 
Blackwater,  and  the  bed  of  that  river  was  "  widened,  deepened,  cleansed,  and 
improved  "  to  Heybridge  Mill,  whence  a  new  canal  was  cut  through  Heybridge 
to  what  is  now  known  as  Heybridge  Basin,  falling  into  the  estuary  at  Collier's 
Reach.  The  opposition  from  the  borough  of  Maldun  to  this  undertaking  was  so 
great  that  the  company  were  not  able  to  bring  their  canal  within  the  borough 
boundaries. 

I  do  not  think  that  I  need  go  into  the  commercial  history  of  the  undertaking. 
The  topography  of  the  canal  we  propose  to  explore  to-day,  and  in  conclusion  it 
will  suffice  to  say  that  a  detailed  plan  of  the  navigation, las  completed,  ma}'  be 
seen  in  Mr.  Andrew  Meggy's  office  at  Chelmsford. 

A  short  stoppage  afforded  an  opportunity  for  a  walk  to  Beeleigh  Mill.  There 
in  the  mill  pond  a  few  species  of  aquatic  mollusca  were  taken  by  Mr.  Walter 
Crouch,  but  there  was  not  much  time  for  collecting  them.- 

Some  again  landing,  Speeney  Meadow,  further  on,  was  also  perambulated,  and 
at  Hoe  Mill,  Woodham  Walter,  Mr.  S.  Garratt  accorded  permission  to  stroll 
through  his  beautiful  gardens,  grotto,  and  grounds.  Here  was  seen  a  female 
Golden  Eagle,  about  twenty-four  years  of  age,  and  two  of  her  eggs  (blown)  were 
shown.  (Mr.  Fitch  described  the  history  of  this  bird  in  the  ESSEX  Naturalist, 
vol.  iv.,  p.  124). 

Ulting  Church  was  the  next  place  of  call.  The  edifice,  dedicated  to  All 
Saints,  is  a  small  stone  structure,  close  to  the  river  side,  and  consists  solely  of  a 
nave  and  chancel,  with  wooden  turret  and  shingled  spire,  a  pure  example  of 
Thirteenth  Century  or  Early  English  st3-le. 

The  botany  of  the  country  traversed  was,  as  the  programme  led  the  visitors  to 
expect,  of  considerable  interest.  The  district  is  Number  3  (Chelmsford)  of  the 
artificial  divisions  in  Gibson's  "  Flora  of  Essex,"  and  is  embraced  in  River-basin 
Number  iv.  (Biackwater)  of  Prof.  Boulger's  more  natural  an  angement  (see  "  On 
the  River-basins  of  Essex  as  Natural  History  Provinces,"  Trans.  Essex  Field 
Club,  vol.  ii.,  pp.  79-87,  and  map).  The  following  plants  were  noted  in  the 
programme  as  being  likely  to  reward  the  botanists,  and,  curiousl}-  enough,  as  Dr. 
Taylor  pointed  out  in  his  "  Botanical  Demonstration,"  given  on  board  soon  after 
leaving  Ulting  Church,  every  species  anticipated  had  been  found  that  morning 
on  the  banks  of  the  river  or  in  the  meadows  near  : — 

The  Meadow-rue  {Thalictrum  flmiuni)  ;  Moore's  beautitul  "Virgin  lily" 
{Nymphcea  a.'ha),  near  Hoe  and  Little  Baddow  Mills,  and  the  commoner  Yellow 
Water-lily  (A',  hitea)  ;  Meadow-sweet  (^Spircra  ulmjrici)  will  be  abundant  and 
fragrant  as  usual  ;  the  remarkable  trimorphic  and  showy  Purple  Loosestrife 
(^Lythrum  salicaria)  and  its  namesake  the  Yellow  Loosestrife  {^Lysunachia  vulgaris)  ; 
the  true  Forget-me-not  (^Myosotis  palustris),  a  flower  recalling  many  poetical 
associations ;  various  species  of  Willow-herb  (^Epilohium),  local!)'  known  as 
"  Apple  "  or  "  Cherry-pie  '  plants  ;  the  tall   Hemp  Agrimony  (^Eupatorimn  can- 

2  On  the  succeeding  day,  however,  Messrs.  Fitch  and  Crouch  spent  a  longer  time  in  the 
grounds  of  iVIr.  Ward,  at  Beeleigh  Mill,  and  found  seven  species  existing  in  great  numbers  in 
the  artificial  lake  there  ;  all,  however,  had  already  been  taken  on  the  previous  day  in  the  river 
Chelmer  (see  list  post) . 


THE    ESSKX    FIELD    CLUH.  25 1 

)ia/)iiiui)i'),  and  llie  lowly  Scull-c;ip  i^Scutfllaria  galeriaihla').  Tliemore  interesting 
of  the  water-plants  may  be  the  Great  Water-Dock  {^Rumex  hydiolapat/iutii),  the 
Yellow-Iris,  or  Flag  (/;/>  psmdacorus^,  the  Great  Water  Plantain  (^AlUma 
plantago)^  Sagitiaria  sagittifolia,  with  its  arrowed-shaped  leaves,  the  Flowering 
Rush  (^Butomus  utnbellatus)^  with  its  peculiarl}'  elegant  and  handsome  rosy 
umbels,  the  Bur-reed  {Sparganium'),  and  the  aromatic  Sweet  Flag  QAcofus 
cii/amus^  at  Springfield. 

Indeed,  Dr.  Taj-lor  added,  they  had  noted  more  species  than  the  compilers  of 
the  programme  had  expected,  and  although  none  of  the  plants  were  rare,  there 
were  man}'  that  were  exceedingly  pretty  and  suggestive.  He  had  little  sympathj' 
wiih  the  person  who  studied  a  plant  because  of  its  rarity,  which  showed  that  it 
had  not  been  able  to  keep  its  place  in  the  great  battle  of  life,  while  those  that 
were  common  had  adapted  themselves  to  the  changes  going  on  around  them. 
lie  had,  in  the  plants  on  the  table,  so  many,  as  it  were,  botanical  museums — 
many  suggestive  specimens  about  which  long  yarns  might  be  told,  and  which  by 
their  peculiarities  registered  their  affinities,  and  the  lines  of  their  descent.  Some 
were  armed  with  thorns,  prickles,  and  hairs  ;  others  had  their  leaves  peculiarly 
placed,  and  there  were  those  whose  leaves  or  roots  were  edible  and  poisonous  ; 
while,  in  certain  instances,  the  plant  had  become  wholly  poisonous.  A  thousand 
3-ears  ago,  of  the  collection  of  plants  before  him,  those  that  were  useful  to  man 
were  put  down  to  Providence  and  the  saints,  and  named  accordingly  ;  and  those 
that  were  poisonous  were  put  down  to  the  other  power.  (Laughter.)  Under- 
lying the  history  of  plants  was  this  fact — they  had  not  all  toemarked  the  same 
line  ;  some  had  fallen  back,  some  had  become  rare.  Believing  as  he  did  in  the 
laws  of  evolution,  he  thought  there  were  still  existing  some  of  the  primitive  types 
of  vegetable  life — not  horse  tails,  but  mare's  tails,  a  true  flowering  plant,  and  it 
was  to  those  he  referred.  Dr.  Taylor  then  took  severally  in  hand  the  flowers 
collected,  and  demonstrated,  amid  much  interest,  their  several  peculiarities,  floral 
histories,  structures,  and  relationships.  Speaking  of  their  folklore,  he  said  that 
many  of  the  traditions  concerning  them  were  the  common  property  of  Norwe- 
gian, Danish,  German,  French,  English,  Spanish,  Russian,  Hungarian,  and  other 
countries,  and  he  expressed  his  belief  that  these  traditions  were  of  Aryan  origin, 
older  even  than  the  evolution  of  European  languages,  and  distributed  all  over 
Europe  during  the  great  Arj-an  emigration.  In  this  w'ay  he  connected  the 
popular  names  and  folklore  of  common  plants  with  ethnological  history. 

It  maj'  be  interesting  to  record  the  names  of  the  plants  collected,  which  is 
compiled  from  the  notes  taken  on  the  spot  by  Dr.  Pearl,  who  took  the  greatest 
care  in  identifying  the  species.  The  list  will  be  useful  to  beginners  as  an  indica- 
tion of  species  to  be  looked  for  during  a  riverside  midsummer  ramble  in  Essex, 
and  also  as  showing  what  a  rich  flora  the  district  possesses.  A  thorough  search 
would  probably  furnish  a  much  more  extensive  list,  including  some  scarce 
species  : — 

L/Sr  OF  PLANTS  NOTED  ON   THE   flANKS  OF   THE  CH ELMER   AND   IN 
THE  NEIGHBOURING  MEADOW  LANDS,  AUGUST  St/t,  iSqi. 

Thalictrum  fiavum. 


Ranunculus  sceleratus, 

„  repens. 

Caltha  palustiis. 
Nv.phar  htteum. 
Kymplura  allui.  Hypericum  perforatum. 

K   2 


Nasturtium  officinale. 

,,  ampliihimn. 

Erysimutn  cheiranthoides. 
Brassica  nigra. 
Hellaria  aquatica. 


252 


THE    ESSEX    FIELD    CLUB. 


Malva  sylvesiris. 
L  athyrus  pi-atensis. 
Spiraea  tihnaiia. 
Kuhii  ccFsius. 
Geum  urbanum. 
Potetitilla  reptatts. 
Agrimonia  eiipatoria. 
Myriopliyllmn  spicatum. 
Lvthrum  salicaria. 
Epilobhim  hirsutiim. 
„         monianum. 
Apium  nodifloritm. 
(Egopodiuni  podagraria. 
Torilis  anihriseus. 
H eracleiim  sphondylium. 
Galium  verittn, 

„       moUujce. 

„      paiustrjs. 
Valeriana  officinalis. 
Dipsacus  sylvesiris. 
Pulicaria  dysenterica. 
Eiipatoriiim  cannabinum. 
Achillea  millefolium. 
Matricaria  inodora. 
Artemisia  vulgaris. 
Arctium  majus. 

,,         minus. 
Sonchus  palustris. 
Senecio  aquatica. 
Lysimachia  tnilgaris. 
Vinca  major. 
Symphytum  officinale. 
Myosoiis  palustris. 
Calystegia  sepium. 
Solatium  dulcamara. 


Linaria  vulgaris. 

Scrophularia  aquatica. 

Veronica  beccabunga. 
„         anagallis. 

Mentha  sativa. 

Lvcopus  europceus. 

Sentellaria  galericulata. 

Polvgoniim  hydropiper. 
„  persicaria, 

„  amphibium. 

Rumex  hydrolapathium. 

Humulus  lupulus. 

A  Inus  glutinosa. 

Salix  alba. 

Ceratoph\llum  demersum. 

Elodea  canadensis. 

Iris  pseudacorus. 

Typha  latifolia. 

Sparganium  ramosum. 

Acorus  calamus. 

Alisma  plantago. 

Sagittaria  sagitlifolia. 

Butomus  umbellatus. 

Patamogeten  natans. 
„  lucens. 

,,  prcelongus. 

,,  perfoliatiis. 

„  pectinatus. 

Lemna  minor. 

Scirpus  lacustris. 

Carece  paludosa. 
,,        vesicaria. 

Phalaris  arundinacea. 

Glxceria  aquatica. 


Nitella  flexilis. 

At  the  conclusion  of  Dr.  Taylor's  interesting  address,  Mrs.  Marsh  (sister  of 
the  Rev.  S.  Baring  Gould),  on  behalf  of  the  lady  students  of  the  Chelmsford 
Botanical  Class  (many  of  whom  were  of  the  part)'),  presented  him  with  a  pair  of 
gloves,  in  a  neat  and  highly  applauded  little  speech,  thanking  him  for  the  time 
and  trouble  he  had  given  as  Botanical  Director  of  the  Class  during  the  summer. 
Dr.  Taylor  was  the  only  person  present  not  in  the  secret,  and  he  said  the  best 
and  most  practical  use  he  could  make  of  the  gloves  would  be  to  put  them  on, 
which  he  accordingly  did  amid  much  laughter  and  applause. 

Mr.  Walter  Crouch  was  the  conchologist  to  the  expedition,  but  there  was 
not  much  time  allowed  for  collecting  the  land  mollusca,  which  require  some 
search  ;  although  we  landed  many  times  during  the  day,  walking  along  the  tow- 
path,  and  across  the  fields.  The  common  snail  was  of  course  seen,  and  a  few 
specimens  of  the  hedge  snail,  Helix  nemoralis,  usually  found  in  banks  or  among 
nettles. 

During  the  trip,  a  good  many  a(]uatic  species  were  taken  by  means  of  a  small 


THE    ESSEX    FIELD   CLUU.  253 

low-net,  chiefly  by  Messrs.  Filch,  Crouch,  andW.  Cole  ;  but  the  swirl  of  the  water 
as  the  barge  was  pulled  along  hindered  the  success  of  their  endeavours;  and  as 
Mr.  Crouch  opined,  better  results  would  probably  be  obtained  by  carefully  work- 
ing in  the  more  quiet  backwaters.  In  Mr.  French's  paper  in  the  Essex  Naturalist 
(vol.  ii.,  pp.  I  and  46),  many  species  are  recorded  from  the  Chelmer  near  Felstead. 
The  results  of  the  day's  work  were  rather  disappointing,  only  eighteen  species  being 
on  record,  as  shown  in  the  following  list.  Nearly  all  of  these  were  taken  alive, 
and  were  exhibited  in  a  small  aquarium  brought  for  the  purpose.  A  considerable 
number  of  caddis  cases  (Phryganida;)  were  observed  on  the  water  weeds,  some 
formed  of  stones,  twigs,  &c.,  whilst  others  were  thickly  covered  with  adherent  shells, 
chiefly  of  Sp/nrrmm. 

LIST  OF  AQUATIC   MOLLUSC  A   OBSERVED   IN   THE   CHELMER,  AUGUST 

8th,  iSqi. 


Bivalves. 
Splurrium  corneum,  a  few,  ver}'  large. 
* Phidium  amnicum. 
Unto  pictorum  (dead). 
.'}  nodonta  cygncea. 
,,        anatina. 

Univalves. 
Neritinu  fliiviatilis,  operculated. 

*  Bvthinia  tentaculata  ,, 

*  Planorbis  albus. 


*  Planorbis  vortex. 

*  ,,         car  hiatus. 

,,         complanatus . 
„         corneus. 
,,         coniorius. 

*  Pliysa  fontinalis. 
* Litnnwa  peregra. 

,,         truncatula. 
Ancylus  lacustris. 
Succinea  putris. 


*  These  were  also  taken  at  Beeleigh  Mill,  gth  August. 

Some  interest  was  evinced  in  two  Musk  Beetles  (^Aromia  moschata)  that  were 
taken  off  the  pollard  willows.  Only  one  butterfly,  Vanessa  to  (the  Peacock)  was 
seen.  Our  President  boxed  several  moths  off  the  tree-trunks. — the  "Yellow-tail" 
(^Liparis  aurifiua').  the  "  Dagger  "  (^Acronycta psi),  the  "  July  Highflyer"  (^Ypsipetes 
elutala')  being  the  most  abundant.  As  the  tow-rope  swept  over  the  reeds  and 
sedges  many  moths  and  Phryganids,  &c.,  were  disturbed  but  not  secured.  The 
"  Scorpion  Fly  "  (^Panorpa  communis')  was  also  abundant,  and  its  curious  structure 
attracted  notice. 

During  the  afternoon,  Mr.  T.  V.  Holmes,  F.G.S.,  read  a  very  interesting 
paper  on  "  The  Geology  and  Scenery  of  the  Club's  Voyage  from  Maldon  to 
Chelmsford,  August  8th,  1891,"  already  printed  in  the  Essex  Naturalist  (atite^ 
pp.  197-202.)     The  paper  was  illustrated  with  geological  maps  and  sections. 

Cordial  votes  of  thanks  were  passed  to  all  who  had  assisted  in  the  success  of 
the  meeting. 

Most  ample  provision  of  light  refreshment  was  provided  on  board  by  our  kind 
"skipper,"  Mr.  Fitch,  and  somewhat  late  in  the  afternoon  a  combined  luncheon 
and  tea  was  partaken  of  in  the  garden  of  the  Paper  (Livermore's  or  Huskett's) 
Mill,  the  use  of  which  was  kindly  granted  by  Mr.  Pharaoh  Byford. 

After  luncheon,  an  ORniNARV  Meeting  (the  126th),  was  held  for  the  pro- 
posal and  election  of  new  members,  Mr.  Fitch,  President,  in  the  chair. 

The  following  were  duly  elected  :  Messrs.  J.  H.  Chapman-Coombs,  A.  H.  Gray, 
and  C.  F.  Osomond. 

On  the  motion  of  the  President,  a  special  vote  of  thanks  was  passed  to  Mr- 
Byford  and  family,  for  allowing  the  luncheon  to  be  served  in  their  grounds,  and  for 
their  kind  aid  in  many  ways  given  in  the  arrangement  of  the  details  of  the  meeting. 


254 


THE    ESSEX    FIELD    CLUIi. 


The  voyage  came  to  an  end  at  Springfield  Wha'f,  near  Chelmsford,  and  the 
company  separated,  after  hearty  congratulations  and  thanks  to  Mr.  Fitch  and 
Mr.  Durrant,  and  well  pleased  with  a  delightful  day. 

Field  Meeting  at  St.  Osyth  and  Brightlingsea. 
Monday,  September  yih.  1891. 


BRK;HTLINr,SEA    HARBOUR    AND    MoUTH    OF    THE   CoLNE,    WITH    MaRTELLO    ToWER,    No.    I. 

{From  a  Sketch  by  H.  .\.  Cole,  Aus^ust,  iSSo.) 

Favoured  by  glorious  weather  a  large  number  of  members  and  friends  made 
an  expedition  into  this  interesting  district,  under  the  direction  of  Mr.  C.  E. 
Benham,  Mr.  J.  C.  Shenstone,  and  Prof.  Boulger  ;  Dr.  Laver,  whose  name  was 
on  the  programme,  being  unavoidably  absent  by  reason  of  professional  engage- 
ments. Members  assembled  at  Thorington  Station  about  12.15,  many  coming 
from  London,  Colchester,  Dovercourt,  &c.  The  Secretary  came  over  from 
Mersea,  the  President  from  West  Mersea,  having  reached  there  b)'  water  a  few 
days  previously  from  Maldon,  and  Mr.  Walter  Crouch  walked  over  from  Bright- 
lingsea. The  business  arrangements  of  the  meeting  had  been  kindly  taken  in 
hand  by  Mr.  C.  E.  Benham,  and  w'ere  admirabl}'  managed. 

As  the  London  train  travelled  down,  Prof.  Boulger  pointed  out  some  plants 
on  the  railway  banks — Solidago  virgaurea,  at  Brentwood,  Evpatorhim  cannahinum ^ 
Lythrum  salicaria  and  Alnus  glutinosa,  at  Mark's  Tey,  and  Epilobium  angustifo'ium 
on  the  banks  at  Brentwood  and  Wj'venhoe. 

Leaving  Thorington  the  party  proceeded  in  brakes  to  St.  Osyth,  through  most 
charming  flower-decked  lanes,  the  openings  in  the  luxuriant  hedgerows  affording 
delightful  glimpses  of  fields,  meadows  and  woodlands,  diversified  with  pretty 
homesteads  and  picturesque  farm  buildings.  At  Thorington  a  halt  was  made 
to  inspect  the  remarkable  oak  trees  (the  pedunculate  oak)  of  enormous  girth 
near  Thorington  Church.     These  trees,  with  a  circumference  round  the  bole  vary- 


THE    ESSEX    ITEI.I)    CI.UB.  255 

iiig  from  27  to  31  feet,  are  obvious!}'  of  great  antiquity,  and  it  is  thought  by 
some  that  an  indirect  allusion  to  them  may  be  traced  in  Domesday.  These  were 
noticed  in  a  "  Report  on  the  Flowering  Plants  of  the  Neighbourhood  of  Col- 
chester "  (Essex  Nat.,  i.,  34),  by  Mr.  J.  C.  Shenstone,  who  possesses  excellent 
photographs  of  the  venerable  relics.  It  was  observed  that  the  hollies  about 
Thorington  appeared  to  be  remarkably  spineless,  and  among  other  interesting 
plants  noticed  were  the  Cotton  Thistle  {Onnpordon  acatithium')  and  the  great 
abundance  of  the  Lesser  Calamint  {^Calaniintha  nepeta). 

From  Thorington  the  party  was  driven  to  the  village  of  St.  Osyth,  of  which 
the  Saxon  name  (Chich  or  Chic)  is  of  doubtful  derivation,  and  which  is  one  of  the 
most  interesting  resorts  in  Essex.  Numerous  ancient  homtsteads  exist  in  the 
parish,  as  is  evident  from  the  large  number  of  "wicks"  in  their  designations, 
but  time  would  not  permit  a  visit  on  this  occasion  to  any  of  these  manors,  nor 
were  the  party  able  to  inspect  the  beautiful  Flower  Farm  of  Messrs.  Carter  and 
Co.,  of  High  Holborn,  vvh'ch  adjoins  the  vicarage,  permission  to  visit  which  had 
been  given  by  the  firm.  The  present  name  of  the  village  refers  to  Lady  Osgith 
or  Osith  (daughter  of  King  Frithwald),  of  whose  career  there  are  various 
traditions.  According  to  Morant  she  was  born  at  Quarendon,  near  Aylesbury. 
Her  father  endeavoured  to  persuade  her  to  marry  Sighere,  the  Christian  king  of 
the  East  Angles  ;  but  she  had  made  a  vow  of  virginit)'^,  and  her  intended  husband 
at  last  consented  to  her  wearing  the  veil  and  gave  her  his  village  of  Chic,  where 
she  founded  a  church  dedicated  to  St.  Peter  and  St.  Paul.  She  also  instituted  a 
nunnery  here  of  the  Order  of  the  Holy  Trinity.  The  monastery  was  plundered 
by  the  Danes  under  Inguar  and  Hubba,  who  caused  St.  Osyth's  head  to  be  cut 
off  near  the  spring  in  Nun's  Wood,  where  she  used  to  bathe  with  her  virgins. 
Other  legends  say  that,  at  an  early  age,  she  was  sent  to  visit  a  sister  of  King 
Alfred  at  St.  Modwen,  and  then  fell  off  a  bridge  into  the  river  and  was  drowned, 
but  was  restored  to  life  by  the  fervent  prayers  of  St.  Modwen.  Tradition  also 
relates  that  she  refused  to  change  her  religion  at  the  time  the  monastery  was 
despoiled,  and  that  where  she  was  beheaded  a  spring  of  water  burst  forth  from  the 
ground,  while  the  saint  picked  up  her  head  and  carried  it  in  her  hand  as  far  as 
the  church.  This  legend  has  many  counterparts  in  other  places — notably,  at 
Hol3'well,  in  Wales,  where  an  almost  precisely  similar  story  is  told.  After  the 
death  of  St.  Osj-th,  her  body  was  removed  to  Aylesbury,  where  it  remained  forty- 
six  years  for  fear  of  the  Danes.  It  was  then  brought  back  to  the  parish,  "and  in 
those  days,"  says  Aubrey  de  Vere,  "when  people  went  to  bed  they  did  rake  up 
the  fire  and  make  a  cross  in  the  ashes  and  pra^-ed  to  God  and  St.  Osyth  to  deliver 
them  from  fire  and  water  and  all  misfortune," 

At  St.  Osyth  the  church  was  first  inspected,  the  vicar.  Rev.  J.  E.  Potts, 
accompanying  the  party  and  pointing  out  the  most  interesting  features  of  the 
edifice,  which  has  evidently  undergone  extensive  alterations  in  the  past.  It  was 
originally  a  cruciform  structure,  and  in  fourteenth  century  documents  is  alluded 
to  as  the  minster  of  St.  Peter  and  St.  Paul.  From  an  inventory  of  the  goods  and 
effects  of  the  church  and  priory  made  by  the  King's  commissioners  after  the 
dissolution,  it  appears  that  the  church  had  a  chapel  on  the  south  side,  a  chapel 
and  vestry  on  the  north,  and  a  chapter-house  and  chapel  at  the  west  end.  The 
vicar  gave  a  quaint  narrative  relative  to  some  ships'  companies  of  pious  Danes, 
who  in  days  of  yore  landed  at  St.  Osyth,  and  kneeling  in  the  church  offered  up 
prayers  for  a  favourable  voyage  to  their  native  land.  Upon  concluding  his 
orisons,  one  of  the  sea-captains  purloined  a  valuable   piece  of  marble   from  the 


256 


THE    ESSEX    FIELD    CLUB. 


south  porch  of  the  church,  but  so  dire  were  the  misfortunes  resulting  to  the 
voyagers  that  the  sinful  captain  put  back  in  haste  and  restored  the  stolen 
jiroperty.  Carved  in  stone,  above  the  north  door  of  the  church,  is  a  wheel  from 
which  a  fragment  has  been  struck  by  the  sword  of  an  angel.  This  has  reference 
to  the  story  of  St.  Catherine  and  her  release  from  the  wheel  by  the  angel.  The 
noble  monuments  of  the  D'Arcy  family  and  to  the  Earl  and  Countess  of  Rochfort 
came  in  for  their  share  of  attention,  as  also  did  the  rem.arkable  "  fold  "  within 
which  communicants  were  wont  to  kneel.  It  is  shaped  like  a  horse  shoe,  and 
together  with  other  portions  of  the  chancel  has  been  recently  restored  by  Sir  J.  H- 
Johnson.  The  vicar  pointed  out  a  monument  prepared  by  an  ancient  worthy  in 
his  own  commemoration.  On  it  he  in  his  own  lifetime  caused  to  be  inscribed, 
with  special  reference  to  himself,  "  Blessed  are  the  dead  which  die  in  the  Lord  .  .  . 
for  they  rest  from  their  labours."  The  labours  of  this  particular  saint  consisted, 
said  the  vicar,  in  hunting  down  old  people  and  destroying  them  as  witches.  The 
roof  of  the  north  aisle  of  this  ancient  church  merits  special  notice,  being  superbly 
carved  in  chestnut,  each  beam  worked  in  a  different  design,  and  the  whole 
executed  in  the  spirit  of  a  true  artist. 

A  capital  cold  luncheon  was  served  at  the  "  Lion  Inn,"  after  which  an 
Ordinary  Meeting  (127th)  was  held  for  the  proposal  and  election  of -members, 
the  president,  Mr.  E.  A.  Fitch,  in  the  chair. 

The  following  were  elected  members  of  the  Club  :  Messrs.  S.  F.  Hurnard, 
W.  du  Flon  Hutchinson,  and  G.  Bentall. 


Gateway  of  St.  Osvth  Priory. 
{Block  kindly  lent  by    Mk.    Bf.nham.; 


The  priory  and  grounds  were  then  visited,  by  the  kind  permission  of  Sir  J.  H. 
Johnson.  It  was  originally  an  Augustinian  monastery  supposed  to  occupy  the  site 
of  an  ancient  nunnery  founded  by  St.  Osyth.  The  old  nunnery  was  plundered  b}' 
the  Danes,  and,  according  to  the  legend  already  alluded  to,  St.  Osyth's  head  was 
cut  off   near  the  spring  in  Nun's  Wood  (in  the  present  park).     The  spring,  sajs 


I 


THE    ESSEX    I'lELD    CLUB.  257 

tlie  old  stoiy  as  related  above,  arose  at  this  tragic  scene  of  martyrdom.  In  the 
year  1 1 18,  Richard  de  Belmeis,  Bishop  of  London,  founded  the  priory,  and 
up  to  the  time  of  the  suppression  its  endowment  and  possessions  throughout 
the  county  were  very  considerable.  After  the  suppression  the  site  was 
converted  into  a  seat  by  Lord  D'Arcy,  son  of  Roger  D'Arcy,  of  Danbury, 
Sheriff  of  Essex,  to  members  of  whose  family  the  handsome  monuments  and 
effigies  in  the  church  were  erected.  Here  Queen  Elizabeth  was  entertained 
in  1561  and  1579.  The  priory  stands  in  a  beautiful  park  of  250  acres,  in 
which  are  some  fine  Cedars  of  Lebanon,  and  also  some  old  Lombardy  Poplars, 
planted  in  1768  by  Lord  Rochfort,  and  supposed  to  be  the  first  specimens 
of  the  tree  introduced  into  England  (see  Essex  NATURALIST,  i.,  34,  and  ii., 
40).  The  extensive  remains  of  the  old  building  were  visited,  and  a  magni- 
ficent mulberr}'  tree  came  in  for  some  attention,  but  the  theory  that  it  might 
have  been  planted  in  the  da)^s  of  the  monastery,  was  quickly  disposed  of  by 
Prof.  BOULGER,  who  stated  that  the  tree  was  unknown  in  this  country  till  a  much 
later  date.  In  the  grounds  was  noticed  a  fine  tulip  tree,  Robinia  pseudacacia,  and 
a  profuse  "escape  "  of  Impaticus  parvijlora.  And  on  the  walls  of  the  priory  was 
noticed  Diplotaxis  tenuifolia  (the  wild  mustard),  a  station  recorded  by  Varenne  in 
Gibson's  "  Flora  of  Essex." 

The  visitors  would  gladly  have  lingered  longer  amid  these  delightful  sur- 
roundings so  rich  with  historic  interest,  but  the  nineteenth  century  whistle  of  the 
directors  abruptly  interrupted  their  old  world  musings,  and  bidding  a  hasty 
farewell  to  this  scene  of  mingled  history  and  tradition  a  further  stage  in  the  day's 
pilgrimage  was  entered  upon.  The  return  journey  was  made  by  Brightlingsea, 
the  first  two  miles  in  the  brakes  and  the  remainder  on  foot,  over  country  of 
considerable  interest  to  the  botanist  and  entomologist.  (A  few  notes  on  the 
entomology  and  botany  of  the  district  will  be  found  in  the  Essex  Naturalist, 
ii.,  115-116,  and  in  Mr.  Shenstone's  papers  in  vol.  i.) 

The  short  drive  over  "  The  Hard  "  and  on  towards  the  first  Martello  Tower, 
disclosed  a  fine  prospect  of  the  mouth  of  the  Colne  with  the  open  sea  beyond, 
and  away  to  the  right  appeared  little  red-brick  Brightlingsea,  fronted  by  an 
array  of  masts  and  rigging,  clearly  betokening  the  principal  means  whereby  this 
small  town  maintains  its  livelihood.  Resting  on  the  grass  at  this  vantage-point 
the  company  listened  to  some  very  interesting  remarks  by  Mr.  J.  C  Shenstone  on 
the  valuable  oyster  fishery  at  Brightlingsea,  where  the  celebrated  "  Colchester 
Natives  "  are  reared  : — 

Notes  on  the  Colne  Oyster  Fishery. 

By  J.  C.  shenstone  F.R.M.S.,  and  Dr.  HENRY  LAYER,  F.L.S. 

It  is  a  matter  of  regret  that  Dr.  Laver  should  have  been  prevented  from 
addressing  us  upon  the  subject  of  the  Oyster  Fishery  to-day.  Not  only  has  he 
taken  a  very  practical  interest  in  this  fisherj^,  but  has  collected  notes  with  a  view 
of  writing  a  full  account  of  the  subject,  and  would  therefore  have  given  us  a 
valuable  paper.  I  have  to  thank  him  for  lending  me  some  of  his  notes,  and  thus 
enabling  me  to  address  you  with  more  confidence  than  I  should  have  otherwise 
been  able  to  do. 

I  will  adopt  the  ordinary  course  and  first  deal  with  the  history  of  the  oyster  : 
I  mean,  of  course,  the  history  of  the  oyster  as  an  edible  mollusc.  It  is  quite 
possible,  with  a  large  number  of  modern  food  stuffs,  to  state  accurately  when  they 
were  first  used  by  man,  but  the  only  statement  with  regard  to  the  introduction  of 
oysters  that  I  know  of  is  "  That  it  must  have  been  a  very  brave  man  who  first 
swallowed  one  of  these  delicate  but  questionable-looking  morsels  of  flesh." 

Now  my  own  opinion  is,  and  possibly  such  of  you  as  hold  by  the  evolutionary 


25cS  THE    ESSEX    FIELD    CLUB. 

theory  may  agree  with  me,  that  this  ])lucl<y  man  probably  only  existed  in  people's 
imagination.  Is  it  not  a  fact  that  the  lower  animals  are  more  discriminating  than 
average  man  as  to  what  is  and  what  is  not  wholesome  to  eat,  and  is  it  not  more 
than  likely  that  man  inherited  his  taste  for  oysters  from  that  type  of  being  from 
which  he  was  evolved  ?  It  is,  at  any  rate,  ceitain  that  oyster  shells  may  be  found 
amongst  the  kitchen  refuse  near  the  ancient  British  camp,  the  Roman  villa,  or 
the  modern  house  There  is  not  only  no  doubt  that  from  earliest  times  the  oyster 
has  been  esteemed  a  luxury  by  men,  but  also  that  the  special  qualities  of  Colchester 
03-sters  were  fully  appreciated,  for  in  the  remains  of  ancient  Rome  itself  the  shells 
of  undoubted  Colchester  Natives  are  to  be  found. 

The  first  documentary  evidence  of  the  Colchester  Native  is  in  the  charter 
passed  by  Richard  the  First,  A.D.  1 189,  to  the  borough  of  Colchester.  This  charter 
was  a  confirmation  of  previous  rights,  and  gives  to  the  freemen  of  the  borough 
the  sole  right  to  fish  from  North  Bridge  to  Westness  But  the  fishery  was  much 
neglected  by  the  Corporation  until  recent  times.  Whilst  carefully  maintaining 
the  exclusive  rights,  shown  by  litigation  from  the  time  of  King  Edward  III. 
almost  to  the  present  date,  they  have  in  other  respects  left  the  fishery  very  much 
to  take  care  of  itself. 

In  1683  the  fishery  was  leased  to  William  Garland  for  ^50  per  annum.  In 
1727,  in  an  action  Waldegrave  versus  the  Corporation,  its  value  was  judged  at 
jt.  100  per  year  ;  evidentl}'  our  forefathers  of  that  date  were  not  such  good  judges 
in  gastronomic  matters  as  the  ancient  Roman  or  as  the  modern  Briton,  though  of 
course  £100  then  represented  greater  \z\\xt  than  it  would  in  modern  times.  In 
the  year  just  ended  the  Corporation  received  ;^l,8i7  8s.  3d.  fiom  these  fisheries 
as  their  share  in  the  profits.     Last  year  the  amount  received  was  over  ;^2,ooo. 

Morant  states  that  in  1748  a  p.ck  of  oysters  is  rarely  obtained  for  less  than 
4s      Recently  the  prices  have  been  as  high  as  ;<ri2  and  ^14  per  bushel. 

The  first  documentary  evidence  of  a  body  of  dredgernien,  known  as  the 
"  Colne  Company,"  appears  in  the  deeds  in  the  Corporation  archives  (in  the 
earlier  part  of  the  eighteenth  century)  granting  to  various  lessees  fishery  rights 
for  dredging  in  the  Colne  ;  and  one,  in  17 18,  authorising  the  lessees  to  grant 
licences  at  los.  per  dredge  to  the  dredgers  of  eight  parishes,  and  to  the  town  of 
Colchester  only. 

Owing  to  disputes  which  arose  in  connection  with  these  leases  a  special  Act  of 
Parliament  was  obtained  in  1870.  In  this  Act  the  parishes  named  are  those 
bordering  upon  the  fishery,  and  the  control  and  ordering  of  the  fishery  is  put 
into  the  hands  of  a  Board,  formed  of  six  members  elected  by  the  dredgermen 
forming  the  company,  and  six  members  elected  by  the  Corporation.  The  com- 
pany consists  of  all  persons  to  whom  the  Corporation  granted  licences  in  1867-8, 
and  subsequent  members  are  those  who  shall  have  been  legally  bound  by  inden- 
ture of  apprenticeship  to  a  member  of  the  compan}'  for  a  pe  iod  of  seven  years. 

'1  he  company  pays  a  fixed  rent  of  ;^5oo  per  annum  to  the  Corporation  and 
one-fourth  of  the  net  income  derived  from  the  fisiierj'  when  the  income  exceeds 
^1,500  per  annum.  Also  one-half  of  the  net  income  derived  f  om  floating  fish. 
Unite  recently  the  Corporation  has  become  alive  to  the  necessity  of  taking 
vigorous  steps  to  improve  and  develop  this  fishery  which  was  quickly  deterior- 
ating, and  the  alterations  made  will  result  in  great  benefit  to  the  members  of 
the  company  and  also  to  the  Corporation  of  Colchester. 

The  young  oyster  is  known  in  its  minute  stage  as  "Spat,"  and  when  further 
advanc;d  as  "  Brood  "  ;  "  Ware  "  and  "  Half  Ware  "  are  terms  used  to  describe 
oysters  still  nearer  the  mature  size. 

About  June  the  mature  oyster  is  said  to  be  "  sick,"  and  a  magnifier  will  show 
apparently  a  quantity  of  dark  sand  (gritty  to  the  touch)  to  be  attached  to  the  gills. 
These  grains  are  the  infant  oysters,  and  are  familiar  to  the  microscopist,  forming 
one  of  his  most  popular  "  objects."  The  number  deposited  by  the  parents  is  enor- 
mous ;  but  only  a  small  proportion  survive  to  form  mature  oysters.  The  young 
oyster  is  furnished  with  a  large  number  of  cilia  b}^  means  of  which  it  survives 
free  for  a  period,  until  a  favourable  spot  is  found  for  attachment.  When  this  is 
accomplished  the  little  creature  never  moves  again  untildisturbed  by  outside  agency. 

In    due   time   the    brood   is   dredged   up,   and  the  young  oysters  carefully 


THE    ESSEX    FIELD    CLUR.  259 

separated  from  the  "  ciiltch,"  a  term  used  for  the  old  shells,  stones,  &c.,  cleansed 
hy  exposure  to  wind  and  rain,  which  are  deposited  in  suitable  parts  of  the  river 
to  provide  restinof-places  for  the  spat.  The  young  oj-sters  are  again  thrown  into 
the  water.  If  this  sepiration  were  not  carefully  done  the  oysters  would  grow 
distorted  and  unmarketable. 

At  four  years  old  the  "Native"  is  at  its  best,  and  amongst  the  regalia  at 
Colchester  is  a  silver  oyster,  beautifully  modelled  from  a  Colne  oyster,  to  serve 
as  a  standard  of  size,  below  which  it  is  not  proper  to  sell  a  Colne  Native.  During 
the  late  summer,  after  tlie  spatting  season  is  over,  dredging  goes  on,  and  the 
four  vears  old  03-sters  picked  out  and  conveyed  to  Pyefleet  Creek,  and  deposited 
there,  this  ground,  by  experience,  being  found  to  fatten  the  oyster  much  better 
than  the  river.     It  is  not,  however,  a  good  breeding-ground. 

Large  numbers  of  oysters  are  occasionally  destroyed  by  Star-fishes,  the 
"Whelk  Tingle,"  and  the  Sea  Hedgehog  (^Echinus). 

The  common  Mussel  is  a  very  undesirable  inhabitant  of  the  oyster  fisher}',  and 
ihe  destruction  of  these  enemies  is  an  important  feature  in  oyster  cultivation. 

In  the  autumn,  the  Colchester  Corporation  visit  the  fishery,  and  performs 
the  opening  ceremony.  Upon  their  arrival  at  Brightiingsea,  they  embark  upon 
a  barge,  when  the  declaration  of  the  opening  of  the  fishery  is  read  by  the  Town 
Clerk,  the  compan}'  present  immediately  give  a  cheer,  and  at  the  same  time  a 
flag  is  hoisted  to  announce  to  those  on  shore  that  the  fisher}'  has  been  declared 
open.  A  gingerbread  and  a  liqueur  glass  of  gin  is  next  handed  round  to  each 
person  present,  and  success  to  the  fishery  is  drunk  ;  finally  some  dredging  is 
done,  in  order  to  judge,  how  the  season  promises,  and  lunch  is  served. 

It  is  needless  to  say  that  in  these  degenerate  times  this  ceremony  is  carried 
out  at  the  expense  of  the  members  of  the  Corpoiation.  The  time  for  the  com- 
mencement of  the  fishing  varies  with  the  season.  Later  on  it  is  customary  for 
the  Mayor  to  entertain  the  Corporation  and  a  large  number  of  friends  to  a  feast 
upon  oysters,  a  fixed  number  of  the  molluscs  being  supplied  by  the  Oyster 
Compan}^  the  remainder  and  larger  quantity  at  the  Mayor's  expense.  This 
event  is  too  well  known  to  need  enlarging  upon. 

At  the  conclusion  of  Mr.  Shenstone's  remarks,  the  President  proposed  a  vote 
of  thanks  to  him  and  to  Dr.  Laver,  and  also  to  Mr.  C.  E  Benham,  who  had 
taken  so  much  trouble  in  organising  the  meeting.  These  votes  were  carried  by 
acclamation,  and  the  remainder  of  the  afternoon  was  spent  in  strolling  along  the 
side  of  the  creek,  and  in  searching  for  such  plants  and  shells  as  could  be  gathered 
on  a  hasty  visit.  Equisetitm  telmateia  was  noticed  growing  in  great  luxuriance 
in  a  hollow  near  the  Martello  Tower,  in  company  with  Verhascum.  A  consider- 
able number  of  the  young  caterpillars  of  the  "Fox  Moth  "  (jS'owz/H'^  rw^O  were 
found  feeding  on  the  low  herbage  at  St.  Osyth  Point,  as  well  as  plentj'  of  the 
curious  "  semi-looper  "  larvae  of  the  pretty  Noctuid  moth,  Enclidia  mi^  among 
the  grass  st:ms.     The  only  butterfly  seen  worthy  of  note  was  Cynthia  cardui. 

On  the  day  previous  to  the  meeting,  Mr.  Walter  Crouch  had  had  some  shore- 
hunting  on  Stone  Point,  St.  Osyth,  near  the  Martelio  Tower  shown  above  in  Mr. 
H.  A.  Cole's  drawing.  He  found  the  mollusc  Hydrohia  ventrosa  abounding  by  thou- 
sands in  the  green  weed  in  a  brackish-water  pond,  originally  part  of  the  Tower 
fosse  ;  and  to  some  of  the  members,  who  came  to  the  Ferry  by  the  sea  wall,  he 
pointed  out  the  spot,  and  a  number  were  taken.  On  the  shore,  and  in  the  sea  he 
had  gathered  about  a  score  of  common  mollusca.  A  few  shells  of  the  bivalve 
Anomia  ephippium  occurred,  and  a  quantity  of  Lacuna  crassior.  A  shell  of  this 
gastropod  was  taken  in  the  Blackwater  trip,  1888,  but  was  not  recorded  then,  as 
it  was  not  shown  to  Mr.  Crouch  till  some  time  afterwards.^ 

3  On  the  succeeding  day,  on  the  shore  of  East  Mersea,  in  company  with  Mr.  \V.  Cole,  Mr. 
Crouch  again  found  some  of  these  shells  ;  and,  amongst  others,  on  ihc  shell  beach  by  the 
"  Bowling  Green,"  Lacuna  patti lula,  and  quantities  of  Hydrohia  uhur,  Rissoa  »icinbra'iacea, 
and  Utriculus  obtusus,  under  the  masses  of  Zostera,  which  are  here  washed  up. 


26o  THE    ESSEX    FIELD    CLUR. 

A  quantit)'  also  occurred  of  tlic  most  interesting-  little  mollusc,  Truncatella 
truncatula  {:=.monta^ui)^  adhering  to  the  under  side  of  large  stones  on  the 
"  hard."  These  are  not  common,  and  Mr.  Crouch  believes  they  have  never  before 
been  recorded  on  the  Essex  coast. 

One  of  the  most  curious  finds  which  he  exhibited  to  those  interested  was  a 
specimen  of  the  slipper-limpet  Crepidula  fornicata,  which  he  found  dead,  but 
adhering  to  an  old  oyster  shell,  not  a  native.  On  enquiry,  he  found  that 
American  oysters  were  brought  over,  and  laid  down  here  to  fatten,  and  that 
would  of  course  account  for  a  shell  which  is  not  European  being  found  on  this 
coast. 

The  party  then  crossed  the  ferry  to  Brightlingsea,  a  town  devoted  to  the 
fishing  industries  and  to  yachting,  there  being  an  excellent  harbourage.  An 
informal  tea  was  taken  at  the  "  Royal  Hotel  "  (in  which  building  there  is  quite  a 
little  local  Museum,  accumulated  by  the  landlord's  son),  and  then  the  members 
made  for  home,  some  by  train,  some  on  cycles,  and  some  in  boats  to  Mersea  and 
elsewhere. 

Saturday,  October  ioth,  1891. 

The  Twelfth  Annual  Cryptogamic  Meeting  was  appointed  to  be  held  on  this  day 
in  Hatfield  Forest,  and  the  circulars  had  been  issued  to  members.  A  few  days  before 
the  meeting,  the  somewhat  sudden  death  of  our  member,  Mr.  J.  Archer-Houblon, 
of  Hallingbury  Place,  in  whose  grounds  the  meeting  was  to  have  been  held, 
compelled  the  issue  of  a  notice  postponing  the  meeting.  The  weather  becoming 
broken  up,  it  was  found  impossible  to  organise  another  meeting  during  the 
autumn,  and  consequently,  to  the  great  regret  of  the  officers  and  many  members 
of  the  Club,  the  sequence  of  the  Annual  Fungus  Forays  was  broken. 

Ordinary  Meeting,  Saturday,  November  7th,  1891. 

The  128th  Ordinary  Meeting  was  held  in  the  Public  Hall,  Loughton,  at 
seven  o'clock,  Mr.  E.  A.  Fitch,  President,  in  the  chair. 

The  Librarian  read  a  list  of  the  books  and  pamphlets  bought  or  presented 
since  the  last  meeting,  and  votes  of  thanks  were  passed  to  the  several  donors. 

Mr.  C.  Oldham  exhibited  boxes  of  insects,  including  many  aberrations  of 
species  of  Lepidoptera,  captured  by  himself  during  the  past  summer.  Among 
other  moths  was  a  specimen  of  Apamea  ophiogramma  taken  in  the  forest  near 
Woodford  on  the  20th  of  July  last. 

Mr.  Walter  Crouch  exhibited  on  behalf  of  Dr.  Murie,  specimens  of  the  small 
Decapod,  Sepiola  ntlaniica,  taken  off  Leigh,  Essex,  in  August  last. 

Mr.  A.  J.  Jenkins  read  a  paper  entitled:  "Notes  on  the  Mollusca  of  the 
Thames  Estuary,  with  a  List  of  the  Species  Observed  "  (printed,  ante,  pp.  2  20- 
232).  In  illustration  of  his  paper,  Mr.  Jenkins  exhibited  a  fine  collection  of  the 
species  of  shells  found  in  the  marshes  bordering  the  Thames  on  the  Kentish 
and  Essex  shores,  comprising  eighteen  fresh-water  forms,  six  brackish-water, 
and  nineteen  land-shells.  The  author  showed  how  much  of  interest  was  to  be 
found  in  this  "  terra  incognita  " — one  of  the  most  interesting  shells  being  the 
little  Hydrobia  jenkinsi  (niimtd  after  Mr.  Jenkins),  which  was  first  noticed  in  the 
Essex  marshes,  and  which  is  at  present  found  nowhere  else  in  the  world  but  in 
the  brackish  ditches  by  the  Thames  estuar}-. 

Both  Mr.  Jenkins  and  Mr.  Fitch  spoke  of  the  immense  injury  now  being  done 
to  animal  and  vegetable  life  by  the  gradual  perversion   of  the  Thames  into  an 


THE    ESSEX    FIELD    CI.UI',.  261 

immense  open  sewer.  Not  only  are  the  shells  and  plants  precious  to  the  natu- 
ralist rapidly  becoming  exterminated  by  the  filth  of  London  and  by  the  refuse  of 
the  chemical  and  other  factories  recklessly  turned  into  the  river,  but  the  trade  of 
the  shrimper  is  almost  destroyed,  and  valuable  food  fishes  are  being  driven  out, 
and  are  rapidl}'  retreating  seawards. 

Mr.  Crouch  gave  some  particulars  of  the  first  discovery  of  the  new  Thames 
Hydrohia  and  other  interesting  forms  mentioned  ;  and  the  cordial  thanks  of  the 
meeting  were  given  to  Mr.  Jenkins  for  his  paper,  and  also  for  his  valuable 
donation  to  the  Museum  of  the  Club  of  an  almost  complete  sei  ies  of  the  Thames 
Estuarine  Mollusca. 

Mr.  Jenkins  also  contributed  some  interesting  remarks  upon  the  aquatic 
plants  of  the  Thames  marshes,  of  which  the  following  is  an  abstract : — 

Notes  on  a  Few  of  the  Aquatic  Plants  of  the  Thames  Maeshes. 

"  In  preparing  my  notes  respecting  the  Estuarine  Mollusca,  I  thought 
that  it  might  interest  the  members  of  the  Essex  Field  Club,  and  not  be 
deemed  out  of  character,  if  I  were  to  exhibit  a  series  of  the  aquatic  plants  com- 
monly associated  with  them,  and  serving,  in  many  cases,  to  furnish  them  with 
necessary  food.  Of  the  Fresh-water  Mollusca  some  seem  to  have  a  preference 
for  the  living  plants,  whilst  others,  who  are  the  scavengers  of  their  aquatic  world, 
generally  feed  upon  them  when  partially  decayed.  My  friend,  Mr.  W.  Biddis- 
combe,  of  Plumstead,  who  has  frequently  accompanied  me  upon  my  trips  to  the 
marshes,  has  kindly  furnished  me  with  the  mounted  specimens  of  aquatic  plants 
which  I  exhibit  this  evening,  and  also  with  a  few  notes  descriptive  of  them. 
Although  these  remarks  refer  to  plants  which  my  friend  has  collected  principally 
from  the  Plumstead  Marshes,  still  I  believe  1  can  venture  to  assert,  from  personal 
observations,  that  they  are  common  upon  the  marshes  at  Erith  and  Dartford,  as 
well  as  upon  the  Essex  side  of  the  river. 

"  Potamogeton.  Submerged  ox  floating  plants,  with  very  cellular  stems,  and 
peculiar  leaves,  which  are  very  thin  and  pellucid,  and  so  sensitive  to  moisture 
after  being  dried,  that  when  placed  on  the  hand,  they  will  shrivel  up  like  a  piece 
of  goldbeaters'  skin.  The  flowers  are  small,  greenish,  and  two  sexual,  in  axillary 
or  terminal  spikes.  Three  species  are  frequent  in  the  marshes:  vi:.,  Potamogeton 
pusillus,  P.  densiis,  and  P.  crispus.  The  first  is  the  commonest  species,  while  P. 
crispiis  is  the  largest  and  handsomest  of  the  three,  having  long  alternate  leaves, 
which  are  of  a  beautiful  fresh-green  colour,  and  very  curl}-  and  pellucid.  The 
three  are  all  perennial  and  submerged,  and  flower  from  June  to  August. 

^^  Zannichellia palustris  (''  Horned  Pond-weed  ").  A  plant  belonging  to  the  same 
order  as  the  last  genus — the  Naiadacese — and  very  similar  in  appearance  to 
Potamogeton  pustllus,  but  having  flowers  in  the  axils  of  the  leaves,  minute,  in 
pairs  or  solitary.  It  is  frequent  in  most  of  the  ditches,  and  flowers  up  to 
September. 

"  Myriophylliim  spicatum  ("  Water  Milfoil  ").  Common,  flowering  from  July  to 
August. 

"  Anacharis  ahinastrum  is,  of  course,  very  common  in  the  fresher  water  ditches, 
as  well  as  CalHtrkhe  stapialis  (the  "  Water  Star-wort  ").  The  latter  is  a  very 
variable  plant,  no  less  than  nine  or  ten  "  varieties"  having  been  noticed  by  some 
botanists.      In  bloom  from  May  to  July. 

"  Peplis  portiila  ("  Water  Purslane  ").  A  humble  creeping  plant,  with  smooth 
opposite  leaves,  and  small  inconspicuous  flowers  in  the  axils  of  the  leaves.  The 
stems  are  more  or  less  tinged  with  red,  and  when  the  plant  grows  in  places  from 
which  the  water  has  been  dried  up,  the  leaves  acquire  the  same  hue.  It  flowers 
from  July  to  August. 

I.emna  minor  and  L.  trisuka  are  the  two  commonest  Duck-weeds  of  the 
marshes.  The  first  is  the  universal  one  ;  the  second,  the  Ivy-leaved  Duck- 
weed, the  peculiar  side  development  of  the  young  fronds  forming  a  supposed 
resemblance  to  an  ivy  leaf.     "  The  flowers  are  very  minute,  consisting  of  one  or 


262  THE    ESSEX    FIELD    CI.UH. 

two  stamens  and  from  one  to  four  ovaries,  enclosed  in  a  sheath  and  produced  on 
the  under  edge  of  the  frond. 

"Two  of  the  Balrachian  Ranunculi  are  very  common  in  the  marshes.  One — 
heterop/iyllus — with  a  few  floating'  reniform  leaves,  with  the  lower  one  submerged, 
multifid,  with  filiform  segments.  The  oih.tr  —trkophyllus — has  all  the  leaves 
submerged,  and  smaller  flowers.  Flowers  of  both  are  white  and  float  on  the 
surface  when  expanded.  These  are  very  variable  and  confudng  plants,  no  two 
botanists  being,  apparently,  agreed  about  the  nomenclature.  They  are  said  to 
be  destitute  of  the  acrid  and  poisonous  properties  of  the  terrestrial  species — the 
common  Buttercups. 

"  The  above  are  the  commonest  aquatic  plants  which  we  have  found  in  tiie 
d3'kes  and  drains  which  intersect  the  marshes,  and  I  will  add  a  few  remarks,  which 
may  not  be  scientific,  but  which  may  possibly  help  the  searcher  after  aquatic 
moUusca  and  microscopic  algas  abounding  in  these  ditches.  E.xperience  has 
taught  me,  that  the  examination  of  the  water  weeds  often  affords  a  valuable  clue 
to  the  mollusca  most  likely  to  be  found  existing  there,  and  they,  too,  also  \'ary  as 
to  their  preference  of  brackish  er  fresh  water,  while  others  can  manage  to  exist 
indifferently  in  either.  Amongst  the  pond-weeds  previousl}'  mentioned,  the 
following  forms,  to  the  best  of  my  recollection,  thrive  equally  well  in  fresh-water 
ditches  and  in  those  that  are  slightly  brackish  :  v/^.,  Potamogeton  and  Lemna  minor, 
or  the  Smaller  Duckweed.  The  Ivy-leaf  Duckweed  (^Lemna  trisulca)  and  the 
American  Pond-weed  (^Anacharis  alsinastrum)  seem  to  favour  a  fresh-water 
habitat,  and  in  aquaria  1  have  found  they  invariably  die  off  if  submerged  in 
water  that  is  at  all  brackish. 

"An  aquatic  weed,  abundant  in  the  ditches  inhabited  by  our  new  Hydrohia,  is,  I 
believe,  the  Horn-wort  (^Ceratophylhtm').  An  Alga,  which  I  take  to  be  Entero- 
morpha  intestinalis,  is  ver}^  abundant  in  the  marshes  on  both  sides  of  the  river. 

"  The  ditches  upon  the  marshes  are  of  course  a  favourite  hunting-ground  for  the 
microscopist,  abounding  with  the  following  minute  Algse  : — Nostoc  cceruleum,  in 
immense  jelly-like  masses;  Scenedesmus  -^nd,  Pediastrum  ;  Desmidiea^  of  the 
genus  Micrasterias  and  Cosjnarium  abound,  with  innumerable  shoals  of  Diatoms, 
amongst  which  I  have  frequently  noticed  Pinnularia  major  and  P.  viridis  ;  quite 
a  number  of  species  of  Naviculcr^  Ortlwsia  and  Fragilaria.  Spirogyra  also  may 
be  taken  here,  but,  to  my  thinking,  it  is  not  nearly  so  abundant  as  in  man)'  other 
fresh-water  localities. 

"  In  the  future,  I  hope  to  devote  more  time  and  attention  to  the  very 
interesting  study  of  these  aquatic  plants,  and  particularly  to  the  microscopic 
algae  of  the  Thames  marshes." 

Mr.  Monckton  kindly  read  for  the  author,  Mr.  French,  of  Felstead,  a  paper 
"  On  the  Occurrence  of  Westleton  Beds  in  parts  of  North-west  Essex  "  {ante,  pp. 
210-217).  Mr.  Monckton  made  some  remarks  on  the  paper,  which,  together  witii 
a  note  from  Mr.  Dalton,  are  printed  at  the  end  of  the  paper  (E.N.,  pp.  217,  218). 

Cordial  votes  of  thanks  were  accorded  to  Mr.  Monckton  and  to  the  authors  of 
the  papers,  and  the  meeting  ended  with  the  usual  conversazione,  at  wiiich  Mr. 
Jenkins'  fine  collection  of  Mollusca  was  examined  with  much  interest. 

Ordinary  Meeting,  Saturday,  November  28th,  1891. 

The  129th  Ordinary  Meeting  was  held  (by  the  kind  permission  of  the  Rev. 
W.  LinLon  Wilson)  in  the  hall  of  St.  John's  College,  Loughton,  at  half-past  six 
o'clock.  Prof.  R.  Meldola,  F.R.S.,  Vice-President,  in  the  chair. 

Extracts  from  a  paper  by  Mr.  Frencli,  "  On  some  Ancient  Lake-Remains  at 
Felstead,  with  Notes  on  some  similar  Remains  in  the  District,"  were  read  by  tiie 
Secretary  (the  full  text  of  the  paper  will  be  published  in  a  succeeding  number  of 
the  Essex  Naturalist). 

Remarks  upon  the  paper  were  made  by  Prof,  McldoIa  and  Mr.  ^V.  Cole,  and 
a  vole  of  thanks  was  returned  to  the  author. 


A    NOTE   ON    THE    MARINE    ALCl.F.,    ETC.  263 

A  lecture  was  tlun  delivered  by  Mr.  Frederick  Knock,  F.E  S.  (Lecturer  on 
Economic  Entomology  to  the  Organising  Committee  of  the  Essex  County 
Council  and  Essex  Field  Club  on  Technical  Instruction)  on  "  The  Life-History 
of  the  Hessian  Fly."  The  lecture  was  full}'  illustrated  by  some  very  beautiful 
slides,  prepared  from  Mr,  Knock's  original  drawings,  and  exhibited  by  the  0x3'- 
hydrogen  lantern. 

In  proposing  a  vote  of  thanks  to  the  lecturer.  Prof.  Meldola  alluded  to  the  great 
value  and  interest  of  the  original  investigations  carried  on  by  Mr.  Enock  on  the 
structure  and  transformations  of  this  injurious  insect,  and  to  the  excellent  paper 
on  the  subject  in  the  "  Transactions  of  the  Entomological  Society  of  London." 
Mr  Meldola  stated  that  it  was  to  be  hoped  that  Mr.  Enock  would  be  able  to  stir 
up  some  interest  in  the  important  subject  of  Kconomic  Entomology  in  Essex  now 
that  the  Organising  Joint  Committee  had  appointed  him  lecturer  on  the  subject 
under  the  scheme  of  technical  instruction  now  being  initiated  in  the  county. 

The  Rev.  W.  L.  Wilson  heartily  seconded  the  vote  of  thanks,  which  was 
carried  by  acclamation. 

At  the  conversazione,  Mr.  W.  T.  Christian  exhibited  some  fine  fossils  from 
various  formations,  and  man)'  interesting  objects  under  his  microscope.  Tea  and 
coffee  were  served  as  usual  at  the  close  of  the  meeting. 

It  was  announced  that  the  long-delayed  "  Part  2  of  Vol.  iv."  of  the  "  Journal 
of  Proceedings  of  the  Essex  Field  Club  "  was  in  the  press,  and  would  shortly  be 
ready  for  publication.  It  would  contain  extended  reports  of  all  meetings  of  the 
Club,  from  Februar}'  23rd,  1884,  to  January  29th,  1887,  after  which  date  reports 
appeared  in  the  Essex  Natur.^list.  The '' Journal"  would  be  published  by 
subscription,  the  price  to  members  being  probably  about  5s. 

It  was  also  announced  that  the  task  of  compiling  the  projected  "  Bibliographj- 
of  Esse.x ''  (an  important  work  which  would  be  published  by  subscription  as 
Vol.  iii.  of  the  "  Special  Memoirs  "  of  the  Club)  was  being  actively  carried  on  by 
a  representative  executive  Committee.  Those  willing  to  aid  the  Committee  by 
searching  through  series  of  periodicals,  etc.,  should  apply  to  the  Secretaries  (Mr. 
E.  A.  Fitch,  "Brick  House,"  Maldon,  and  Mr.  Miller  Christy,  "  Pryors,"  Broom- 
field,  Chelmsford).  Rules,  specimen  entries,  slips,  etc.,  would  be  sent  to 
workers. 


A  NOTE  ON  THE  MARINE  ALG^E  AND 
FLOWERING  PLANTS  OBSERVED  BE- 
TWEEN    HARWICH     AND     DOVERCOURT. 

By  E.  M.  HOLMES,   F.L..S. 

/^^N  landing  at  Harwich  from  the  steamer,  after  accompanying  the 
^^  members  on  the  excursion  on  the  Orwell  and  Stour  on  July 
25th,  1 89 1  (see  page  247),  1  found  that  I  had  about  an  hour's  spare 
time  before  the  train  would  start  for  London.  A  ramble  along  the 
shore  was  accordingly  undertaken,  and  the  following  algas  were 
noticed,  the  shore  on  the  Dovercourt  side  of  the  little  breakwater 
being  the  richest  part. 


264  A    NOTE    ON    THE    MARINE   ALG.*:,    ETC. 

CHL  OR  OPH  YCEJE 

Ulva  latissima,  J-  Ag. 

Cladophora  utnculosa,  Kutz.,  var.  ft  Icetevirens,  Hauck. 

C.  rupestris,  Ktz. 

C.  albida,  Ktz.,  var.  refrada,  Thuret. 

rH.^OPHYCE^. 

Ectocarpus  confervoides,  Le  Jol. 

Ec.  cronani,  Thur. 

Pylaiella  littoralis,  Kjellm. 

Fucus  platycarpus,  Thur. 

F.  vesiculosus,  L. 

F.  serratus,  L. 

Ascophyllum  nodosum,  Le  Jol. 

RHOD  OPH  YCE^. 

Chondrus  crispus,  Stackh. 
Gracilaria  confervoides,  Grev. 
Griffithsia  setacea,  Ag. 
Furcellaria  fastigiata,  Lamx. 
Melobesia  cuticiformis,  Kutz. 
M.  corallinae,  Cr. 
Corallina  officinalis,  L. 

Probably  many  more  species  would  have  been  observed  had  it 
not  been  high  water  at  the  time  of  my  visit,  and  that  only  a  few  of 
the  pools  were  uncovered  close  to  high-water  mark. 

FLOWERING   PLANTS. 

The  following  species  Were  observed  by  the  roadside  and  on  the 
beach  between  Harwich  Station  and  the  small  breakwater  near 
Dovercourt.  They  are  given  in  the  order  in  which  they  \vere  ob- 
served : — 

Chenopodium  o/idum,  Hordeum  maritiinum,  Helminthia  echioides, 
Ant  hem  is  cot  it  la,  Borago  officinalis,  Rumex  pulclira. 

Mentha  sp.  ?  This  plant  had  large  coarse  leaves,  like  those  of 
Mentha  aquatica,  but  having  a  purplish  tinge  and  a  strong  taste  of 
peppermint.  It  was  not  in  flower,  but  may  perhaps  be  Mentha 
piperita,  L.  /3  sylvestris.  Sole.  It  grew  in  a  small  grassy  enclosure 
between  a  lane  leading  to  the  beach  and  the  first  gate  in  the  main 
road  to  Dovercourt. 

Lamiiim  amplexicaulc,  Torilis  nodosa,  CEthusa  cynapium,  Malva 
sylvestris. 

[Many  Notes,  crozvded  out,  are  printed  in  the  next  volume. — Ed.] 


r 


THE  LOCAL  (ESSEX)  MUSEUM— C^;////«/^^. 

It  cannot  be  too  emphatically  stated  or  too  well  known  tnat  the 
institution  is  for  the  benefit  of  the  whole  county,  and  not  exclusively 
for  that  of  Chelmsford  or  any  particular  district.  It  must,  of  course, 
have  a  home,  and  the  proposed  buildings  are  to  be  erected  at 
Chelmsford  simply  because  Chelmsford  is  a  convenient  centre  at 
and  from  which  the  important  educational  work  that  is  contemplated 
can  be  best  carried  out.  Express  care  has  been  taken  in  the 
amalgamation  scheme  to  guard  against  the  county  town  having  a 
paramount  or  more  than  fair  share  in  the  management.  The  insti- 
tution is  to  be  essentially  and  really  a  county  one,  and  it  is  designed 
for  the  assistance  of  every  student,  whether  a  member  of  the  Club  or 
not,  desirous  of  improving  himself  in  natural  knowledge,  and  in 
contributing  to  the  general  well-being  of  Essex.  The  total  amount 
of  capital  required  for  the  Museum  scheme  is  ;^4,ooo,  and  the 
estimated  annual  expenditure  is  ;^4oo.  Active  work  can  be  com- 
menced in  the  temporary  premises  when  one-fourth  of  the  required 
capital  has  been  obtained. 

The  Council  appeals  strongly  to  the  public  spirit  of  the  inhabi- 
tants of  Essex,  and  generally  to  all  those  interested  in  science  and 
in  its  practical  applications,  to  give  the  financial  support  necessary  to 
launch  and  to  maintain  the  Museum,  and  to  help  forward  the  useful 
and  interesting  work  which  will  grow  up  around  it. 

The  property  of  the  Club  will  be  placed  under  the  care  of  the 
following  Trustees  : — 

The  Right  Hon.  Lord  Rayleigh,  D.L.,  D.C.L.,  I.L.D.,  F.R.S.  ; 
Lord  Brooke,  M.P.  ;  Sir  T.  Lowell  Buxton,  Bart.,  1)  L.,  F.R.G.S.  ; 
The  Yen.  the  Archdeacon  of  Essex  ;  W.  M.  Tufnell,  Esq.,  J. P., 
D.L.  ;  Professor  Meldola,  L.R.S.,  F.R.A.S.,  F.C.S.  ;  and  G.  P. 
Hope,  Esq.,  M.A. 

Copies  of  Appe.vl  and  pamphlet  of  papers  relating  to  the  pro- 
posal may  be  had  from  the  Hon.  Secretaries,  Mr.  \V.  Cole,  Buck- 
hurst  Hill,  Essex,  and  Mr.  11  Dlrrant,  90,  High  Street,  Chelms- 
ford, wiio  will  be  glad  to  give  further  information  to  encjuirers. 

SuBSCRiPTiON.s  either  to  the  Capital  I-'und,  or  promises  of 
annual  donations  to  the  Malntenance  Lund,  may  be  sent  to 
Messrs.  Sparrow,  Tufnell  &  Co.,  Bankers,  Chelmsford,  or  to  the 
National  Hank,  Old  Broad  Street,  London,  or  to  the  Treasurer  of 
the  CI. lb,  .Mr.  .V.  Lockvcr.  Mornington  Lodge,  ^\'anstead,  Essex. 


11I»HIi'q^^ 


This  book  should  be  returned  to 
the  Library  on  or  before  the  last  date 
stamped,  below. 

A  fine  of  five  cents  a  day  is  incurred 
by  retaining  it  beyond  the  specifiTed 
tijpfy.  ,  /      ,      . 

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